Interdisciplinary Research in Education https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire <p>This is a peer-reviewed journal that is a publication of the Research Management Cell, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. This journal publishes research-based articles in interdisciplinary areas of education from Nepal and abroad. The concerned researchers and authors are encouraged to submit their research-basd manuscripts. In addition, this journal also publishes articles that provide meta-analysis of the the previous knowledge or any kind of scientific and systematic reviews that contribute to interdisciplinary areas of education. </p> Research Management Cell, Central Department of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal en-US Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2676-1483 Editorial Vol.8(2) https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/61626 <p>No abstract available.</p> Peshal Khanal Copyright (c) 2024 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 10.3126/ire.v8i2.61626 आवधिक योजना अवधिमा पुँजीगत खर्च र स्रोत व्यवस्थापनको समीक्षा https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60207 <p>यो अध्ययन व्याख्यात्मक अध्ययन ढाँचामा आधारित छ । नेपालका आवधिक योजनाहरुलाई संगणना विधिका आधारमा छनोट र पुस्तकालयीय विधिका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा द्वितीय तथ्याङ्कको मात्र प्रयोग गरिएको छ । संकलित तथ्यांकहरुको विश्लेशण शाब्दिक, अंक, र प्रतिशतका माध्यमबाट गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनको उद्देश्य आवाधिक योजनाअवधिमा पूँजीगत खर्चको अवस्था र त्यसको श्रोत व्यवस्थापनको समिक्षा गर्नु रहेको छ । यध्ययनको निश्कर्षमा के देखिन्छ भने पहिलो योजना अवधिमा शासकीय संरचनाका कार्यहरु मात्र भए भने दोस्रोदेखि सातौंसम्म पञ्चायती व्यवस्था अनुकुलका कार्यहरु मात्र भए । त्यसैगरी आठौंदेखि हालसम्म आर्थिक विकासका सुधारात्मक कार्यहरु मात्र भए । विनियोजित पुँजीगत खर्च, राजस्व परिचालन र वैदेशिक सहयोग तथा अनुदान लक्ष्य अनुरुप परिचालन हुनसकेको देखिदैन । दसौं योजनादेखि चालु खर्च पूँजीगत खर्चभन्दा उच्च हुँदै आएको देखिन्छ । सार्वजनिक ऋणको भार तिब्र दरमा बढेको छ । २०७६ असारदेखि २०७९ फागुन मसान्तसम्म (४४ महिनामा) उक्त ऋण झण्डै दोब्बर (९३.५१ प्रतिशत) ले वृद्धि भएको छ । नेपालीको प्रतिव्यक्ति आय अत्यन्तै न्यून दरमा वृद्धि भएको छ । दिगो आर्थिक विकासका लागि देशभित्रको मानव तथा प्राकृतिक साधन र स्रोतको दिगो परिचालन गर्न कुल गार्हस्थ्य बचतमा वृद्धि गर्नुपर्ने देखिन्छ । त्यसका लागि तत्काल सरकारी उपभोगको क्षेत्रमा मितव्ययिता अपनाउँदै राष्ट्रिय अर्थतन्त्रको उत्पादन क्षमतामा वृद्धिका लागि कुल गार्हस्थ्य उत्पादनको बढ्दो अंश लगानीतर्फ प्रवाहित गर्नुपर्ने आवश्यकता देखिन्छ ।</p> Min Raj Poudel Bhanu Bhakta Pandey Rajendra Kumar Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 1 20 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60207 चाणक्य नीतिभित्रका शिक्षा र व्यवहार उपयोगी नीतिहरू : हर्मेन्युटिक्स विश्लेषण https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60208 <p>संस्कृत साहित्यको ख्याति प्राप्त ग्रन्थ चाणक्य नीतिमा निहित शैक्षिक तथा व्यावहारिक नीतिहरूको जानकरी प्रकाशमा ल्याउने र तिनको महŒव र उपादेयता प्रस्तुत गर्ने हेतुले यो लेख तयार गरिएको छ । चाणक्य नीतिमा के कस्ता शैक्षिक नीतिहरू छन् ? के कस्ता व्यवहार उपयोगी नीतिहरू छन् ? र ती नीतिहरूको वर्तमान समयमा के उपादेयता हुन सक्ला ? भन्ने प्रश्नहरूको उत्तर खोज्ने प्रयास यस लेखमा गरिएको छ । शास्त्रहरूको अध्ययन गर्ने प्रचलित हर्मेन्यूटिक्स विधिको प्रयोग गरी यो लेख तयार गरिएको छ । सूचना निर्माण गर्नका लागि चाणक्य नीतिका अंग्रेजी, नेपाली र हिन्दी अनुवादहरूको गहिराइपूर्वक अध्ययन गर्दै सान्दर्भिक सूचनाहरू टिपोट गरियो । टिपोट गरिएका सुचनाहरुलाई अध्ययन गरिएका ग्रन्थहरुको पुनः अध्ययन गरी जाँच गरियो । ती सूचनाहरूको पुनः अध्ययान गरी त्यसवाट अर्थ निर्माण गर्दै बुझाइको व्याख्या गरियो । चाणक्य नीतिमा शिक्षा र व्यवहार उपयोगी नीतिको विस्तृत संग्रह रहेछ । चाणक्य नीतिका अनुसार शिक्षा मानिसका लागि प्रधान कुरा हो । विद्याले मानिसमा गुणहरू विकास गर्छ र पूर्वनिर्धारित हुन्छ । पुरुषार्थ प्राप्ति नै शिक्षाको उद्देश्य हो । संसारमा धेरै ज्ञान छन्, तिनको सार ग्रहण गर्नु श्रेयष्कर छ । श्रवण, अभ्यास र योग साधना विद्या आर्जनका विधि हुन् । सिकारुको गुण र व्यवहारको अवलोकनबाट मूल्याङ्कन गर्नुपर्छ । शिक्षाको मूल दायित्व मातापिताको हो । शिक्षक योग्य र आदर्श हुनुपर्छ । विद्यार्थी पवित्र, अनुशासित र नैतिक हुनुपर्छ । नीतिले खास उमेर सम्म सिकारु र सन्तानको कल्याणका लागि दण्डलाई ग्राह्य मानेको छ । चाणक्य नीतिमा प्रयाप्त व्यवहार उपयोगी तथा मानव कल्याणका लागि उत्प्रेरित गर्ने नीतिहरू छन् । मानिसलाई नैतिक धरातलमा उभिएर चार पुरुषार्थहरू प्राप्त गर्नका लागि आवश्यक हितकारी उपदेशहरू दिइएको छ । जसको अवलम्बनद्वारा मानिसको व्यावहारिक जीवन सफल हुन्छ भन्ने कुरामा विश्वास गर्न सकिन्छ । हाम्रो शैक्षिक तथा सामाजिक व्यवस्थामा यस्ता ग्रन्थहरू उपेक्षित छन् । प्राज्ञिक निकायहरूले यस्ता ज्ञानको प्रचार र पुनव्र्याख्यामा विशेष ध्यान दिनु श्रेयष्कर छ ।