Journal of Agriculture and Forestry University <p>The Journal of Agriculture and Forestry University is published by the Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The main aim of this journal is to publish the original research findings in the field of Plant Science, Animal Science, Aquaculture, Veterinary Science, Forestry, Environmental Science, and Social Science.</p> en-US <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> (Prof. Dr. Arjun Kumar Shrestha) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 29 Jul 2022 10:12:39 +0000 OJS 60 Value chain analysis of cucumber in Arghakhanchi, Nepal <p>This study was done to analyze the value chain of cucumber in Arghakhanchi district during 2018. Four major cucumber producing areas, such as- Ghoche khola, Bhagwati, Baghi and Jagata were purposively selected. The value chain analysis was done with the objective to calculate benefit cost ratio in cucumber enterprise, draw the value chain map, assess the factors of production, and find out the major constraints in cucumber cultivation. A total of 64 cucumber growers and ten traders were selected using simple random sampling technique. Majority of respondents (95%) had cultivated Bhaktapur Local variety while only thirty percent of respondents cultivated hybrids. The benefit cost ratio was also higher in case of Bhaktapur Local (3.18) followed by hybrids (2.44). The most dominating marketing channel involved flow of products from farmers to retailers and then to consumers. The highest farm gate price was seen in farmers to producers’ channel. The regression estimate showed that the input variables such as- organic manure, fertilizers, materials, labor, plant protection materials had significant effects on production of cucumber. The findings showed that the major problems associated with cucumber production was diseases and insects pests attack while the major problem related to cucumber marketing was middlemen-taking higher margin. The findings also pointed out the absence of wholesalers in the value chain which somehow affected to the less production of cucumber and minimized the export opportunity.</p> R. Khanal, S. C. Dhakal Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of efficacy of chemical, botanicals and beejamrut in growth promotion and management of damping off disease in cauliflower at Udayapur, Nepal <p>Vegetable contributes 20.74% of the total Agricultural Gross Domestic Products (AGDP) of the country. Among the vegetables produced, cauliflower (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> L. var. botrytis) is one of the important vegetable crops in Nepal. Soil borne pathogens (soil inhabitants and soil transients) are one of the major factors contributing to lower yield in vegetables either through damage of whole crop, or by making them unmarketable. Damping off caused by <em>Pythium</em>, <em>Fusarium</em>,<em> Rhizoctonia</em>, <em>Phytophthora</em> is one of the major disease of vegetables crops. This disease attacks a crop in its two stages i.e. pre-emergence of seeds and in seedling stage. This study was conducted in a sick plot at Ghumne 5 of Belaka Municipality, Udayapur, Nepal with six treatments, each replicated four times. The pathogen causing damping off was identified as <em>Rhizoctonia</em> sp. Among the treatments Beejamrut was found to be superior to other treatments in terms of root length (5.97±0.62cm) and shoot length (13.25±1.16cm). In case of root weight and shoot weight Beejamrut (0.28±0.03g;1.85±0.50g), respectively, gave the similar results to Thiram (0.27±0.01g;1.89±0.4g), respectively. Lowest Percentage Disease Incidence (PDI) was found in Thiram (18.0±1) and Beejamrut (19.0±1) treated plots.</p> S. G.C., L. Khatri Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Value chain analysis of large cardamom in eastern Himalayan road corridor of Nepal: Trade and governance <p>Large cardamom (<em>Amomum subulatum </em>Roxb<em>.</em>) is exportable high value sub-sector of Nepal producing to sell in targeted international markets. This research was done to examine value chain analysis of large cardamom from governance and trade aspects, focusing on value chain map, export scenario, and technology upgrading in eastern Himalayan road corridor (EHRC) of Nepal. Farm level information was collected from Taplejung, Jhapa and Morang districts using set of questionnaire (n=300). Focus Group Discussion, Key Informant Interview and Rapid Market Appraisal were done with enablers and traders. About 32% samples household were commercial farmers having one or more than one hectare cardamom cultivation land. About 27% households used improved dryer for curing and drying whereas majority used (72%) traditional dryer. The cost of production of one kg cardamom was estimated NRs. 656, and farmers received NRs. 344 profit margin from one kg of large cardamom sold at farm. Due to global price fluctuation, price of large cardamom has been declined drastically, although farmers are still in profit with B/C ratio of more than 1.4. The findings revealed that value chain development of large cardamom is not well structural at function, actors and enablers level whereas village/district level collectors, regional and national traders with their association and exporters were performing better marketing instead of governance of small scale producers. About 90% large cardamom was exported to India. Nepalese traders have a poor capacity and governance to export product in other counties than India due to high entry barrier to global market. There is a potential of forming global value chain development alliance, focusing to financing and upgrading strategy that would be pivotal for large cardamom intervention strategy in improving value chain function.</p> R. R. Kattel, P. P. Regmi, M. D. Sharma, Y. B. Thapa Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Probit and Logit analysis: Multiple observations over time at various concentrations of biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae strain <p>A study was done to assess the goodness of fit of the regression lines using the data of silkworm larvae (J<sub>12</sub> x C<sub>12</sub> race) killed by various concentrations of <em>M. anisopliae </em>and LC<sub>71</sub> of <em>Metarhizium. anisopliae </em>at different time intervals (hr) applying probit and logit function. The data were transformed before analysis using probit and logit transformations of proportion kill and with and without a logarithmic transformation of predictors. Analysis showed that the LC<sub>50</sub> value were 5.969×10<sup>6</sup>, 6.000×10<sup>6</sup>, 7.250 and 7.235 spores mL<sup>-1</sup> for probit, logit, log-probit and log-logit, respectively. The LT<sub>50</sub> values were 204.247, 204.381, 2.304 and 2.305 hr for probit, logit, log-probit and log-logit, respectively. Significant Chi-square value indicates the necessity of heterogeneity factor for correction of variances under all functions. Residual deviance values were lower at the log-probit (2.826 for concentration and 0.292 for time) and log-logit (2.406 for concentration and 0.440 for time) models with higher p-values (≥ 0.587) compared to probit and logit model. In our study, p-values was higher (p&gt;0.05) with lower residual deviance in log transformed data which indicated that the log-probit and log-logit models could best fit to the mortality data of silkworm larvae when the both concentration and time were as predictors. Results indicated that the log-transformation of predictors would be best for describing the mortality values of insects by concentration of <em>Metarhizium. anisopliae </em>and under different time values. However, it requires more précised complete datasets and good knowledge of statistics of samples values along with the conversion of results of probit and logit analyses back to original units before coming into concrete application of these analytical inferences into practice.