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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is double-spaced; uses a 12-point Times New Roman font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

The Journal of the Agriculture and Forestry University publishes original research findings in the field of agriculture, livestock, forestry and social sciences. Manuscripts from both within and outside the university/country will be considered for publication in the journal. Only original, unpublished manuscripts, not under consideration for publication elsewhere may be submitted. Articles may be original research papers, short communications, or invited reviews. Papers submitted for publication in the journal are not returned.

  • Research papers must not exceed 16 manuscript pages including tables, graphs and literature citation.
  • Short communications are results of brief, but significant work. Manuscripts must not exceed 6 pages, must have an abstract, but may omit the usual major headings of full papers.
  • Invited reviews will be solicited by the Chief Editor and the Editorial Board. Manuscripts must have an abstract and must not exceed 30 pages.

Manuscript format: All contents in the manuscript must be written in English. Manuscripts should be typed in a Microsoft Word file in Times New Roman font with font size of 12pt, double-spaced (including tables and references), with a 4 cm margins all around, continuous line numbers, Plagiarism error should be minimum. The manuscript should be arranged in the following sequence: Title, Authors, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion (Results and Discussion), Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figures, and Figure captions. Number all pages consecutively in the paper right hand corner, including Title, Tables and Figures.

Title Page
The title should be concise, clear and informative and should reflect the content of the paper. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Author names and affiliations: Present the authors' name/s and affiliation, addresses where the actual work was done below the title. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, and e-mail address of each of the author.

Corresponding author: Clearly indicate the corresponding author using symbol (*), who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication.

Abstract: The abstract should be a concise (usually not exceeding 200 words) and contain a brief account of the introductory words, objectives, materials and methods, results, and main conclusions. The name of any plant or animal appearing for the first time in the abstract should be given its scientific name in the brackets. Do not cite references, figures, tables, probability levels etc.

Keywords: A list of 3 to 5 words for additional index words follows the abstract, separated by commas. It includes species (common and scientific name), chemicals, and physiological and pathological terms. Words appearing the title should not be repeated in the key words. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

In this section, background information, problem addressed, justification of the research including knowledge gap, relevant review of literature (if any), and the objective of the research should be described. Statements must be supported by citations whenever possible.

Materials and Methods: Detail information on relevant materials and methods used including sampling methods, experimental design, treatments, plot size and any other techniques used in research as well as the year and place of conducting the research should be provided. Where methods used are already well known and the references are available within the country, the citation of a reference or the name of the method is sufficient. The statistical methods used should be clearly mentioned. Social science related study should provide detail of survey methods, data collection and analysis.

Results and Discussion: The results and discussion may be presented separately or combined. The results should be supported by a brief but adequate data in the form of either tables, or graphic or pictorial materials but not in a repeated manner. Thus, the same data should not be presented in more than one form. All weights and measures should be in metric system. The discussion should be related to the research findings supported by similar work, or with the information used in the results.

Conclusion: Although no separate heading of ‘conclusion’ is needed, the subject should form a separate paragraph at the end of discussion. Conclusion should provide concrete statement based on study findings.

Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements, if any, be given to institutions, funding agencies, and the key person(s).

Only cite published or formally accepted articles mentioning
‘in press’. Do not cite non-submitted articles. References should be in alphabetical order. If multiple references from the same authors are cited, mention in chronological order.

APA style guidelines should be followed as per following description.