</p> Janardan Ghimire Copyright (c) 2024 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 21 34 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60208 नेपाली भाषा शिक्षणमा आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कनको अभ्यास https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60209 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख नेपाली भाषा शिक्षणमा आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कन प्रयोगको अवस्था प्रस्तुत गरी विद्यमान समस्या र समस्याको समाधानका लागि उपाय सुझाउने उद्देश्यले तयार पारिएको छ । गुणात्मक ढाँचामा आधारित यो लेखका लागि सामग्री सङ्कलन स्थलगत रूपमा अध्ययन क्षेत्रमा पुगेर गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा उद्देश्यपरक नमुना छनोट विधिका आधारमा छानिएका ५ ओटा विद्यालयहरूले २०७८ सालको एसइई परीक्षामा नेपाली विषयका लागि प्रदान गरेको २५ पूर्णाङ्कको आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कनको अङ्क तथा ५ ओटा विद्यालयका ५ जना नेपाली विषय शिक्षकसँग यसका सम्बन्धमा गरिएको कुराकानी प्राथमिक स्रोतको तथ्याङ्कका रूपमा रहेको छ । लेखकद्वारा गरिएका दाबी पुष्टि गर्न पूर्ववर्ती अध्येतासँग संवाद गर्दै विभिन्न तर्क, प्रमाण र उदाहरणहरू पेस गरिएको छ र आवश्यक व्याख्या विश्लेषण गर्दै निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । अध्ययनबाट नेपाली भाषाको आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कनमा पाठ्यव्रmम निर्देशित व्यवस्थाको ख्याल नगर्ने, विद्यार्थीलाई प्रयोगात्मक कार्य नगराउने, आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कनको कुनै अभिलेख नराख्ने तथा मनोमानी ढङ्गले उच्च अङ्क प्रदान गर्ने जस्ता समस्याहरू पहिचान गरिएका छन् । यस्ता समस्या समाधान गर्न पाठ्यव्रmममा स्पष्ट निर्देशनको व्यवस्था गर्ने, विषय शिक्षक र विद्यालयहरूले पाठ्यव्रmममा उल्लिखित व्यवस्थाको पूर्ण परिपालना गर्ने, पाठ्यव्रmम प्रयोगका सम्बन्धमा प्रबोधीकरण गर्ने, प्रयोगात्मक कार्यलाई कक्षा शिक्षणमा अनिवार्य बनाउने, अभिलेखको उचित व्यवस्थापन गर्ने, कार्यका आधारमा मात्र अङ्क प्रदान गर्ने तथा विद्यार्थी, विषय शिक्षक र विद्यालयको धारणामा परिवर्तन गर्ने आदि उपायहरू यस लेखमा सुझाइएको छ । यी सुझावहरूलाई कार्यान्वयन गर्न सकेको खण्डमा नेपाली भाषा शिक्षणमा आन्तरिक मूल्याङ्कनको उपयोग सबल तथा प्रभावकारी हुने विश्वास गर्न सकिन्छ ।</p> Shiva Prasad Timalsena Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 35 48 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60209 पुतली विषयक नेपाली बालगीत र बालकवितामा स्थायीभाव https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60210 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेख पुतली विषयक नेपाली बालगीत र बालकवितामा रहेका स्थायीभावजन्य सौन्दर्यको अध्ययनमा आधारित छ । पूर्वीय काव्यशास्त्रमा विभाव, अनुभाव, व्यभिचारी भावको संयोगबाट उत्पन्न स्थायीभावलाई रसनिष्पत्तिको मूल आधार मानिएको छ । बालगीत र बालकविताको लक्ष्य विविध भाव सिर्जनाका माध्यमबाट भावकलाई आनन्दित तुल्याउनु हो । यस अध्ययनमा शोधसमस्या अनुरूप निर्मित सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधारका आधारमा नेपाली बालगीत र बालकविताका कृतिको सम्यक् पठन गरी सजीव र खेलौना पुतली विषयक नेपाली बालगीत र बालकविताका केही सामग्रीको सङ्कलन, वर्गीकरण र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस विश्लेषणमा पुतलीको स्वभाव, सौन्दर्य, भेषभूषाका साथै उसप्रति राखिएको माया, ममता, स्नेह, आत्मीयतामा रति स्थायीभाव, झुसिल्किराजस्तो डरलाग्दो जीव पुतलीमा रूपान्तर भएको, रङ्गीचङ्गी फूलमा बहुरङ्गी पुतली खेलेको, पुतलीको शारीरिक क्रिया र रूपसौन्दर्य पनि अनौठो मानिएको सन्दर्भमा विस्मय स्थायीभाव तथा पुतलीको फुर्र फुर्र उडाइको दृश्यबिम्ब, पुतलीलाई दिइएको फूलपरी, फूलझुली र फूलकीरीजस्ता कथनमा हाँसो स्थायीभावको सौन्दर्य थपिएको छ । यसरी स्थायीभावको सौन्दर्यका दृष्टिले हाँसो र विस्मय स्थायीभावका तुलनामा रति स्थायीभावका पुतली विषयक नेपाली बालगीत र बालकविता कलात्मक रहेका पाइन्छन् ।