INTELLIGENCE Journal of Multidisciplinary Research <p><em>INTELLIGENCE Journal of Multidisciplinary Research</em> is published by the Research Management Cell, Pokhara Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University Affiliate, Pokhara, Nepal. The aim of IJMR is to publish up-to-date, high-quality, original research papers alongside relevant and insightful reviews from various areas of social sciences.</p> en-US (Asst. Prof. Jas Bahadur Gurung) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 27 Mar 2023 13:27:29 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Vol.2(1) <p>No Abstract Available.</p> Jas Bahadur Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 List of Reviewers 2023 <p>No abstract available.</p> Jas Bahadur Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Existence of Joint Venture Banks and their Impacts on the Performance of Non-Joint Venture Commercial Banks in Nepal <p>This paper aims to examine the effect of the existence of joint venture (JV) banks on the performance of non-joint venture (NJV) commercial banks of Nepal. The study is based on secondary data, where the data have been collected from fourteen sampled banks' annual reports, Ministry of Finance publications, and World Bank publications. Seven years of data from Fiscal Year 2013/14 to 2019/20 of cross-section units (banks) established before 2008 have been taken for the study. Descriptive analysis, correlation, and regression have been used in the study. The result depicts that JV banks’ existence in Nepal significantly impacts return on assets and credit risk levels but does not show an impact on the net interest margin (NIM) of NJV commercial banks. The regression result shows that loan deposit ratio, capital adequacy ratio (CAR), bank’s equity level, and non-performing loan (NPL) of JV banks substantially impact the NIM of NJV banks. Likewise, the interest spread rate and NPL of JV banks significantly affect the ROA of NJV commercial banks. Similarly, interest spread, CAR, and foreign ownership ratio significantly impact the credit risk level of NJV commercial banks in Nepal. Likewise, the result further shows that JV banks have been earning relatively higher non-interest income, which positively reflected on the ROA of banks. Additionally, JV banks have been booking low-quality credit portfolios at a lower interest rate. &nbsp;</p> Ramkrishna Chapagain, Kaushal Yadhav, Amrit Baral Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Voices of the Indigenous Marginalized Community in Bina Thing’s Yambunera <p>The article studies the voices of the indigenous marginalized community in Bina Thing’s <em>Yambunera</em> from a Subaltern perspective. <em>Yambunera</em> has included thirteen stories and this article tries to explore the voice of the indigenous marginalized people and their representations only in six stories. Bina Thing attempts to bring into the mainstream literature the cultural dissimilarities prevalent in Nepali society. Characters portrayed in <em>Yambunera</em> are marginalized and silenced because of dominant culture, cultural dominance, poverty and illiteracy. The article intends to argue the ethnic identity issues, marginalization, discriminatory social practices and subordination to the rulers in the selected text. Thus, the study critiques the text from the critical perspectives of Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and J. Maggio. Basically, Subaltern Studies explores the voices of the marginal groups in society and examines how the literary discourse represents these voices. Spivak argues that class consciousness is self-alienating the social groups from the others within a domain of exploitation and domination. The article tries to examine issues such as injustice, prejudice, protest, and resistance in the text and intends to shed light on the voices of the indigenous women.<em> Yambunera</em> focuses on the plights of the Tamangs living in Yambu who are perceived as being uncultured, savage and uneducated and, above all, they are silenced. The findings of the discussion indicate injustice, prejudice, protest and resistance in the case of the fictionalized characters in <em>Yambunera</em>. Furthermore, the study reflects the search for cultural identity and the marginalized people’s efforts to stand up for the voices. The present article encourages a good understanding of the marginalized voices in Nepali literature.</p> Bidur Rai Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Financial Literacy on Personal Investment Decisions in Kathmandu Valley <p>In the realm of finance, financial literacy and personal investment decision-making are two important constructs that have been extensively studied. The purpose of this research is to measure the impact of financial literacy on personal investment decisions in Kathmandu valley. A descriptive and causal study was constructed for this study. For the collection of information, structured questionnaires were developed and used in a questionnaire survey. Participants in the stock market made up the study's subjects. According to the convenience sampling approach, 200 samples were collected. Reliability analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and regression analysis were all used to comprehensively assess the data. The study found that financial behavior, financial attitude, financial awareness, and financial skill have a significant impact on investment decisions. Policymakers should promote financial literacy and protecting investors can lead to better financial outcomes for individuals and society as a whole.</p> Sajeeb Kumar Shrestha, Binita Manandhar, Prerana Bhattarai, Nayan Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Entrepreneurial Intention of Business Students Inside Pokhara Valley <p>Entrepreneurship creates a significant opportunity for individuals to achieve financial independence and benefit the economy by contributing to job creation, innovation, and economic growth. Most universities offer courses and programs in entrepreneurship. However, there is little understanding of the factors that affect students’ intentions of becoming entrepreneurs and the role of their family business background on students’ entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze entrepreneurial intention among both undergraduates and graduate students of business in Pokhara Valley. The sample size of the study is 150 has been taken as a purposive sampling technique. Along with that, questionnaires have been distributed to the business students of Pokhara. This study applied descriptive and analytical research design, which uses a quantitative method to meet the objective. The data analysis found that respondents are highly interested in entrepreneurship as a career and they prefer to become entrepreneurs most rather than going abroad or do a job. From the analysis of the study, the dependent variable entrepreneurial Intention has a significant relationship with independent variables personal attitude and interest and relational support whereas; it doesn’t have any significant relationship with structural support, entrepreneurship education, and family occupation. Therefore, through the data analysis concerning entrepreneurship, the results have many implications. First, since business students are persuaded towards entrepreneurship as a career, they should be given tremendous opportunities and environment. Second, entrepreneurship education should be improved with additional training to fulfil the intention of entrepreneurship. Thus, this study has tried to present the real scenario of the entrepreneurial intention of business students in Pokhara.