</p> T. N. Bhusal, M. Pokhrel, R. B. Thapa Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Productive efficiency of organic vegetable grown in kitchen garden of Chitwan, Nepal <p>Kitchen gardening in general and organic vegetable production in particular are gaining popularity, and have been becoming indispensable component of Nepalese farming system. This concept could be promoted in order to reduce market dependency for vegetables; increase access to pesticide free products for home consumption, and for minimizing malnutrition and poverty. This research was done to estimate the cost, return, profitability and productive efficiency of organic vegetable grown in kitchen gardens of Chitwan using primary data, obtained from 123 randomly selected households. Samples were selected using simple random sampling techniques, and data were analyzed using Stata-12 for estimating descriptive statistics, Cobb- Douglas production function, allocative efficiency and frontier production function. Average size of holding for organic vegetable production was 0.65 kattha with gross margin of NRs. 9,312 per kattha and benefit cost ratio 2.19. Human labor, seed and organic manure significantly and positively contributed to the productivity of organic kitchen gardening, resulting return to scale value at 0.57. Majority of inputs, such as seed, organic manure, and irrigation were underutilized, and human labor was over utilized. Labour has been utilizing at technically efficient level in spite of its overutilization in allocative efficient measure. Almost all kitchen garden firms were operating at 90% efficiency and they require about NRs. 17,116 annual income per kattha for achieving this efficiency level. Organic vegetable production in kitchen garden system is profitable and there is scope to increase the expenditure on better seeds, organic manures, and irrigation for achieving the maximum productive efficiency by about 69, 61, and 496%, respectively. Policy support for promoting the distribution and adoption of vegetable seeds of improved varieties, composting, green manuring and increased use of irrigation seems fruitful to increase the productive efficiency of organic vegetable grown in kitchen garden of Chitwan district, Nepal.</p> S. C. Dhakal Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of social capital on flood resilience capacity: Evidence analysis from Susta, Nawalparasi Paschim, Nepal <p>Social capital is the interaction and inter, or intra relationship among family, community, and external groups. There are three types of social capital: bonding, bridging, and linking to enhance flood resilience and make the communities better prepared. Flood resilience is the coping capacity of the community to prepare, respond, and recover from a flood shock, or stressor. A study was done to understand the role of social capital on flood resilience in the two communities i.e. Kudiya and Paklihawa of Susta municipality of Nawalparasi Paschim. Accordingly, household survey, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), and Key Informants Interview (KII) were carried out to collect the qualitative and quantitative data and information. The analysis of the data and information shows that among the three social capitals, bonding and bridging social capitals are quite strong in the communities, but linking social capital is weaker. 94% of the 402 respondents reported to have engagement with other community members, or groups whereas 91% respondents reported that they have stronger community to community coordination, and 67% respondents opined that they do not have access to external resources. The linking social capital needs to be strengthened to enhance flood response capacity of the two communities. It means that local government should work closely with local communities as per their needs and requirement and leverage the funds to the communities.</p> N. Gyawali, D. Devkota, P. Chaudhary, A. Chhetri, N. R. Devkota Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of digestate / biogas slurry on wheat under rice – wheat cropping system <p>Soil fertility in several parts of Nepal is declining mainly due to continuous cultivation and without replenishing soil nutrient removal by crops with quality fertilizers in required quantity. Nepal does not produce chemical fertilizers and most farmers cannot afford to buy the imported fertilizer. Under these circumstances, emphasizing locally available low cost organic manure may become an important option. This research compares the effect of different stages [5 days (fresh), 90 days (3 months) and 180 days (6 months)], and dose (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of digestate/biogas slurry on wheat yield. Field experiments were conducted during winter seasons of 2016 – 2017 (first year) and 2017 - 2018 (second year) in a silt loam soil to identify suitable stage and appropriate dose of digestate regarding yield maximization of wheat. The experiment was done by using 2 factors Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), each treatment with three replications. Grain yield was significantly higher (2.2 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) due to application of biogas slurry of 5 days stage than the stage of 90 days (2.1 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) in 2016 - 2017, 2017 – 2018 and in pooled analysis. Grain yield increased significantly up to the dose of 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> as compared to that of no use (check), and became saturated, in 2016 – 2017, 2017 – 2018, and also in pooled analysis. Hence, the use of biogas slurry of the stage of 5 days with the dose of 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> resulted higher grain yield of wheat (<em>cv</em>. Vijay), is edaphically and economically viable option for wheat production.</p> B. P. Pandey, N. Khatri, M. Yadav, K. R. Pant, R. P. Poudel, A. H. Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of site specific nutrient management on the productivity of wheat at Bhairahawa, Nepal <p>Low and unbalanced fertilizer application rate are the major factors contributing to the poor yield of wheat in Nepal. The Site Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) provides the field specific recommendations in a cost effective and precise manner. A field experiment was done at National Wheat Research Program (NWRP), Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal during 2019- 20 to evaluate the site specific nutrient management approaches in order to enhance wheat productivity. The SSNM dose was determined at NWRP by using omission plot techniques. The calculated SSNM dose (148:65:71 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), was compared with SSNM + Zn + B, (148:65:71:5:1 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O Zn : B kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Research recommended dose (RRD, 150:50:50 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>); National recommended dose (NRD, 100:50:25 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Nutrients expert dose (NED,110:50:73 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and farmers dose (FD, 80: 40:15 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in a RCB design with four replications. The data on growth, yield attributes and yield were collected and analyzed using Genstat Statistical package. Results showed that research recommended dose (RRD) along with SSNM dose and SSNM +Zn +B were statistically similar (p&gt;0.05), but these treatments were comparatively superior over rest of the treatments for yield attributes and yield. Hence it can be concluded that wheat yield can be improved through adoption of SSNM and RRD of fertilizers at Bhairahawa condition.</p> M. Yadav, S. K. Sah, A. P. Regmi, S. Marahatta Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Field response of wheat genotypes to spot blotch under different sowing dates at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal <p>Wheat spot blotch, caused by <em>Bipolaris sorokiniana </em>(Sacc.) Shoemaker has emerged as an important fungal disease for its economic losses in Nepalese wheat production system due state of poor resistance to spot blotch exacerbated by terminal heat stress in popular released wheat varieties. Thus it has engendered a dire need for identification of new robust and improved varieties with spot blotch resistance, suited to different sowing conditions. A field experiment was conducted at premises of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur to elucidate the field response of twenty wheat genotypes under different sowing conditions (early- 25th November, normal- 10th December, and late- 25th December) to spot blotch by using Split plot design, each treatment with three replicates, during 2017-2018. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant interaction (p&lt;0.01) between the sowing dates and genotypes for the disease progress. A higher yield penalty due to significantly higher disease severity under late-sown wheat cropping was observed due to warmer conditions later in the season. Genotypes viz., NL 1207 (168.5 and 416.77) and BL 4341 (185.97 and 428.8) outrivaled other test genotypes with substantially lower mean area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) values based on flag leaf and penultimate leaf infection, and higher yield (3.23 and 3.02 t/ha), respectively, and thus could be effectively utilized as robust progenitor in spot blotch resistance breeding programs. Our findings revealed that the simultaneous adoption of early sowing and resistant wheat genotypes could be a promising and economic avenue to reduce the disease pressure leading reduced yield penalties.