</p> Keshav Raj Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 49 60 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60210 वेद, विज्ञान र हिन्दु दर्शनको चर्चा https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60211 <p>यो लेख वेदका सारभूत सन्देश तथा पूर्वीय दर्शनको विविधता, व्यापकता र वैज्ञानिक विकासको आधारशीला एवं ब्रह्माण्ड ज्ञानको मूल आधारको रुपमा हिन्द दर्शनलाइ चर्चा गर्नमा केन्द्रित छ । ज्ञानको प्रकाशको उपमाले परिचित हन्द दर्शनको आर्दश स्थल काशी तथा वेदको ज्ञानको पृष्ठभूमिमा विश्व समुदायलाई पूर्वीय दर्शन र पश्चिमा विज्ञान तथा प्रविधिको ज्ञानलाई वैदिक शास्त्रले प्रदान गरेको दार्शनिक आधार एवं वैज्ञानिकताको चर्चा गर्ने उद्देश्यमा केन्द्रित यो आलेख स्थापित हिन्दु मान्यता र परम्परामा आर्जित ज्ञान र उपलब्ध वैदिक शास्त्र, श्रुति एवं स्मृतिको विषयवस्तु विश्लेषण गर्न व्याख्यात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । लेखको खोजी तथा विश्लेषणले हिन्दु धर्मका आदर्श पुरुष स्वामी विवेकानन्द, परहंश रामानुज र शंकराचार्यले गरेको पश्चिमी संसारमा हिन्द धर्मको प्रचार प्रसार, सर्वपल्लवी राधाकृष्णन्ले पूर्वीर्य दर्शनको श्रेष्ठताको व्याख्यामा दिएको योगदान तथा श्रीमद्भागवद गीताको सन्देशलाई सामाजिक रुपान्तरणका लागि शिक्षाको विकासलाइ आफ्रनो कर्म क्षेत्र बनाउने मदन मोहन मालवीयजस्ता पुरुषहरुको जीवन आनुभविक शिक्षाबाट प्रेरित भई हिन्दु धर्म, ज्ञानको सागर वैदिक शास्त्र र पूर्वीय दर्शनको श्रेष्टतालाइ विश्वव्यापी बनाउन ज्ञानयोग, कर्मयोग तथा भक्तियोगलाई थप उजागर गर्न जोड दिएको छ ।</p> Kabi Prasad Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 61 67 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60211 शिक्षाशास्त्र सङ्कायअन्तर्गत स्नातक तह, सेमेस्टर प्रणालीका प्रश्नप्रति विद्यार्थीको दृष्टिकोण https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60212 <p>यस लेखमा त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय शिक्षाशास्त्र सङ्काय स्नातक तहको सेमेस्टर प्रणालीमा आधारित प्रश्नपत्रप्रति शिक्षार्थीको दृष्टिकोणलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण विधिमा आधारित भई मतावलीलाई तथ्य सङ्कलनको साधन बनाइएको यस अध्ययनमा यादृच्छिक नमुना छनोट प्रक्रिया अवलम्बन गरिएको छ । यसमा शिक्षाशास्त्र, स्नातक तहमा अध्ययनरत ३० जना शिक्षार्थीलाई नमुनाका रूपमा लिई उनीहरूको अभिमतको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । प्रश्नको छपाइमा स्पष्टताप्रति ८४ प्रतिशत परीक्षार्थीहरू सकारात्मक रहेका छन् । यो सन्तुष्टिको मध्यम स्थ्तिि हो । प्रश्नको भाषाशैलीप्रति ९४ प्रतिशत परीक्षार्थीहरूले सकारात्मक मत प्रकट गरेका छन् । यसलाई राम्रो स्तरको प्रतिक्रिया मान्न सकिन्छ । प्रश्नपत्रको समय र अङ्कको तालमेलप्रति परीक्षार्थीहरूले ९३ प्रतिशत सकरात्मक मत दिएका छन् । यसलाई पनि राम्रो स्तरको मान्न सकिन्छ । प्रश्न र शिक्षणसिकाइको सम्बन्धप्रति शत प्रतिशत परीक्षार्थीहरूले सकारात्मक छन् । यसले प्रश्नको स्तर निकै राम्रो रहेको जनाउँछ । प्रश्नपत्रको कागज र छपाइको गुणस्तरप्रति पनि शत प्रतिशत परीक्षार्थीहरू सकारात्मक छन् । यसलाई पनि निकै राम्रो स्तर मान्न सकिन्छ । समग्रमा सामान्य जम्मा पाँचओटा आधारमा लिइएको प्रतिक्रियामध्ये सबैमा ८० प्रतिशतभन्दा बढी नै सकारात्मक प्रतिक्रिया प्राप्त भएकाले निर्दिष्ट कक्षाका लागि बनाई उपयोगमा ल्याइएका प्रश्नहरूको गुण र प्रश्नपत्रको संरचना राम्रो रहेको निष्कर्ष प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> Rajendra Khanal Siddhi Bahadur Maharjan Isha Maharjan Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 68 74 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60212 A Comparative Study on Learning styles and Strategies of High and Low Preforming Students on Mathematics https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60221 <p>The students in a class are diverged from many perspectives, among such perspectives their learning styles and strategies is one of the major. Basically, we as a teacher rather used to notice the learning styles and strategies of our students, we just motivated to categorize our students as high performer or low performer. In this context, this is a case study research on the topic 'A comparative study on learning styles and strategies of high and low performing students on mathematics' with the objectives to compare the learning strategies used by high and low performing students in mathematics. For which, four (two from each categories) students