</p> Baburam Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Intergovernmental Interaction in Federal Nepal and Challenges in the Transitional Period <p>Federalism is a power-sharing political system, which designates power through various layers of government. Powers are delegated and decentralized by the constitution over the different layers of government. In federalism, intergovernmental or inter-province relations are very crucial for better delivery of the federal system. The provinces in Nepal are at loggerheads and as they are facing internal conflicts, and the inter-governmental relations are not so smooth. The provinces are attempting to make their internal cooperation better but this is not achieved due to political transition. Given this complex context, poor intergovernmental relations and conflicts between the three layers of government in Nepal have become one of the key challenges for the successful implementation of federalism. Limited knowledge, short experience with federalism and lack of legal and policy issues have created these gaps. The contexts have further jeopardized inter-governmental relations. Weak intergovernmental relations in federalism would ultimately pose a challenge to federalism and result in political instability in Nepal.</p> Girdhari Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Inventory Management on Profitability of the Manufacturing Company: Empirical Evidence from Himalayan Distillery Limited <p>Better inventory management is essential for preventing excess costs and waste of money for the distillery. The funds used in managing inventory could be used in branding and marketing the products. Hence, the paper tries to find an impact of inventory management on the profitability of one of the listed companies of Nepal, Himalayan Distillery Limited. A paper followed a correlation research design using secondary data for the sampled company. The paper found a high degree of positive correlation between closing stocks and raw materials and also closing stocks with packaging and other materials. A regression analysis reflected no significant relationship or statistical association between the inventory-related variables and the profitability of the sample company.</p> Rashesh Vaidya Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Job Satisfaction of Female Employees in Commercial Banks of Pokhara <p>Job satisfaction of employees is considered as important factor for the growth and success of any organization. However, many organizations have made minimal effort to assess the job satisfaction of employees including banks. This study aims to measure the job satisfaction of female employees and the major factors affecting it in commercial banks of Pokhara valley, Nepal. The study follows descriptive and explanatory designs. Purposive sampling technique was used in this research. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire administered to 150 female professionals working in different commercial banks of Pokhara valley. Descriptive statistics such as frequency analysis and mean score analysis, and inferential statistics such as correlation analysis and regression analysis were employed in this study. This study found that all the independent variables including promotion, supervisor behaviour, remuneration, working conditions and co-worker behaviour positively correlated with job satisfaction. Likewise, the study found that promotion, remuneration, and working condition have a significant impact on job satisfaction.</p> Deepesh Ranabhat, Bhawana Sharma Timilsina, Mala Ranabhat Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perception and Satisfaction of Sociology Graduates <p>The main aim of this paper is to identify perception and satisfaction of the sociology graduates of Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, regarding their degree in sociology. It attempts to know the educational background of sociology graduates and reason behind selecting the degree as well. Academic happiness is seen to be one of the most crucial variables influencing students' academic success along with their willingness and drive to continue their education. This will ultimately have an impact on their future careers. The population in this study are the Sociology graduates of Masters Level of Prithvi Narayan Campus, Pokhara who had submitted their thesis in year 2073 and 2074 B.S. after the separation of Sociology and Anthropology departments. Attempt was made to do census among 112 graduates but only 55 responses have been collected for the study. The study was completed through descriptive research design. The data collected were analyzed through presenting it into table and graphs. The sociology graduates perceive sociology degree as quite positive and responsible. The study reveals out that they are satisfied with sociological knowledge but majority shows dissatisfaction with the earning of sociology degree.</p> Trishana Basnet Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ Perception of Declining Learner’s Enrollment in Mathematics : A Context of Universities in Nepal <p>The students' perception of declining learner enrollment at higher levels of mathematics is one of the significant factors to deal with them successfully. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the bachelor second-year students' perception of difficulty in subject matters, the attitude of teachers, the efficiency of subject matters and teaching methodology, the application of mathematics, and existing exam patterns. This investigation is based on the survey research design consisting of 198 respondents of mathematics of second-year students that includes 108 male and 90 female students from different colleges in Pokhara valley. A five-point Likert- scale survey questionnaire, related to independent variables was prepared with 22 structured questions and administered by the researcher to the students. This study used a descriptive research design, where the data were collected and analyzed. The finding of this study concludes that declining student enrollment in higher levels in mathematics was significantly positively correlated with the difficulty in subject matters, attitude of faculty members, efficiency in subject matters, application of mathematics, and existing exam patterns. The study also revealed that most learners positively believe that mathematics was relevant to further studies as it supported to the development of the creative, imaginative, logical, and constructive skills of learners. However, most of the respondents realized that mathematics educators did not support the weakness of learners' problems properly, and most teachers had insufficient skills to connect mathematics knowledge to learners' real lives.</p> Thakur Prasad Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Pokhara Multiple Campus Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000