</p> S. Nepal, S. M. Shrestha, H. K. Manadhar, R. K. Yadav Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Weed density and productivity of dry direct seeded rice in relation to weed management practices and seedbed preparation methods <p>Effective weed management practice is important for successful dry direct seeded rice (DDSR) cultivation. Field experiments were conducted during rainy seasons of 2016 and 2017 to assess the effect of herbicides, or herbicides mixture, and seedbeds preparation methods on weed density and grain yield of DDSR. The experiments were done by using two factors factorial strip plot design with four replications. The treatments consisted of nine weed management practices (weed free; weedy check; spraying Pendimethalin; Bispyribac sodium; Ethoxysulfuron; Pendimethalin followed by Bispyribac sodium; Pendimethalin followed by Ethoxysulfuron; Bispyribac sodium tank mix with Ethoxysulfuron, and Pendimethalin followed by Bispyribac sodium tank mix with Ethoxysulfuron) as horizontal factor whereas two seedbed preparation methods (stale, and normal seedbed) were considered as the vertical factor. The data were collected and analyzed using MSTAT-C statistical software. Total density and dry matter of weeds were significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower in weed free treatment followed by Pendimethalin spray and Bispyribac sodium tank mix with Ethoxysulfuron spray at all the growth stages of rice in both the years. Similarly, rice grain yield was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in weed free treatment followed by Pendimethalin spray and Bispyribac sodium tank mix with Ethoxysulfuron spray in both the years. Effect of seedbed preparation methods on weed density and dry matter, yield attributes and yield of rice were non-significant. Therefore, Pendimethalin spray followed by Bispyribac sodium tank mix with Ethoxysulfuron spray seems better option for managing weeds in DDSR.</p> P. Shah, S. K. Sah, K. B. Basnet, M. N. Paudel Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Weed dynamics and productivity of dry direct seeded rice in relation to tillage and weed management practices <p>Weed is one of the major constraints for success of dry direct seeded rice (DDSR) technology. The productivity, weed density and weed dry weight of DDSR is influenced by weed management practices. A field experiment was done to evaluate tillage methods and weed management practices on weed dynamics and yield of DDSR using split plot design; each treatment replicated thrice. The treatment consisted of two tillage methods in the main plots, and eight weed management practices in the sub-plots. Gorakhnath-509 was the variety of rice used. Weed flora observed in the experiment comprised of 25 weed species, belonging to 12 families. Among them 12 were broadleaf weed, belonging to 10 families; 8 were grasses, belonging to Poaceae family, and the rest 5 were sedges, belonging to Cyperaceae family. Tillage methods did not influence weed density and weed dry weight in DDSR, but weed management practices reduced weed density and dry weight at all dates of observation compared to weedy check. All the weed management practices significantly improved the grain yield of DDSR in both tillage methods. Treatments with higher grain yield of DDSR were, use of pendimethalin followed by hand weeding (3,742 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>); pendimethalin followed by bispyribac-Na (3,552 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and pendimethalin followed by tank mixture application of bispyribac-Na and ethoxysulfuron(3,638 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), but were statistically similar (p&gt;0.05). Results thus supports the fact that application of popular pre-emergence herbicide- pendimethalin followed by manual weeding, or post-emergence herbicide, such as Bispyribac-Na, or tank mixture of post emergence herbicides bispyribac-Na and Ethoxysulfuron could be the most effective weed management practices in both tillage method of rice cultivation.</p> D. Marasini, S. K. Sah, S. Marahatta, S. Dhakal Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of maize hybrids in Terai and inner Terai ecological belt of Nepal <p>Hybrid is the most economical option to boost up the grain yield of maize, and slowly it is gaining popularity among the farmers of Nepal. In order to identify the potential hybrids suitable for Terai and Inner Terai regions, a set of experiment was conducted on hybrid maize developed by National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur in Coordinated Variety Trials (CVTs) during the winter season of 2014/15 and 2015/16. The experiments were done by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Each treatment was replicated thrice for each site at Rampur, Belachapi, Tarahara, and Parwanipur. Over the years, genotypes RML-83/RL-197 and RML-4/RL-111 yielded higher than other tested genotypes in Tarahara. Similarly, RL-180/RL-105, RML-87/RL-105, Dekalb double and Rampur Hybrid-6 produced higher grain yield at Belachapi during 2014/15. Genotype RML-4/RML-111 followed by RML-98/RL-105, and Rampur Hybrid-6 yielded higher at Parwanipur during 2015/16. In the case of Rampur, genotypes RML-98/RML-105 had produced higher yield in both the years whereas RML-5/RL-105 during 2014/15, and Rampur Hybrid-2 followed by RML-55/RL-105 were the superior genotypes in terms of grain yield during 2015/16. Those hybrids with higher grain yield in CVTs will be upgraded to Coordinated Farmers Field Trial on Hybrid (CFFTH) and these hybrids might be the potential future hybrids for Terai and Inner Terai of Nepal.</p> K. B. Koirala, T. R. Rijal, G. KC, S. Khan, D. N. Mahato, S. Manandhar, S. Subedi, M. P. Tripathi Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nitrogen levels influence barrenness and sterility of maize varieties under different establishment methods during hot spring in western Terai of Nepal <p>The national average yield of maize is less than its potential yield in Nepal mainly due to poor agronomic management and adverse climatic conditions. The effect of no-tillage combined with retention of previous crop residues and varying nitrogen fertilizer levels on barrenness, sterility, and yield of open pollinated (OP), and hybrid maize varieties were analyzed in the Western Terai region of Nepal during 2011 and 2012. The treatments included factorial combinations of two establishment methods, (a) conservation agriculture (CA; i.e., no-till with crop residue retention from previous crops) and (b) conventional practice (i.e., conventional tillage without residue retention); two varieties (OP ‘Rampur Composite’ and hybrid ‘Rajkumar); and four N fertilizer levels [(0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (during 2011), and 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (during 2012)] arranged in strip plot design to grow maize under rice-mustard-maize cropping system with three replications. Data on sterility, barrenness and yield were analyzed by using R Studio. The effect of barrenness and sterility on the grain yield was negative and significant during both the years. Both barrenness and sterility were higher (by 58.28 and 12.35%, respectively) in 2012 as compared to the 2011, also due to higher temperature and low rainfall. Higher nitrogen uptake under CA resulted the lower barrenness and sterility percentage, and hence the higher grains yield (9%). Barrenness did not effect by varieties (p&gt;0.05), but the sterility (p&lt;0.05) during 2012 whereas hybrid Rajkumar variety had significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower sterility percent than OP Rampur Composite, resulting higher grains yield. The nitrogen uptake was significant and negatively correlated with sterility percentage. Both barrenness and sterility significantly decreased linearly with increasing the nitrogen levels while barrenness was drastically reduced as compared to the sterility. Hybrid Rajkumar had higher nitrogen uptake than OP Rampur Composite resulting lower sterility even under the nitrogen omission. Hybrid Rajkumar was more stable than OP Rampur Composite with low nitrogen application, high temperature and drought resulting- lower barrenness, sterility, and thus the high grain yield.