were selected purposively on the basis of their performance in mathematics as the key research participants from a higher secondary level. The identification of their learning strategies are based on four subheadings as readiness for learning, pre-knowledge of the content, process for learning and solving a problem. With the prolong engagement with participants, the study concluded with the various differences as well as similarities in each category and on the basis of such differences and similarities, the study further emphasized to be aware about their learning styles and strategies is more beneficial to create the meaningful teaching learning environment in the classroom.</p> Ram Chandra Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 75 83 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60221 Associated Prime Ideals in Commutative Algebra https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60224 <p>This paper aims to explain how an abstract mathematical object of higher mathematics is learnt and solved the given problem from the pedagogical perspectives resting the explanation based upon the solution of higher mathematical problem in abstract algebra.The purpose is not only to disseminate the solution of the problem but to unfold the learning realities in course of pursuing the pure discovery learning path. The problem of the study was connected to the understandings of associated prime ideals in commutative algebra. Factual materials including books, lecture notes and research articles were used to explore the concepts on associated prime ideals. The concepts learned were summarized, conceptualized, and then analyzed together with established facts of algebraic concepts and developed examples to interpret the abstract concepts: the associated prime ideals. The associated prime ideal was explored and understood within the conceptions of primary decomposition, Noetherian rings, and modules, and then characterized some fundamental notions of it on an A-module M over the Noetherian ring A. The results reveal that repeated reading, writing, rigorous thinking and linking, and engaging on abstraction are the basic characteristics of content researcher in developing and constructing new insights, ideas and knowledge in higher mathematics from pedagogic perspective</p> Abatar Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 84 96 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60224 Comprehensive Sexuality Education for Addressing Young People’s SRHR Status in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60225 <p>This article reflects the narrative evaluation in the domain of young people's SRHR status and need for CSE. Young people in Nepal are particularly at risk for early marriage and childbearing, as well as other SRHR-related issues. CSE is recommended as a suitable technique to deal with these concerns affecting young people. CSE is a rights-based approach to teaching the cognitive, emotional, physical, and social aspects of sexuality. It helps young adolescents develop the knowledge, ideas, and beliefs they need to choose and embrace their sexuality in intimate relationships on a physical and emotional level. Its promotion is proposed as a solution to assist Nepalese young in enhancing their SRHR status.</p> Bhagawan Aryal Anup Adhikari Romkanta Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 97 102 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60225 Conceptualization of Qualitative Interview: A Reflection from the Practice https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60227 <p>This methodological reflection on ‘interview’ is based on my research work on, “An Ethnographic Study into Indigenous Knowledge and Life-based Learning of Dhimal Community”. The objective is to reflect on the steps that involve procedures based on personal experiences of developing and conducting the interview during an ethnographic field study. So, this reflection sheds light on how I carried out an ethnographic interview in the Dhimal indigenous community to generate data. The methodology employed in the field was an