  1. Book with single author: Last name, Initial (s). (Year). Title, Place: Publisher. For eg. Pant, P. R. (1975). Social science research and dissertation writing. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Enterprises.
  2. Book with two authors or more: Last name, Initial (s), & Last name, initial (s). (Year). Title, Place: Publisher. For eg. Phillips, J., Ajrouch, K., & Hillcoat-Nalletamby, S. (2010). Key concepts in social gerontology. London: Sage.
  3. Edited book: Last name, Initial (s). (Ed.). (Year). Title (ed.), Place: Publisher. For eg. Cash, T. F., & Smolak, L. (Eds.). (2011). Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
  4. Use (Ed.) if one editor and (Eds.) if two or more editors: Kozier, B., Erb, G., Berman, A., Snyder, S., Harvey, S., & Morgan-Samuel, H. (Eds.). (2012). Fundamentals of nursing: Concepts, process and practice (2nd ed.). Harlow: Pearson. Woodhead, S. (Ed.). (2013). A core care pathway children with life-limiting and life threatening conditions (3rd ed.). Bristol: Together for Short Lives.
  5. Chapter in edited book: Last name, Initial (s). (Year). Chapter title. In initial. Last name (eds.)., Book title (pages of chapter). Place: Publisher. For eg. Benton, D. (2011). Diet, behaviour and cognition in children. In D. Kilcast & F. Angus (Eds.), Developing children’s food products (pp. 62-81). Cambridge: Woodhead.
  6. E-book: Last name, Initial (s). (Year). Title (ed.), Retrieved from URL. For eg. Ogden, J. (2007). Health psychology: A textbook (4th ed.). Retrieved from
  7. Thesis: Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of institution, Location. For eg. Pokhrel, N. (2014). Effects of different fertilization and feeding systems on water quality and growth performance in Nile tilapia (Unpublished master thesis). Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, Nepal).
  8. Journal article: Last name, Initial (s), & Last name, initial (s). (Year). Article title, Volume number (issue or part number if needed), page numbers. For eg. Blann, A. (2014). Why do we test for urea and electrolytes? Nursing Times, 110(5), 19-21. Tapper, K., Shaw, C., Ilsley, J., Hill, A. J., Bond. F. W., & Moore, L. (2009). Exploratory randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention for women. Appetite, 52, 396-404.
  9. Online journal article: Last name, Initial (s), & Last name, initial (s). (Year). Article title, Volume, Page numbers. DOI or journal homepage URL. For eg. Allen, S. J., Jordan, S., Storey, M., Thornton, C. A., Gravenor, M., Garaiova, I., …Morgan, G. (2010). Dietary supplementation with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria is well tolerated and not associated with adverse events during late pregnancy and early infancy. The Journal of Nutrition,140, 483-488. doi:10.3945/jn.109.117093
  10. Newspaper article: Ruddick, G. (2013, October 3). Tesco suffers sales slump in all global businesses; UK rivals gain ground but boss Clarke confident turnaround plan is working. Daily Telegraph, Business News, p. 1 online
  11. Magazine: Allen, L. (2004, August). Will Tuvalu disappear beneath the sea? Global warming threatens to swamp a small island nation, Smithsonian, 35 (5), 44-52. Begley, S., & Murr, A. (2007m July 2). Which of these is not causing global warming? A. Sport utility vehicles; B. Rice fields; C. Increased solar output. Newsweek, 150 (2), 48-50.
  12. Book review in a journal: Nagorski, A. (2013). The totalitarian temptation [Review of the book The devil in history: communism, fascism and some lessons of the 20th century, by V. Tismaneanu]. Foreign Affairs, 92, 172-176.
  13. Website: Author. (Year). Title, Retrieved month day, year, from URL. For eg. American Psychological Association. (2015). APA style blog. Retrieved September 25, 2015, from
  14. Personal communication: G. P. Mooney (personal communication, June 6, 2013) Use your judgment in citing other electronic forms of personal communication. What you cite should have scholarly relevance.
  15. Code of Practice: Author. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher. For eg. Welsh Assembly Government. (2008). Mental Health Act 1983: Code of practice for Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government. Great Britain. Department for Constitutional Affairs. (2007). Mental Capacity Act 2005: Code of Practice. London: TSO.

In text citations: APA style guidelines should be followed, as shown below, for text citations.