</p> S. Marahatta Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative economics of maize grain and seed production in Okhaldhunga, Nepal <p>Maize (<em>Zea mays </em>L.) cultivation is very popular in Nepal. Basically, in the rural hills of Nepal such as Okhaldhunga, it dominates any other crop production. This study was done to for a comparative assessment of economics, marketing, and to identify major problems of maize seed and grain production in hilly eastern district of Okhaldhunga during June of 2017. The data were obtained by the interview of 66 purposively selected producers (33 each of maize grain and seed producers) with the use of pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Both the grain and seed producers were similar in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and marketing accessibilities, but the seed producers were significantly benefited from the trainings, extension services, and credit facilities despite having comparatively small size of land holding (0.14 ha) than the grain producers. The inputs (manures, fertilizers, and the seed) contributed 48% and 50% of the total cost incurred for grain and seed production, respectively whereas the pre-sowing and sowing activities contributed more than 77% of cost in both the cases. In spite of higher cost for seed production, the benefit cost ratio of seed production was higher (1.52) than grain production (1.13). Findings also revealed that only 24% of the total harvest was processed and marketed as seed whereas using optimum quantity (66% middle portion of the cob) for seed production could further increase the income by 23.35%. The major production problems were scarce farm labor followed by lack of infrastructures, while low seasonal price followed by low volume of production ranked the first and second most important marketing related problems. Subsidies on the agri-inputs, timely availability of inputs, and encouragement of the youth towards agri-enterprise via various youth oriented programs can be done to overcome these problems.</p> P. R. Dulal, S. Marahatta Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes for variety improvement <p>An experiment was done at Horticulture Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Khumaltar, Nepal under polyhouse condition to access different traits of six capsicum genotypes: HRDCAP-001, HRDCAP-003, HRDCAP-004, HRDCAP-005, HRDCAP-006, and California Wonder (check variety) with the objective to evaluate yield and quality. The experiment was done by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications for each treatment. All the collected data were analyzed by using Gentstat statistical software package. Results revealed that tested genotypes were significantly different (p&lt;0.05) in terms of traits characteristics considered for the study. Accordingly, California Wonder was the best for fruit length (86.11 mm), fruit width (70.45 mm), and fruit weight (126.12 g) while HRDCAP-001 was superior in pericarp thickness (6.44 mm), fruit yield (2.46 kg per plant; 68.3 t/ha) and shelf life (6.80 days). California Wonder had lowest physiological weight loss at different days after harvest. This study recognizes HRDCAP-001 to be a promising genotype. Hence, there is a possibility to release this genotype as a variety for commercial cultivation, however, a multi location trial prior to its release is deemed necessary. Furthermore, all evaluated genotypes through this research could be utilized for capsicum breeding in Nepal.</p> D. R. Bhattarai, S. K. Maharjan, I. P. Gautam, S. Subedi, S. Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated management protocol for New Zealand endemic wheat bug (Nysius huttoni) in forage brassicas <p>Wheat bug, <em>Nysius huttoni, </em>is considered as an economic pest of forage Brassicas and many other cultivated crops, such as wheat, kale, and vegetables in New Zealand. Insecticides- as seed coatings and sprays are frequently used to manage this pest, but a high proportion of these insecticidal compounds enter the soil and leads to pesticide resistance, and they may impact beneficial arthropods and soil microorganisms, creating an adverse effect on ecosystem services (ES). In this paper, we discuss a technology, that we have developed to trap , for example, wheat bug away from kale seedlings, and integrating these in less susceptible kale cultivars that can potentially reduce over-reliance on orthodox pesticides on brassicas. Laboratory studies were conducted to screen the suitable trap crop among nine other plants (alyssum, wheat, phacelia, buckwheat, coriander, white clover, alfalfa, and kale) mainly by considering growth stages (vegetative and flowering), and select less susceptible kale cultivars among six other (Kestrel, Gruner, Sovereign, Regal, Corka and Colear). Alyssum (<em>Lobularia maritima</em>) and wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>) were the most favoured potential trap plants for the wheat bug in a laboraotry study. Flowering stage of alyssum is the most susceptible growth stage by the bug damage. Kestrel and Coleor are the most popular kale cultivars used as forage brassicas in New Zealand, but they are the most susceptible to the wheat bug. Corka and Regal were the least susceptible cultivars. The integration of trap cropping technology by using alyssum as the trap crop, preferably depolying flowering stage, along with sowing less susceptible kale cultivars such as Corka and Regal in main fields have been suggested to protect brassica seedlings from bug damage.</p> S. Tiwari, N. Dickinson, S. D. Wratten Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mulching materials affect growth and yield characters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Malini) under drip irrigation condition in Chitwan, Nepal <p>An experiment was done to evaluate the effect of mulching materials on growth and yield characters of cucumber (var: Malini) under drip irrigation condition during February to May 2018 in Chitwan district, Nepal. The experiment was done by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Accordingly, four different mulching materials, viz. silver on black polyethylene mulch, black polyethylene mulch, rice straw mulch, and rice husk mulch were used as treatments. Each treatment was replicated four times. Un-mulched plot served as control. Mulching improved growth and yield characters of cucumber. Plant height and number of leaves were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) if silver on black polyethylene mulch was used. Similarly, highest number of male (69.50) and female (33.50) flowers per plant were recorded in silver on black polyethylene mulch used. Male flowers were minimum (29.80) in rice husk mulch used treatment whereas female flowers were minimum (10.30) in the control treatment. Sex ratio was the highest (3.43) in control and it was lowest (1.81) for rice husk mulch used treatment. Number of fruit per plant was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) (15.85) in silver on black polyethylene mulch treatment. Likewise, longest fruit length (18.42 cm) was measured in silver on black polyethylene mulch treatment whereas shortest (15.24 cm) length was measured in control. Yield of silver on black polyethylene mulch and black polyethylene mulch was almost three-folds and two-folds to that of the control, respectively. B: C ratio shows the use of silver on black polyethylene mulch and black polyethylene mulch economically more beneficial in cucumber production with highest benefit. Findings of this experiment thus clearly suggest the benefit of using silver on black polyethylene mulch, as well as black polyethylene mulch in cucumber cultivation compared to the other common mulching materials.</p> A. Karki, B. Sapkota, P. Bist, K. Bista, J. P. Dutta, S. Marahatta, B. Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of plant growth regulators on flowering and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Malini) in Chitwan, Nepal <p>An experiment was done at Rambagh, Chitwan during March to May 2018 with the objective to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators on growth, flowering and yield of cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em>.) cv. Malini. The experiment consisted of nine treatments <em>viz., </em>control (no spray), silver nitrate 250 ppm spray, ethephon 250 ppm spray, gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) 300 ppm spray, napthalene acetic acid (NAA) 50 ppm spray, silver nitrate 500 ppm spray, ethephon 250 ppm spray, gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) 500 ppm spry, and napthalene acetic acid (NAA) 100 ppm spray; each treatment was replicated thrice. Findings revealed that use of plant growth regulators significantly affected growth, flowering and fruit yield of cucumber. The highest plant height was measured for GA<sub>3</sub> 300 ppm spray whereas lowest plant height was measured for NAA 100 ppm spray. Likewise, GA<sub>3</sub> 300 ppm spray had produced highest number of lateral branches. On the other hand, highest number of male flower was recorded in control, but highest number of female flower was recorded for ethephon 250 ppm spray whereas it was lowest for control (14.00). The highest and lowest fruit length was recorded if GA<sub>3</sub> 500 ppm and ethephon 250 ppm were sprayed, respectively. Likewise, the highest fruit numbers per plant was recorded in GA<sub>3</sub> 300 ppm application whereas the control had the lowest number of fruit produced. The highest fruit yield was produced from the application of GA<sub>3</sub> 300 ppm (109.7 t/ha) while the lowest fruit yield was recorded in control (40.53 t/ha). The B: C ratio was high in GA<sub>3</sub> 300 ppm (4.37) application as well. These results indicate the benefit of spraying GA<sub>3</sub> 300 ppm to have a better performance and fruit yield of cucumber compared to the other treatments with varied concentrations of NAA and GA<sub>3</sub>.