ethnography that engages the researcher as a participant who utilizes several methods depending upon the field's necessity. I visited research participants formally and informally at their homes and worksites to generate the data until were saturated. I maintained privacy and security that uphold the protection of their responses, and anonymity as an ethical consideration. The study reveals that ethnographic interviews oppose the pre-scheduled interview activities and take place through several negotiations and mutual understanding among the research participants depending on the context. Equally, the self-reflexivity of the researcher is crucial in every negotiating step to be followed, and such negations go beyond the formal context of the interview.&nbsp;</p> Devi Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 103 110 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60227 Friendly Environment in Gurukul and Psychologically Motivation of Students towards Gurukul Education https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60229 <p>The goal of this study is to look at the psychological components of Gurukul students' motivation for education. The psychological component of persons is concerned with their mind and thoughts. The psychological component of Gurukul students relates to their feelings, attitudes, understanding, and conduct in connection to the Gurukul environment as a whole. The psychosocial component of students entails the interaction between students' intrapersonal psychological aspects and the entire Gurukul setting. A psychological aspect is frequently defined as a student's psychological growth in relation to their academic environment. The methodology of this study is qualitative. The researcher collected data for this work through interviews and focus group discussions. The interview is utilized for teachers, while the focus group discussion is used for students. The sampling is purposive and teachers and students are selected purposively who are pursuing education in gurukuls. The findings of this study show that the students are self-motivated to study in gurukuls. And the conclusion of this article is that the appeal of Gurukul is growing day by day, and many pupils are drawn to the Gurukul education system.</p> Toya Nath Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 111 119 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60229 Future Policy Direction of Special/Inclusive Education in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60231 <p>This study critically analyzed the future policy direction of special/inclusive education in Nepal. Using qualitative data collected through document analysis, interviews, and focus group discussions. This study is based on the premises of qualitative research design under the interpretative paradigm followed by critical interpretive design to analyze and interpret the field data. For this, 15 (fifteen) policy experts from Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, Department of Education, university professors, and 11 head teachers from 6 special and 5 integrated schools, and special education council members and members of disabled related organizations were purposively selected as the informants.</p> <p>The establishment of the Disability Right Commission at central level would be much effective for the overall development of special/inclusive education in Nepal. It has also been found that establishment of the special/inclusive education council secretariat would contribute to further expansion of special/inclusive education service in Nepal. Development of a provincial level master plan for special/inclusive education training for stakeholders has been strongly recommended for the overall development of special education in the country. The study also suggested that future policy development and its practice is to be based on research-based evidence. It also recommended for establishment of at least one special education center and one model school in each province, and at least one support center at each local level.