The International Research Journal of Management Science 2023-01-03T13:13:35+00:00 Prem Prasad Silwal Open Journal Systems <p>The International Research Journal of Management Science (IRJMS) is a management research journal published annually by the Nepal College of Management, Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Nepal. The aim of this publication is to extract the ideas, opinions and thoughts of academicians to the business sector in Nepal and provide a platform to the scholars for disseminating research works. Members of academia and practitioners are welcome to submit their empirical and theoretical work on issues of current management and business in the Nepalese context. The journal can also be found on its own website <a title="NCM" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>.</p> A Study on Demographics Characteristics on Purchase Intention of Smartphone 2022-12-23T06:20:09+00:00 Bharat Rai Rewan Kumar Dahal Binod Ghimire <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The primary goal of the study is to find out significant differences in the purchase of smartphones by gender, between age groups, and between income and education levels. This study also examines how demographics affect Nepalese users’ intentions to purchase smartphones, including gender, age groups, educational attainment, and income levels.</p> <p>Design/Methodology/Approach: Deductive research approach has been used in the study. The study used a descriptive research design. This study made use of primary data. 396 Smartphone users in Kathmandu were polled using a convenient sample technique through a Five-point Likert scale questionnaire. To make a diagnosis and come to reliable results, descriptive statistical analysis, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA have been used. To examine the association between these characteristics and purchase intention, gender, age groups, educational attainment, and income levels are considered independent variables.</p> <p>Findings: Therefore, it can be said that demographic parameters influence consumers’ purchase intention for Smartphones. Independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA test results reveal that there is no significant difference in purchase intention for Smartphone buying between gender, age groups, levels of education, and levels of income.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong>Prior research studied the various factors influencing purchase intention, such as advertisement, country of origin, brand image, price, quality, reference groups, price, income, and personal characteristics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, their research is the first to study the impact of age, gender, level of education, and income on the purchase intention of smartphones buying.</p> <p><strong>Limitations/Implications: </strong>There are various factors influencing the purchase intention; among them, only demographic factors such as age, gender, level of education, and level of income are undertaken for the study. Only Smartphone products are taken in the study, and other products are excluded from the study. The study findings will be useful to Smartphone businesses to formulate marketing strategies and plans to increase consumers’ purchase intention and sales of the products.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science The mediating role of Motivation to learn in the Training needs analysis and Training reaction relationship 2022-12-23T06:50:05+00:00 Dinesh Basnet Dhruba Kumar Gautam <p><strong>Propose</strong> – Most of the training evaluations are based on trainees’ reaction but rare research has been done on training reaction as a training outcome. In addition, Insurance companies’ employees have also shared the similar anecdotes. Based on the evidence and phenomenology, the aim of this study is to examine the training reaction via. training needs analysis and motivation to learn.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach</strong> - The philosophical perspective of this study are single reality (ontology) and positivist epistemology. Descriptive research design was used to know the current status and casual research design was used for examining the impact among exogenous, intervening and endogenous constructs. In this study, reliability, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were checked by using 203 questionnaires and confirmed for acceptable reliability, validity and model fit of the constructs. For robust analysis, structural equation modeling was employed and to validate the finding, PROCESS macro and Sobel test were employed and found the similar results.</p> <p><strong>Finding</strong> - The study found positive relationship among training needs analysis and motivation to learn; motivation to learn and training reaction; and training needs analysis and training reaction. Moreover, the study confirmed that motivation to learn mediates the relationship between training needs analysis and training reaction which concludes that the positive training reaction and motivation to learn are the expected outcomes from well-designed training program.</p> <p><strong>Practical Implication</strong> – Practicle implication for insurance companies have been presented in this study, thereby the insurance companies could increase the performance and the motivation level of employees.</p> <p><strong>Original Value</strong> – This research paper validate the proposed training needs analysis, motivation to learn, and training reaction construct that provide the empirical evidence for building a strong theory.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science Evaluation of financial strength of joint venture commercial banks and domestic commercial banks in nepal: using camels framework 2022-12-23T07:26:11+00:00 Kabi Raj Acharya Surendra Kumar Vyas <p>This study aims to compare the financial strength of joint venture and domestic commercial banks in Nepal using data from mid-July 2011/2012 to mid-July 2019/2020. The financial strength analysis is based on the CAMELS (capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning performance, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk) framework. A descriptive research design has been used. This paper finds that Nepalese joint venture banks are financially sound with higher asset quality, management quality, earning performance, and liquidity than Nepalese domestic banks. Nepalese joint venture banks can cash in on higher IT infrastructure or better investment culture from its foreign collaboration and thus perform better compared to domestic commercial banks.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science The covid-19 pandemic caused vulnerability and survival strategies of star hotels in Nepal 2022-12-23T07:36:11+00:00 Prakash Kumar Gautam Prabin Kafle <p>AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the vulnerability caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on the overall operationsand profitability of star hotels in Nepal and to explore their survival strategies. This study used both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on descriptive research design. The required primary data were collected through questionnaires and interviews with the hotel operators and managers, while the secondary data was from annual reports of sample hotels. For the analysis of qualitative information, thematic analysis was used based on grounded theory. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the secondary data. Results revealed an intensely negative effect of the pandemic on one-star and two-star hotels, followed by three-star, four-star, and five-star hotels, respectively. Operations were badly affected, and hence the net profits decreased;the cost of inbound materials increased significantly along with their unavailability. Hotels followed the diversification strategy with cost-focused differentiation. The research identified small but insufficient support from the government for necessaryoperations. This study provides essential insights to the policymakers, hotel entrepreneurs and readers to fulfill the knowledge gap in the field of study in the last section of the paper.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science The impact of macroeconomic determinants on the banking sector development in Nepal 2022-12-23T07:41:56+00:00 Krishna Prasad Gwachha <p>Abstract<br />Background: The concept of banking sector development<br />is multi-dimensional, and it is difficult to establish a single<br />description for it because it is an interconnected process that<br />encompasses increases in the number and quality of financial<br />services.<br />Objectives: The objective of the study is to examine the<br />impact of macroeconomic determinants on banking sector<br />development in Nepal.<br />Methods: The study applied the vector error correction model<br />(VECM) approach technique with economic time series data<br />ranging from 1995 to 2020. The study employed the VECM<br />model to avoid the spurious regression problem in the<br />construction of contemporary time series econometrics. The<br />co-integration analysis is used in the study to determine the<br />long-run equilibrium relationship between the macroeconomic<br />variable and the banking sector development of the model.<br />Banking sector development is measured by the arithmetic<br />average of the normalized values of banking depth, banking<br />efficiency, and banking stability.<br />Result: This study reveals that per capita GDP and remittances<br />have a positive and significant impact on the banking sector<br />development. Similarly, government expenditure and stock<br />market capitalization have positive and statistically significant<br />roles to explain banking sector development in Nepal. In<br />addition, it demonstrates that trade openness and inflation<br />have a marginally negative but insignificant impact on banking<br />sector development.<br />Conclusion: There is a long-term equilibrium relationship<br />between macroeconomic variables and banking sector<br />development. Macroeconomic policies and institutional quality<br />play an important role in the banking sector development.<br />Implications: For policymakers since it clarifies the significance<br />of sound macroeconomic policies in the development of the<br />banking industry while taking into account the quality of the<br />existing institutional infrastructure.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science Employee Perspectives on Decent Work and Job Burnout: Evidence from Nepalese Manufacturing Industries 2022-12-23T07:51:49+00:00 Prakash Shrestha <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study aims to explore the relationship between decent work and job burnout.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The study employs a structured questionnaire for the survey. It takes into account three factors of job burnout and seven dimensions of decent work to determine whether there is any association between them. The sample includes 600 people from four industrial estates (including 40 manufacturing industries and 15 employees in each) in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings supported the idea that there is a strong negative link between decent work and job burnout. Adequate working time and workload, meaningful remuneration, and fundamental principles and values at work are the components of decent work that predict a negative association with job burnout best. It seems that employees are more prone to experience burnout when these characteristics, which can be inserted in the many parameters of decent work, are lacking. Employees can combine work and personal duties and progress professionally with decent work and its dimensions.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications:</strong> Only a few manufacturing industries among Nepal's four industrial estates are the focus of this research. The findings of this study hence might not apply to all business groups.</p> <p><strong>Practical implications:</strong> Decent work dimensions assist in lowering workplace stress among employees. Reduced job burnout improves both work and quality of work life.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> This research establishes the relationship between decent work and job burnout, to the author's knowledge the first of its kind in the context of Nepalese manufacturing industries.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science Macro-economic variables and financing decisions of Nepalese non-financial firms 2022-12-23T07:59:28+00:00 Prem Prasad Silwal <p><strong>Purpose</strong> - The purpose of this paper is to examine the macro-economic indicators and firm characteristics that impact the financing decision of the Nepalese enterprises.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong> - To evaluate the fundamental issues related to firm-specific variables on financing decision of Nepalese enterprises, the study used descriptive, and causal comparative research designs. The study used secondary data from 19 enterprises from 2001 to 2019 listed in NEPSE.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong> - The findings show that liquidity, inflation, profitability, growth opportunity, and gross domestic product are the major indicators for leverage measures. More specifically, it is found that firm size is more statistically significant for total debt financing, suggesting that firms with greater assets or turnover likely to have easier access to borrowing more fund from the capital market.</p> <p><strong>Implication:</strong> As the linkage between growth opportunity and short-term debt is significant and negative implies that growth upsurges cost of financial distress, decreases free cash flow problems, and intensifies debt related issues. Thus, it is advised to the managers to use less debt and place larger value on stakeholder co-investment. Further, the finding also suggests that firms should employ less debt during the time of inflationary trend in the economy as inflation shows negative indication to debt financing.</p> <p><strong>Limitations:</strong> The scope and sample size are the primary limitation of this study. The study comprises only non-financial firms of the NEPSE base listed firms. It also limits to secondary data analysis. Primary survey may produce recent scenario of the enterprises that they face in their financing decision.