</p> B. Sapkota, M. Dhital, B. Shrestha, K. M. Tripathi Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Growth, yield and post harvest quality of late season varieties of cauliflower at Rampur, Chitwan <p>An experiment was done to evaluate eleven late season cauliflower varieties at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2017 to March, 2018. All the tested varieties were introduced from USA, Europe, and India viz. Amazing, Artica, Freedom, Ravella, Titan, Bishop, Casper, Indam 9803, and NS 106 while two varieties; Snowmystique and Snowball 16 were from Nepal. The experiment was set by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with an arrangement of each treatment replicated for four times. The main objective of this study was to identify the short duration late season varieties of cauliflower to be adapted to high temperature condition during late winter. Parameters considered to evaluate the varieties included- plant height, leaf length, canopy diameter, curd height, curd diameter, yield, along with postharvest parameters, such as Total soluble solid (TSS), Titrable acidity (TA), pH, and Vitamin C content. Similarly, 50% curd initiation and curd maturity of the cauliflower was also measured to find the crop growth period. The highest plant height, leaf length and canopy diameter was mostly produced by Titan, Snow mystique, and NS 106 while the lowest plant height, leaf length and canopy diameter was produced by Snowball 16 and Amazing. Similarly, significantly shorter period for 50% curd initiation of 68 days was observed in NS 106 and shorter period for 50% curd maturation of 78 days was recorded in Freedom compared to the rest of the treatments. Significantly largest curd height and diameter was measured for NS 106. Similarly, significantly higher curd yield of 52.3 t/ha was produced by Bishop, but it was statistically similar (p&gt;0.05) to NS 106 (51.1 t/ha). Likewise, significantly higher TSS of 5.4 ºBrix and Vitamin C content of 55 mg/100 g was produced by Snowball 16 and Bishop, respectively. Thus, the probable varieties that could be considered best for late winter could be Bishop, NS 106, Snowmystique, Artica, Freedom, Titan, and Amazing that may comparatively better adapt to the high temperature condition.</p> H. N. Giri Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy testing of ‘soft’ pesticides for cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae nepalensis Doubleday) in cauliflower at Rampur, Chitwan <p>Cabbage butterfly (<em>Pieris brassicae nepalensis</em>) is an important pest of cabbage, cauliflower, and many other crucifers. Pesticide use is a popular method of pest management in small and large-scale vegetable farming in Nepal. These practices are directly linked to human health, biodiversity, and the environment. There are various categories of pesticides available in market, some are toxic, and some are ‘soft’ in nature. Chemical action of pesticides to the insect pest has been recommended by efficacy testing. Accordingly this research was done to evaluate the effectiveness of ‘soft’ chemicals against cabbage butterfly management. Cauliflower cultivar ‘Snow Mystique’ was used for the field experiment established at Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur Chitwan during November 2017 to March 2018. Six common pesticides such as Mahashakti (Bt. based), Neemix (<em>Azadirachtin </em>based), Spinosad (bacteria based), Liquid manure (mixture of botanical, cow urine and other ingredients), Superkiller-10 (Cypermethrin based), and control (no use) were used in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), each with four replication. The study findings revealed that the highest number of larval populations of cabbage butterfly as well as damaged plants, leaves, curds, and holes were recorded in control plot, and the lowest larval population and damages were recorded in Cypermethrin and Spinosad treated plots. On the other hand, curd height was significantly higher (13.9 cm) in liquid manure treated plot that was similar with Spinosad treated plots. There was no significant difference in curd diameter (23.1 cm) and biological yield (79.6 t/ha) in Spinosad and Cypermethrin treated plots. It is thus suggested that biological pesticide, such as Spinosad are superior in controlling pests of cauliflower than other tested pesticides. These pesticides along with other soft pesticide are potentially safer for vegetable production. This information is important to develop IPM protocol for cabbage butterfly management in crucifers.</p> H. N. Giri, M. D. Sharma, R. B. Thapa, K. R. Pande, B. B. Khatri Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Forest land prone to more soil erosion than cultivated land in the Chure hill of eastern Chitwan, Nepal <p>This study was done at Lothar-Pampha Watershed, located in the Chure hill of eastern Chitwan, inside the boundary of Rapti Municipality covering 121.83 km<sup>2</sup> (12183.12 ha). The main objective of the study was to estimate the spatial distribution and the extent of soil erosion in the watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) tool. Annual average soil loss was estimated by using the Revised Universal Loss Equation (RUSLE), RSdata using GIS platform, taking spatial variation of each factors. Data on Rainfall erosivity (R), Soil erodibility (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover crops (C) and soil conservation practices (P) were calculated from laboratory analysis and also retrieved from Landsat image. Soil sample were taken to determine the K factor from the 71 different areas inside the research boundary of Rapti Municipality. Rainfall data of 21 years from 21 different nearby stations were taken from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Nepal (DHM). The soil erosion was categorized into seven classes as, extremely severe (&gt;190 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>), very severe (100-190 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>), severe (50-100 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>), high (10-50 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>), moderate (5-10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>), slightly (2-5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> yea<sup>r-1</sup>), and very slightly (0-2 t h<sup>a-1</sup> year-1) that occurred in 0.0043 %, 0.0862 %, 0.98 %, 29.71 %,18.34 %, 13.54 %, and 37.31 % of total area of Lothar-Pampha watershed, respectively. The total soil erosion estimated from the forest area (70.11 %) was 89537.29 t year<sup>-1</sup> whereas from grasslands area (0.25 %) it was estimated as 81.03 t year<sup>-1</sup>, and from the agricultural land (18.10 %) it was 1529.52 t year<sup>-1</sup>. The maximum erosion rate (275.36 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>) was estimated in the forest area followed by grasslands (22.19 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>). Average soil erosion rate in settlement area was estimated as 0.27 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year. Likewise, 8.87 % of total erosion was estimated from the agricultural land. Forested land is seemingly contributing to more soil erosion than agricultural land due to steep land topography, poor conservation program, deforestation, and unscientific forest management practices which seek for scientific forest management plan including soil conservation measures such as grass waterways, terracing, contouring, strip-cropping in Lothar-Pampha watershed of the Chure range.