  1. One author: The last name of the author and the year of publication be inserted into the text as, Marks (2011) states that, or, (Marks, 2011).
  2. Two authors: Both authors should be cited as, Bee and Boyd (2010) state that, or, (Bee & Boyd, 2010).
  3. Three or more authors: If there are three or more authors, citation should be as, Rolfe et al. (2010) state that, or (Rolfe et al., 2010).
  4. More than one work citation: If cited two or more works within the same parentheses, they should be in alphabetical order of authors as, (Phillips et al., 2010; Rolfe et al., 2010).
  5. Citation for two or more works by the same authors but in separate years: Give the authors’ last name followed subsequently by the years as (Davies, 2008, 2010, 2012).
  6. Citation for two or more works by the same author in a single year: Use lower case letters (a, b etc.) to distinguish between works published in the same year by the same author (s) as, Hewitt (2010a) states that, and/or, this was supported by Hewitt (2010b), or (Hewitt 2010 a, b). The suffixes are assigned in the reference list, where these kinds of references are ordered alphabetically by title (of the article, chapter, or complete work).
  7. Websites: It can be difficult to identify the author of a webpage, so decide who is responsible for the page and that person or corporate body can be referenced as the author. Searching the ‘About Us’ or ‘Contact Us’ will help to identify the author. If no author can be found, use the webpage title as, American Psychological Association (2012). If no title, use URL.
  8. Works with no identified author or with an anonymous author: Be cited as, Anonymous (2012) state that, or, (Anonymous, 2012).

Nomenclature and units

  1. Give the Latin name and family of the species with authority name at first mention in the manuscript. Subsequent references may use the common name. Italicize Latin names. Example: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus).
  2. Place a (leading) zero before the decimal in numbers less than 1. Give dates as the DDMMYY form, e.g. 10 January 1994. Spell out numbers less than 10 unless they stand beside standard units of measure (e.g. eight fish and 8 kg). Do not spell out numbers larger than 10 unless they are used to start a sentence.
  3. Use metric units or the International System of Units (with base units meter, gram, second, liter, mole, joule, etc.). Common units such as day, tons, hectare, watts, horsepower, °C and ppt salinity may be acceptable. Always use abbreviations for standard units such as gram (g), kilogram (kg) metric ton (t), milliliter (mL), liter (L), centimeter (cm), meter (m), and kilometer (km). Do not use plural forms or periods for abbreviations of units. Use the bar (/) for compound units; for example, 2 t/ha/y; 10 g/m2 or 2 t ha−1 year−1; 10 g m-2.

Tables: Tables should be editable in a Word document. Keep the number of tables to a minimum. Type each table, double-spaced, on a separate page after the reference citation. Number each table with Arabic numbers (e.g., Table 1,2,3) and also indicate the place to be positioned in the main text too. The title, column and row headings, and footnotes of each table should be self-explanatory. Use a single asterisk (*) for 5% level and a double asterisk (**) for 1% level of significance.

Figures and Photographs: The figures and photographs including legends should be supplied on separate page after tables. Identify all graphs and photographs with Arabic numerals (e.g. Fig.1, Fig.2 etc. in order of appearance) and also indicate the place to be positioned in the main text. Send electronic good quality (at least 300 dpi) images (.jpeg or .tif format) at first submission and the originals if necessary. Figure/picture should be black and white. Provide figure both in word and excel format. Maximum height and width of each figure should: 240 mm and 100 mm, respectively.

Type setting of the manuscript
: Headings should be bold. Use capital and lower-case letters, never all capitals. Subheads should be on a separate line and capitalize the first letter of the first word.
Trade or brand names: Capitalize the first letter of trade or brand names.
Periods: Do not put periods after the title and key words. Periods are necessary at the end of table and figure heading.
Reprints: The final copy of the manuscript in PDF format will be sent to the corresponding author via email.

Submission: Submit electronic copies of manuscript, including Tables and Figures to the Chief Editor at this email address: After the review, submit electronic copies of the revision via email at the same address. The Editors may return (without reviewing) any manuscript that falls outside the journal’s policy or scope. All other manuscripts will be peer-reviewed by at least two referees.

Privacy Statement: The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party. See full Privacy Statement.

Privacy Statement

Nepal Journals Online (NepJOL) is a member of the Ubiquity Partner Network coordinated by Ubiquity Press. According to the EU definitions, NepJOL is the data controller, and Ubiquity Press are the service providers and data processors. Ubiquity Press provide the technical platform and some publishing services to NepJOL and operate under the principle of data minimisation where only the minimal amount of personal data that is required to carry out a task is obtained.