</p> <p>This study implies that a coherent policy-making is required through the consultation with the relevant stakeholders from the central, provincial, and local level in such a way that there is minimum gap in the power sharing among agencies at different levels of governance. Finally, this study suggests for developing future policies that support establishment of residential schools, individual education plan, transitional planning and individualized family service plans to enhance the promotion of disability sector in Nepal.</p> Rabindra Shiwakoti Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 120 130 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60231 Strengthening Inclusive Education: Unraveling Prerequisites for Children with Intellectual Disabilities https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60232 <p>This article highlights the prerequisites that need to be considered to provide inclusive education to children with intellectual disabilities. Educating these children in inclusive settings not only ensures quality instructional services but also prepares them for adult life in the future. Nevertheless, a number of factors, such as government policies, resource availability, teacher attitudes, community support, and the quality of accessible learning materials, have a tremendous impact on ensuring their inclusion in education. Neglecting the better education of these children may lead to societal burdens, and inclusive education can help students coexist more effectively in broader social contexts as adults. Since students with intellectual disabilities often face challenges in processing and expressing information due to their unique learning characteristics, they must be treated differently using evidence-based practices. Accommodations and modifications in the curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment should be made based on their learning profiles. Teachers should have high expectations and provide quality support for all students to ensure their access to the general curriculum. Educational services for children with intellectual disabilities in Nepal reveal a significant policy-practice gap. Though there are policy provisions for providing inclusive education to all children, children with intellectual disabilities are often segregated, leading to inadequate support and poor education quality. This situation deprives them of their right to study alongside typically developing peers.</p> Dhruba Prasad Niure Madhav Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 131 145 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60232 Trends in Budgeting in the Education Sector of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ire/article/view/60233 <p>This paper analyzes the trends in budgeting in the education sector of Nepal. Budget allocation trends are essential in the education sector for ensuring equality, improving education quality, enhancing accountability, and guiding policy decisions. This paper argues that investment in education is indispensable for national development. To fulfill this objective, the trends in budget allocation in the education sector support working among the stakeholders to ensure access to quality education. This paper is based on reviews of documents related to the ten-year budget allocation practices of the government of Nepal from 2012–13 to 2022–23. Other documents were collected from archived records and e-resources from Google. The finding reveals that the trends in total budget allocation have been increasing year by year, while the annual budget in the education sector remains eleven percent of its total budget in these periods. This paper concludes that fifteen percent of the total budget is required to attain Sustainable Development Goal 4. Thus, the government should increase its budget in the education sector to fulfill the commitment of the signatory state in various international forums.</p> Bishnu Maya Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Interdisciplinary Research in Education 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 8 2 146 154 10.3126/ire.v8i2.60233