</p> B. Oli, B. R. Khanal, S. Lamichhane, R. B. Ojha Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Agroforestry systems: Biodiversity, carbon stocks and contribution to rural livelihood <p>Agroforestry is an integrated land use system that can directly enhance agro-biodiversity and contribute to the conservation of landscape biodiversity, and also to the rural livelihoods. Considering this fact, a study was done in Bhimphedi Rural Municipality of Makawanpur district to assess farm tree diversity, carbon stock, and their contribution to the rural livelihood. The inventory for estimating above and below ground biomass of the farm trees was done using stratified random sampling. Forest biomass was analyzed by using standard allometric models to estimate the carbon content. Shannon Wiener Diversity Index was used to assess the farm tree diversity. A total of 66 households were randomly selected for socio-economic survey. Direct field observation, key informant interview, structured questionnaire survey, and group discussions were performed to assess the contribution of farm trees on rural livelihoods. The findings revealed three major agroforestry systems viz: silvi-pasture, home garden, and agri-silviculture systems were under practice in the study area. Silvi-pasture system was found as a good agroforestry system in terms of having higher species richness, tree diversity, and relatively higher amount of carbon stock per unit area (16.66 t/ha), followed by home garden (10.32 t/ha). The findings also revealed that agroforestry systems contributed 24.06% (NRs. 7580 per household/year), and 20.25% (NRs. 5365 per household/year) to the income from agriculture and livestock, respectively. Hence, it has been evident that agroforestry systems can be a potential strategy to conserve biodiversity and to improve the livelihoods of local people with the greater contribution of silvi-pasture system in an integrated tree-livestock dominating farming system of the rural areas in Nepal.</p> P. Ghimire, S. Bolakhe Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 GIS based approach in land suitability analysis of Lokta (Daphnee bholua) <p>Land suitability analysis is a pre-requisite in achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. The main objective of this study was to develop a suitability map for <em>lokta </em>based on topographic, soil, land-use, land cover, and climatic factors of production using a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) &amp; GIS approach. The study was carried out in Suspa Community Forest of Dolakha district. Biophysical variables of soil, climate, topography, and land use land cover (LULC) and water availability were considered as variable influencing for the study suitability classes. For MCE, Pairwise Comparison Matrix was applied and the suitable areas for <em>lokta </em>crop were generated and graduated. Finally, the land cover map was overlaid with the suitability map to identify variances between the present land cover. The crop-land evaluation results of this study showed that out of total 625 hectare area, 9% was under highly suitable, 22% were moderately suitable, 36% of the land was marginally suitable, and 33% were currently and permanently also not suitable. Also the suitable classes were overlaid over present land use and land class. It was found that 100% of the highly suitable land was under forest land of land use and hardwood of land cover. Thus findings of this research provided information at local level that could be useful in determining suitability status of desired species.</p> S. Tripathi, H. Adhikari, S. Ghimire Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Mycobacterium avium sub sp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by PCR in the faeces of dairy cattle of Chitwan, Nepal <p>Johne's disease or <em>Mycobacterium avium </em>subspecies <em>paratuberculosis </em>(MAP) causes chronic granulomatous enteritis with decrease in production resulting huge economic losses with high negative impact on the livestock industry. Diagnosis of MAP is difficult due to lack of characteristics clinical signs, prolong incubation period in cultivation of MAP, and non-specific results in diagnostic tests. To the best of our knowledge there is no report on faecal culture and molecular detection of MAP in dairy cattle of Nepal. The main objective of this research was to access the herd level prevalence of Johne’s disease in the representative dairy farms of Chitwan district with the use of modern techniques as faecal polymerase chain reaction (fPCR) to know the MAP distribution in dairy cattle. A total of 265 individual dairy cattle faeces sample were collected during February 2017 to January 2018 from dairy farms of three different geographical location of Chitwan district, Nepal. Faeces were decontaminated and subjected for faecal culture as well as fPCR to have molecular detection of MAP. Findings revealed that bio-load of MAP in dairy cattle were 13.57% by faecal culture, and 16.59% by fPCR detection method. The overall prevalence of MAP in dairy cattle was detected as 16.59 % by fPCR. Likewise, IS<em>900 </em>PCR assay proved to be a more sensitive and reliable test than faecal culture for the detection of MAP in faecal sample of clinically suspected dairy cattle as the PCR assay was able to detect significantly (p &lt; 0.01) more positive cases than faecal culture. Findings of this study suggests that IS<em>900</em>-PCR-based detection of MAP could be used as a potential diagnostic tool for rapid and effective Johne’s disease (JD) surveillance as compared with faecal culture detection method due to its advantage for JD control programs by reducing the time of definitive diagnosis from several months to a few days. This is the first molecular level of diagnostic research performed and reporting of MAP in dairy cattle of Nepal. These results will be useful in designing suitable disease control strategy for livestock industry.</p> S. Singh, I. P. Dhakal, U. M. Singh, B. Devkota Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Current practices of Nepalese veterinarians for the clinical management of pain in animals <p>The retrospective study was performed to know the trend of recent clinical practices for managing the post-surgical and non-surgical pain in animals. The study included government hospitals, private clinics, organizations working on animal birth control program of Chitwan, Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Kaski districts of Nepal. Overall, 1,177 and 1,084 animals received analgesics in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Categorically, 81% of cases underwent for soft tissue surgeries, and analgesics were prescribed variably for 1–5 days. However, 5% and 1% were orthopedic and ophthalmic cases that were treated with analgesics for 1–8 days. Remaining, 13% cases that were grouped into miscellaneous type received analgesics for 1–7 days For analgesia, meloxicam was the most preferred non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (98%) followed by tramadol (9%), and lignocaine-HCl (8%). Tramadol (9%) and lignocaine-HCl (8%) were prescribed particularly in severely traumatized cases whereas ketorolac (5%) were used in orthopedic cases. Only 18% veterinary patients received preemptive analgesics. Most of the hospitals, clinics and organizations did not perform pain scoring. Proper pain assessment and their scoring are imperative for prescribing the right analgesic for the effective treatment of pain in animals.</p> S. Shrestha, M. K. Shah Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic extract of "sikari laharo" (Periploca calophylla) <p>Inflammation, orchestrated in a series of cardinal signs is a pathophysiological condition that occurs during various clinical presentations. <em>Periploca calophylla </em>is a herbal plant which is used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory agent for a myriad of malaises in Nepalese countryside. The scientific research on the anti-inflammatory property of this plant is scanty, and if available elsewhere, its properties are not proven scientifically, except sporadic empirical evidence reported by the traditional faith healers. The main objective of this research was to establish a proof of concept on the anti-inflammatory property of <em>P. calophylla </em>based on the results obtained from a scientific experiment. Accordingly, Adult albino mice animal model was used for in vivo assessment of its property. Three different doses of 80% methanolic extract of the vine of <em>P. calophylla </em>(1.5 mg/ kg, 2 mg/kg, and 2.5 mg/kg) were administered intra-peritoneally to the animals of the test groups. Indomethacin (25 mg/ kg) and distilled water (3 mL/kg) were used as positive and negative controls, via the same route of administration. The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by the Carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model test, fresh egg albumin induced paw oedema test, formalin-induced paw oedema test, and haematology. Extract of <em>P. calophylla </em>(1.5 mg/kg) significantly (p&lt;0.01) inhibited inflammatory responses in all the evaluated tests in the animal model. The data obtained from this study indicated that the phyto-extract of <em>P. calophylla </em>possessed a significant amount of anti-inflammatory property. This justifies the empirical and traditional use of this plant as an anti-inflammatory agent. Isolation of the particular compound related to this property needs further experimentation and scientific investigation.