More information on the type of data that is required can be found in Ubiquity Press’ privacy policy below.

Ubiquity Press Privacy Policy

We take seriously our duty to process your personal data in a fair and transparent way. We collect and manage user data according to the following Privacy Policy. This document is part of our Terms of Service, and by using the press portal, affiliated journals, book, conference and repository websites (the “Websites”), you agree to the terms of this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Service. Please read the Terms of Service in their entirety, and refer to those for definitions and contacts.

What type of personal data do we handle?

There are four main categories of personal data stored by our journal platform, our press platform, and our book management system; Website User data, Author data, Reviewer data and Editor data.

The minimum personal data that are stored are:

  • full name
  • email address
  • affiliation (department, and institution)
  • country of residence

Optionally, the user can provide:

  • salutation
  • gender
  • associated URL
  • phone number
  • fax number
  • reviewing interests
  • mailing address
  • ORCiD
  • a short biography
  • interests
  • Twitter profile
  • LinkedIn profile
  • ImpactStory profile
  • profile picture

The data subjects have complete control of this data through their profile, and can request for it to be removed by contacting

What do we do to keep that data secure?

We regularly backup our databases, and we use reliable cloud service providers (Amazon, Google Cloud, Linode) to ensure they are kept securely. Backups are regularly rotated and the old data is permanently deleted. We have a clear internal data handling policy, restricting access to the data and backups to key employees only. In case of a data breach, we will report the breach to the affected users, and to the press/journal contacts within 72 hours.

How do we use the data?

Personal information is only used to deliver the services provided by the publisher. Personal data is not shared externally except for author names, affiliations, emails, and links to ORCiD and social media accounts (if provided) in published articles and books which are displayed as part of the article/book and shared externally to indexes and databases. If a journal operates under open peer review then the reviewer details are published alongside the reviewer details.

How we collect and use your data:

1. When using the website

1.1 what data we collect

  • When you browse our website, we collect anonymised data about your use of the website; for example, we collect information about which pages you view, which files you download, what browser you are using, and when you were using the site.
  • When you comment on an article or book using Disqus, we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the DISQUS privacy policy can be found on their website.
  • When you annotate an article or book, this is done via a 3rd party plugin to the website called In using this plugin we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the privacy policy can be found on their website.

1.2 why we collect the data

  • We use anonymised website usage data to monitor traffic, help fix bugs, and see overall patterns that inform future redesigns of the website, and provide reports on how frequently the publications on our site have been accessed from within their IP ranges.

1.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not collect personal information that can be used to identify you when you browse the website.
  • We currently use Google Analytics for publication reports, and to improve the website and services through traffic analysis, but no personal identifying data is shared with Google (for example your computer’s IP is anonymised before transmission).

1.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • Please contact to request a copy of your data, or for your data to be removed/anonymised.

2. When registering as an author, and submitting an article or book

2.1 what data we collect

  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • As part of submitting an article for publication, you will need to provide personally identifying information which will be used for the peer review process, and will be published. This can include ‘Affiliation’, ‘Competing interests’, ‘Acknowledgements’.

2.2 why we collect the data

  • Registering an account allows you to log in, manage your profile, and participate as an author/reviewer/editor. We use cookies and session information to streamline your use of the website (for example in order for you to remain logged-in when you return to a journal). You can block or delete cookies and still be able to use the websites, although if you do you will then need to enter your username and password to login. In order to take advantage of certain features of the websites, you may also choose to provide us with other personal information, such as your ORCiD, but your decision to utilize these features and provide such data will always be voluntary.
  • Personal data submitted with the article or book is collected to allow follow good publication ethics during the review process, and will form part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not share your personal information with third parties, other than as part of providing the publishing service.
  • As a registered author in the system you may be contacted by the journal editor to submit another article.
  • Any books published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in PDF, EPUB and MOBI formats on the publisher’s site.
  • Any personal data accompanying an article or a book (that will have been added by the submitting author) is published alongside it. The published data includes the names, affiliations and email addresses of all authors.
  • Any articles published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in various formats (e.g. PDF, XML).
  • Ubiquity Press books and articles are typeset by SiliconChips and Diacritech.This process involves them receiving the book and book associated metadata and contacting the authors to finalise the layout. Ubiquity Press work with these suppliers to ensure that personal data is only used for the purposes of typesetting and proofing.
  • For physical purchases of books on the platform Ubiquity Press use print on demand services via Lightning Source who are responsible for printing and distribution via retailers. (For example; Amazon, Book Repository, Waterstones). Lightning Source’s privacy policy and details on data handling can be found on their website.