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> One field of study is believed to be the unique paradigm of macro-level indicators impacting leverage. The second is a piece of work that attempts to compare the results based on both the ratio of long-term to short-term debt and the total amount of overall debt.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science Effects of mergers in financial performance of Nepalese Commercial Banks 2022-12-23T08:05:45+00:00 Pitri Raj Adhikari <p><strong>Purpose</strong>- This paper attempts to evaluate the synergistic effect of the merger on financial performance, market share, and the wealth of the shareholders of the selected BFIs.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>- Two cases of mergers of commercial banks have been taken as samples for the study. First is the merger between Prabhu Bank Limited and Grand Bank Limited (forming Prabhu Bank Limited) and second is the merger between Lumbini Bank Limited and Bank of Kathmandu Limited (forming Bank of Kathmandu Limited). Both the mergers happened in 2016. To analyze the mentioned variables of the selected BFIs, pre-merger (2011–2015) and post-merger (2016–2020) data have been compared using a t-test and regression analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>- The result of the study reveals that there is a significant relationship between financial performance and shareholder value and the merger, whereas there is no relationship between the market share of the BFIs and the merger.</p> <p><strong>Practical implication</strong>- The study concludes that to achieve improved post-merger financial efficiency and reap the benefits of an improved financial position, merged BFIs should be more aggressive in their profit drive and maintain better asset qualities.</p> <p><strong>Originality/ Value</strong>- This study can become a foundation for future studies in the Nepalese context of the merger of BFIs.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science Determinants of road traffic accidents in Nepal 2022-12-23T08:13:17+00:00 Raju Bhai Manandhar <p><strong>Purpose</strong> - The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of poor road condition, drunk driving and weather condition on road traffic accidents in Nepal. Another purpose is to evaluate the effect of gender on over speed, poor road condition, drunk driving, weather condition and road traffic accidents.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/ approach</strong> – The study targeted to drivers of two-wheeled and four-wheeled vehicle as population. 100 respondents were selected through a simple random sampling technique based on the police report list during last 5 years of Kathmandu valley. Primary data was sources of information for the study. It was collected by applying a well-structured survey questionnaire. Cronbatch’s Alpha coefficients were used to examine the internal consistency of the factors and an independent sample t- test was adopted to analyze differences in road traffic accidents, poor road condition, drunk driving and weather condition in terms of gender. Mean standard deviation, variance, and correlation were adopted to analyze the data in a systematic way to derive the findings for the study. Findings - The study found that there is a relationship between poor road conditions, drunk driving, and weather conditions on road traffic accidents in Kathmandu valley. The study also found that gender has no impact on poor road conditions, weather conditions, and road traffic accidents except for drunk driving. It can be concluded that poor road conditions and weather conditions are major factors causes of road traffic accidents.</p> <p><strong>Research limitation/ implications</strong> - The study evaluated only three explanatory variables i.e., poor road conditions, drunk driving, and weather conditions in the entire study so that future researchers can study other factors impacting the road traffic accident of the general public with a larger sample size with new analytical tools.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong> –The list of the drivers who had got at least one time accident was obtained from police report. The study based on domino theory developed by Heinrich in 1980 to have outputs.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science Psychological Workplace Climate, Emotional Intelligence and Employee Well-Being in Nepali Information Technology Industry 2022-12-23T08:20:09+00:00 Shree Krishna Pokhrel Ritu Goyal <p><strong>Objectives</strong> – This paper investigates the impact of psychological workplace climate (PWC) on employee well-being (EWB). It also examines the moderating effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on the relationship of psychological workplace climate and overall employee well-being.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong> – Quantitative approach is used as a design involving a self-administrated questionnaire for data collection from 125 information technology professionals working in 7 different software development companies of Kathmandu Valley. Different analytical tools like correlation analysis, hierarchical regression, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests are executed to test the proposed hypotheses.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong> – The results highlight the positive impact of psychological workplace climate on overall employee well-being and the moderating effect of emotional intelligence is evident in the relationships between independent and dependent variables.</p> <p><strong>Practical Implications</strong> – These findings highlight that managers must consider psychological workplace climate while formulating organizational policies and strategies. It also serves as a guideline for IT managers to improve their emotional intelligence for the well-being of their employees.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong> – The study depicts the high value of moderating variable - emotional intelligence and independent variable- psychological workplace climate on employee well-being, which is crucial knowledge to managers and chief executive officer (CEO) for building successful businesses.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science Teacher’s Perception of Critical Thinking: Beneficial or Time Consuming? 2022-12-23T08:36:56+00:00 Sulochana Nepal <p>This paper provides the importance of the critical thinking among the student, which starts from the classroom. It also provides an overview of teachers’ perceptions and practices of it while teaching. Further, it also brings to the fore the necessity of integrating it in the classroom by the teachers. This qualitative study was conducted under Habermas’s interests’ approach with purposeful sampling technique as a methodology. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with teachers who have more than five years of experience in the academic field. The findings of the research provided insight that education though has gone through paradigm shift, from teacher centered to student centered, teachers still prefer practicing traditional teacher centered method depriving students of the critical thinking skills which they are in need of</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 (C) by authers and The International Research Journal of Management Science