</p> J. Adhikari, S. Thapaliya, S. Singh, M. K. Sah, N. Paudyal Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Protein deficiency – a challenge to livestock productivity enhancement in Nepal <p>An assessment was made in 2019 to determine the crude protein (CP) supply situation for the livestock in Nepal. The land resources were assessed by utilizing the land use data generated by ICIMOD in 2010. The Land Resource Mapping Project (LRMP) (1986) remained the main source of data to estimate the CP supplies from these land resources (forests, shrub lands, grasslands, croplands, including weeds, and barren lands), plus kitchen wastes as animal feeds. Crop data of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD) (2016/17) were utilized to estimate the CP supply from crop residues and milling by-products and the livestock data to estimate livestock feed requirements. The study findings revealed that there is critical shortage of CP in the livestock feeds across the eco-zones and across the provinces, with an overall deficit of 52.8%. The shortage reached about 60% in Province One and Three. The deficit in other provinces ranged from 37.6% to 52.6%. These deficits are mainly associated with the dependency of livestock production system on crop residues and low quality roughages. It is recommended that the future livestock development strategy focuses at encouraging farmers to replace the use of straws and stovers with improved forage or pasture and tree fodders. Likewise promotion of commercial silage production and development of productive partnerships with the feed millers for adequate production and supply of major imported poultry feed ingredients such as yellow maize and soybean are also important to consider.</p> S. B. Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Different seed rates of forage maize with a fixed stand of cowpea affects proximate composition of both species <p>Mixed cultivation of fodder maize (<em>Zea mays</em>) and cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em>) is popular due to their fast-growing, high biomass yielding, high palatable, and mutualistic growing behavior. Evaluation of status of chemical composition of these mixed stands grown with different seed rates of maize, but with a fixed stand of cowpea would suggest the best period of forage harvesting and also the appropriate seed rate. Accordingly an experiment was done by following standard agronomic practices to grow maize-cowpea at Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU) Rampur, Nepal during May to September 2016. The experiment was done by using randomized complete block design (RCBD) consisting of 4 treatments, T<sub>1</sub> (40kg/ ha maize seed), T<sub>2</sub> (50kg/ha maize seed), T<sub>3</sub> (30kg/ha maize seed) and T<sub>4</sub> (40kg/ha maize seed + weeding) along with 20 kg/ha of cowpea seed for each treatment, and 5 replications, under a similar rate of chemical fertilizer. Samples were tested for proximate analysis at Animal Nutrition laboratory of AFU. A highly significant result was obtained among different treatments for crude fibre, crude protein, and ash content while ether extract content was statistically similar among the treatments in both the harvests. Maximum ash (10.94%) and crude fibre (31.24%) content were obtained in T<sub>1</sub> on maize stem, and higher crude protein (CP) (28.09%) content was obtained in T<sub>3</sub> on cowpea that was similar with T<sub>2</sub> on cowpea for CP content at 45 days after sowing. At 75 days after sowing, higher crude fibre (CF) (35.87%) content was obtained for treatment T<sub>4</sub> on maize stem. Research results suggested that harvesting of maize is suitable at 45 days after sowing (DAS) if higher ash and crude fibre requirement for balanced feed is expected to meet by using 40 kg seed rate of maize/ha whereas harvesting of cowpea at 75 DAS would be more appropriate if highest crude protein content is expected to harvest, but it would be possible to attain at the cost of higher crude fiber content. Nevertheless results clearly indicated that inclusion of fodder cowpea as a legume component in a fodder stand, such as maize could be helpful for a persistent nutritive value during later stage of harvesting.</p> S. R. Barsila Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Growth comparison of piglets fed with different level of bakery waste in basal diet <p>An experiment was done on weaned piglets at Piggery Research Unit of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tarahara, Sunsari, NARC, during 6 January 2019 to 5 May 2019 for 120 days after adjustment period of seven days. Twenty piglets, after weaning at 4-6 months of age were allocated into four treatments, each with 5 replications by using Completely Randomized Design. Four types of diets were used as treatments. Bakery waste was not incorporated in the control group diet (T1) whereas in the diet of T2, T3 and T4 maize as an ingredient was replaced by 25, 50 and 75% with bakery waste, respectively. Concentrate mixture was provided in adlib amount twice a day and refusal was measured in next morning while body weight gain was measured at 15 days interval. The findings revealed that highest total body weight gain was observed when maize was replaced by bakery waste (50%) (T3).But the total body weight gain was statistically similar (p&gt;0.05) among the treatments group. The average daily gain was also highest when maize as an ingredient was replaced by bakery waste 50% (T3) with the gain of 325 g/day. Total feed intake during experimental period was highest for the same treatment. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of entire (120 days) experimental period was also statically similar (p&gt;0.05) for all treatments (1kg body weight: 2kg feed). The findings thus suggested that replacement of maize as an ingredient by bakery waste in piglet diet could be beneficial if it is replaced by 50% compared to 25% or 75% inclusion. Further in depth research is required to assess the effectiveness of replacing maize and other important ingredients with bakery waste before recommending this practice to the piglet growers.</p> M. R. Tiwari, H. R. Dhakal, M. Sah Sudi Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Maximizing fodder yield of teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana) through sowing dates and mixed fodder cropping management <p>Teosinte (<em>Euchlaena mexicana</em>) is one of the most popular summer growing cereal fodder, rich in energy, dry matter (DM) and other nutrients, yet productivity of this fodder in Nepal has not been achieved as expected due to several important factors including cultivation management and sowing dates. An experiment was done during April to August 2018 at Directorate of Agricultural Research, NARC, Province-5, Khajura, Banke by using Split Plot design with the objective to identify the appropriate sowing dates in relation to possible combination of local fodder legumes with teosinte. It was expected that best possible combination of fodder legumes with teosinte would increase both herbage mass as well as quality aspects through increased productivity. Accordingly main plot treatments were sowing dates (April 18, May 3, and May 18) and sub-plot treatments were set as combination of fodder cowpea, lablab bean, and rice bean, each with teosinte, and sowing of teosinte as sole crop. Findings revealed that plant height, leaf length, tiller density of teosinte, and number of branches and trifoliate leaves of fodder legumes had contributed significantly to the cumulative herbage mass. Significantly highest green herbage and dry herbage mass (p&lt;0.001) was obtained if these fodder species were sown in April 18 as compared to other dates of sowing. The combination of teosinte and cowpea had yielded significantly higher herbage mass (p&lt;0.001) compared to others fodder species combinations. Preliminary findings of this research thus indicate the possibility of promoting mixed cultivation of teosinte with fodder cowpea in order to increase both herbage mass and quality.