2.4 why we store the data

  • We store the account data so that you may choose to become a reviewer and be able to perform those tasks, or to become an author and submit an article and then track progress of that article.
  • Published personal data that accompanies an article or a book forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • You are able to view, change and remove your data associated with your profile. Should you choose to completely delete your account, please contact us at and we will follow up with your request as soon as possible.
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact

3. When registering as a reviewer

3.1 what data we collect

  • To become a reviewer you must first register as a user on the website, and set your preference that you would like to be considered as a reviewer. No new personal data is collected when a registered user elects to become a reviewer.
  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • Reviewers can also be registered by editors who invite them to review a specific article. This requires the editor to provide the reviewer’s First Name, Last Name, and Email address. Normally this will be done as part of the process of inviting you to review the article or book.
  • On submitting a review, the reviewer includes a competing interest statement, they may answer questions about the quality of the article, and they will submit their recommendation.

3.2 why we collect the data

  • The data entered is used to invite the reviewer to peer review the article or book, and to contact the reviewer during and the review process.
  • If you submit a review then the details of your review, including your recommendation, your responses to any review form, your free-form responses, your competing interests statement, and any cover letter are recorded.

3.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • This data is not shared publicly and is only accessible by the Editor and system administrators of that journal or press.
  • The data will only be used in connection with that journal or press.
  • Data that is retained post final decision is kept to conform to publication ethics and best practice, to provide evidence of peer review, and to resolve any disputes relating to the peer review of the article or book.
  • For journals or presses that publish the peer reviews, you will be asked to give consent to your review being published, and a subset of the data you have submitted will become part of the published record.

3.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • If you would no longer like to be registered as a reviewer you can edit your profile and tick the box ‘stop being a reviewer’. This will remove you from the reviewer database, however any existing reviews you may have carried out will remain.
  • If you have been contacted by an editor to peer review an article this means that you have been registered in the system. If you would not like to be contacted for peer review you can reply to the email requesting that your data be deleted.

4. When being registered as a co-author

4.1 what data we collect

  • Co-author data is entered by the submitting author. The submitting author will already have a user account. According to standard publishing practice, the submitting author is responsible for obtaining the consent of their co-authors to be included (including having their personal data included) in the article/book being submitted to the journal/press.
  • The requested personal data for co-authors are at the bare minimum; first name, last name, institution, country, email address. This can also include; ORCID ID, Title, Middle Name, Biographical Statement, Department, Twitter Handle, Linkedin Profile Name or ImpactStory ID.

4.2 why we collect the data

  • Assuming that it is accepted for publication, this data forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.
  • Author names, affiliations and emails are required for publication and will become part of the permanent cited record.

4.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • The co-author’s personal data is stored in the author database. This personal data is only used in relation to the publication of the associated article.
  • Any co-author data collected is added to the author database and is only used in association with the article the user is co-author on.

4.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • To receive a copy of your data, please contact
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact

5. When signing-up to receive newsletters

5.1 what data we collect

  • We require you to include your name and email address

5.2 why we collect and store the data, and for how long

  • This data would be collected to keep you updated with any news about the platform or specific journal

5.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We use mailchimp to provide our mailing list services. Their privacy policy can be found here

5.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data or want your data to be removed

  • All emails sent via our newsletter client will include a link that will allow you to unsubscribe from the mailing list

Notification about change of ownership or of control of data

We may choose to buy or sell assets. In the case that control of data changes to or from Ubiquity Press and a third party, or in the case of change of ownership of Ubiquity Press or of part of the business where the control of personal data is transferred, we will do our best to inform all affected users and present the options.

(Updated: 28 July 2022)