</p> B. Khanal, N. R. Devkota, M. R. Tiwari, N. A. Gorkhali Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Seasonal variation in milk yield, fat and SNF content of Murrah crossbred buffalo in mid-western Terai region of Nepal <p>A research was done during July 2016 to June 2017 for a period of one year at Baijanath Rural Municipality, Banke district of mid-western terai region of Nepal to analyze the seasonal variation in average daily milk yield (DMY), standard 305 days milk yield (SMY), fat percent and solid-not-fat (SNF) percent in the milk of crossbred Murrah buffaloes. A total of 1086 milk sample was purposively collected from 235 lactating crossbred Murrah buffaloes of early (first and second) parity and were analyzed for major quality traits of milk covering four seasons- spring (February to April), summer (May to July), autumn (August to October), and winter (November to January). Results revealed that season had significant influence on DMY (p&lt;0.05), SMY (p&lt;0.01), fat (p&lt;0.01) and SNF (p&lt;0.01) content of crossbred Murrah buffaloes. Accordingly, highest DMY and SMY was recorded for the buffaloes calved in spring season with highest fat and SNF content during summer and spring season, respectively. Thus, results of this study reflected a scientific fact about wider variation in milk yield, fat and SNF contents in Murrah buffaloes with the significant effect of season. This information could be useful in recognizing the importance of synchronizing calving dates during spring season for higher production and productivity in order to maintain the quality aspects of milk, such as fat and SNF content. Further investigation is, however, required regarding genetic parameters determination of these traits covering wider population in the region.</p> N. Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of frozen storage on microbial load of hybrid heteroclarias, Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus <p>Effect of frozen storage on microbial load of hybrid Heteroclarias, <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> was studied. Fifty samples, each of Heteroclarias, <em>C. gariepinus</em> and <em>O. niloticus</em> with an average weight of 210 + 15g were collected at a commercial fish farm in the study area after which they were processed and frozen at -18°C and microbial analyses were done at 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days after frozen storage. Data obtained were logarithmically transformed (log cfu/g) and then subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 16.0 version. No significant (p&gt;0.05) difference was found for total viable count (TVC), total fungal count (TFC), total coliform count (TCC) and <em>Klebsiella</em> spp. count of the fish species studied during the frozen period. The potential of freezing as a good fish preservation method was established as it inhibited microbial activities thereby elongating fish shelf life. It was concluded that <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> fish species can be kept safe up to 56 days by freezing as the microbial loads did not change significantly during the period. Uncontrolled discharge of effluents into the surrounding water bodies should also be checked to avoid contamination prior to fish harvest.</p> A. A. Ayeloja, W. A. Jimoh, M. O. Shittu, B. O. Batatunde Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of sunlight on the abundance of Euglenophyceae in earthen ponds <p>Algal red bloom in carp ponds has been a serious concern to farmers due its scum covering the entire pond surface area during the day and disappearing in the evening. Thus it is important to examine the effects of sunlight on dynamics of red bloom algae in ponds. An experiment was done with the use of three treatments, i) non-red bloom pond with sunlight, ii), red bloom pond with sunlight, and iii) red bloom pond without sunlight; each treatment was replicated thrice. Density of Euglenophyceae was assessed from two different water depths (10 cm and 50 cm) at three different times: morning, afternoon, and evening. Results showed that <em>Euglena sanguinea </em>Ehrenberg, 1832 was dominant among euglenophytes and it showed vertical and temporal migration with sunlight intensity. Density of <em>E. sanguinea </em>was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) at 10 cm and lower (p&lt;0.05) at 50 cm in the afternoon. Preventing sunlight to the red bloom pond decreased density of Euglenophyceae and <em>E. sanguinea </em>by 69% and 80%, respectively. Maximum red bloom was observed during 12.00 to 13.00 hours, when light intensity was highest (1928 Lux to 1988 Lux). Appearance and disappearance of red bloom in the pond was due to vertical migration of <em>E. sanguinea </em>with sunlight intensity.</p> R. B. Mandal, S. Rai, M. K. Shrestha, D. K. Jha, N. P. Pandit Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Concept and rationale of evolutionary plant breeding and its status in Nepal <p>Nepal has released and registered a total of 623 genetically uniform (mono genotyped) varieties. These varieties were developed by both conventional and classical plant breeding, biotech-assisted plant breeding, and participatory plant breeding methods. However, these varieties have been shown to vary in their yield performance over the years and locations. Smallholder farmers dominate agriculture with 53% of the land-owning households with their land holding size of less than 0.5 ha in Nepal. Farmers are increasingly losing their own saved seeds. There have been impacts of weather variability, often modern crop varieties are not available to suit with these changing conditions. Farmers are looking for crop varieties that can better adapt to these changing conditions, and seeds of which can be saved for the next season planting. Evolutionary Plant Breeding (EPB), which creates and maintains a high degree of genetic diversity (i.e. polymorphic population), is a choice for breeders and farmers for accelerating the development of climate resilient and sustainably high-performance crop varieties. In 2015, the National Gene Bank in Nepal started an EPB program for the local rice variety, Jumli Marshi with the objective of enhancing genetic conservation through creating a dynamic gene pool. An evolutionary population can be compared to a living gene bank, not only in line with bringing greater yield stability, but also greater diversity in aroma, nutritional value and quality. Evolutionary populations have the potential to produce higher yields and perform better than their local or improved counterparts in adverse, or stress conditions. Under stress conditions, evolutionary populations have also been shown to be more resistant to weeds, diseases and pests damage than homogenous crop populations. Based on the source of diversity used in EPB, two different types of populations- Composite Cross population, and Composite Mixtures, population are developed. With the exception of Europe, and only for some crops, existing seed policies do not favor such populations. Therefore, there is a need to revise seed regulations in order to allow the cultivation of a higher degree of genetic diversity.</p> B. K. Joshi, D. K. Ayer, D. Gauchan, D. Jarvis Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Food availability and consumption in relation to developing strategies for sustained production and supply in Nepal <p>Nepal is classified as severe localized food insecure country with increasing import dependency ratio in each year. Relevant literatures and available data were reviewed in 2018 to find the trend of food availability and consumption in relation to developing strategies for sustained production and supply in Nepal. The per capita calories uptake is higher (2830 versus 2220 kcal) with higher in rural communities and to the richer families (4000 kcal/person/day). Whereas the protein and edible oil and fat uptake is increasing, but are yet insufficient. The diet is mostly dominated by cereals and the consumption of pulses, fruit, vegetables and animal products were comparatively lower. There is double burden of women under-nutrition (18.2%) and over-nutrition (13.5%). At present, Nepal is self sufficient only on tea, coffee, and poultry eggs. Where the import dependency ratio of fruit (88.1%), oils (83.5%) and pulses (73.4%) were very high and are in increasing trend. However, the self sufficiency ratios of cereals (97.4%), vegetables (65.9%), potato (88.8%), milk (79%), sugar (62.6%) and meat (61%) are still higher. Raising the productivity of cereals by 0.06 t/ha, vegetables 3.49 t/ha, potato/tubers 1.59 t/ha, spices 0.58 t/ ha, milk 0.30 t/head and a considerable increment of meat productivity could make the country self sufficient. Moreover, it is very hard to be self sufficient on fruit, oilseed, and fish because of their small area coverage/herd sizes, low productivity and long gestation period required. It is needed to prioritize the commodities for the allocation of production areas/heard sizes, linking all the development/infrastructure programs and output based investment for improved food production, marketing and consumption to restore national food sufficiency for livelihood support and economic resilience.</p> S. Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Good laboratory practices (GLP): Key in success for the disease diagnostic field <p>No abstract available.</p> H. Luitel Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000