Interdisciplinary Journal of Innovation in Nepalese Academia <p>The Interdisciplinary Journal of Innovation in Nepalese Academia is published by Kathmandu Model College (KMC), Bagbazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. It provides a forum for the publication of scholarly articles in the fields of management, computer application, and humanities &amp; social sciences.</p> Kathmandu Model College en-US Interdisciplinary Journal of Innovation in Nepalese Academia 2976-1204 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This license allows reusers to copy and distribute the material in any medium or format in unadapted form only, for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> Solid Waste Management Practice in Burdwan Municipality, West Bengal: An Overview <p>This study provides an overview of solid waste management practices in Burdwan Municipality and identifies sources of waste generation. The study primarily relies on both primary and secondary data collected from Burdwan Municipality. A prepared questionnaire was utilized during field studies conducted in the wards of Burdwan Municipality. Secondary data, available in the form of reports and documents from the year 2019, were also employed. Tabular presentations, flowcharts, pie charts, statistical tools, and techniques were used for the study. A flowchart model is employed to describe the current practices of solid waste management in Burdwan. Municipal solid waste is classified and identified based on waste characteristics. Biodegradable waste is the primary source of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Burdwan town. Commercial places generate more MSW than institutions, while the top contributors from residential premises are low-income group (LIG) households. This study observes a mismatch between MSW generation and available infrastructure, as well as poor management practices. MSW accumulates day by day, leading to environmental pollution. However, this issue could be resolved by adopting a reuse and recycle mechanism to convert waste into useful products.</p> Surat Sheikh Copyright (c) 2023 Kathmandu Model College 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 102 112 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59487 Determinants of Microfinance Adoption, Challenges Encountered, and Principal Solutions: An Empirical Analysis Using Theory of Planned Behaviour <p>Microfinance refers to the provision of financial services to low-income individuals and businesses, serving as a financial tool to reduce poverty and provide financial support to low-income groups. This study aims to determine the factors influencing customers' intentions towards microfinance in Kathmandu Valley. The study employs an explanatory research design in conjunction with the Theory of Planned Behavior framework. Primary data from 303 respondents were collected using the KOBO toolbox. Purposive sampling, a non-probability sampling technique, was employed for data collection. Descriptive and inferential data analysis was carried out using MS-Excel and SMART PLS 4.0. The majority of respondents consisted of married middle-aged women actively engaged in their own business ventures. Common challenges encountered by microfinance customers included high-interest rates, insufficient security, and limited financial knowledge. The principal solutions identified included the establishment of robust microfinance policies, the integration of innovation and new technologies, the provision of financial training, and the facilitation of enhanced loan repayment strategies. The study revealed that, among the three primary factors examined, both subjective norms and perceived behavioral control had a significant impact on customers' intentions to adopt microfinance. On the other hand, attitude was found to have an insignificant impact on customers' intentions to embrace microfinance. The findings of this study suggest that microfinance can be a valuable tool for poverty reduction and financial inclusion. However, it is important to address the challenges that microfinance customers face in order to maximize its potential impact. The solutions identified in this study can help make microfinance more accessible and affordable for low-income individuals and businesses.</p> Sushma Magar Devid Kumar Basyal Purnima Lawaju Udaya Raj Paudel Devi Kumari Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 113 128 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59489 Nexus between Aging and Health Expenditure: An Evidence from Nepal <p>Nepal, like many countries, is currently experiencing a significant shift in its demographic landscape, characterized by a rapidly aging population. This study investigates the causal relationship between aging and healthcare expenditure in Nepal. To examine this causal connection, we employed a parsimonious VAR-based Wald test, Granger causality analysis, impulse response functions (IRFs), and forecast error variance decompositions using time series data from 2000 to 2020. The findings of the analysis reveal a substantial positive correlation between the proportion of elderly people and healthcare expenditure, indicating that as the population ages, healthcare costs and the demand for healthcare services tend to rise. The IRF analysis further confirmed that an innovation or shock in the aging index (AI) led to a subsequent increase in per capita health expenditure (HPC). Granger causality also reveals a unidirectional causal linkage from the aging index to per capita health expenditure. In addition, the study highlights the positive impact of aging on life expectancy in Nepal. These findings have important policy implications for Nepal. As the population continues to age, policymakers must allocate healthcare resources effectively, invest in geriatric care, and develop a robust healthcare infrastructure. Comprehensive long-term planning and strong social support systems are crucial to ensure the well-being of the elderly population and to mitigate the associated challenges.</p> Tanka Mani Poudel Ram Prasad Gajurel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 129 146 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59491 Financial Literacy and Personal Financial Planning among the Households of Migrant Workers in Rainas Municipality, Lamjung, Nepal <p>Worker's remittances are one of the most crucial sources of income, contributing significantly to poverty alleviation in households and communities in many parts of the developing world. A pressing concern is whether individuals will be able to maintain their current standard of living upon permanently returning to Nepal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify the different factors that affect personal financial planning among migrant households. The study employs an explanatory research design to examine the relationship between various factors that influence the personal financial planning of migrant households. It utilizes a purposive sampling method, collecting data from 100 respondents across 10 wards in Rainas Municipality, along with 10 randomly selected respondents. Data is collected through Google Forms and analyzed using SPSS (version 21), SPSS AMOS, and MS-Excel. The results reveal that the majority of households earn around 45,000 to 60,000 per month, indicating a healthy income inflow. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis shows that financial awareness (β= 0.218, P&lt;0.05) has a significant relationship with financial planning, while financial knowledge (β= -0.085, P&gt;0.05) and financial attitude (β= 0.044, P&lt;0.05) do not have a significant relationship with financial planning. This study suggests that financial awareness is a key factor in increasing financial knowledge and improving financial attitudes, ultimately enhancing financial planning in households. To promote such awareness, the government can consider incorporating financial courses into school curricula to enhance financial literacy and personal financial planning.</p> Anup Ghimire Ranjana Kumari Danuwar Bimla Kumari Gurung Ajaya Dhakal Dhurba Prasad Timalsina Deep Kumar Baral Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 147 159 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59493 Adoption of Digital Payment System among the Youths in Pokhara Metropolitan City <p>Effective payment systems are crucial components of any nation's financial infrastructure. In recent years, Nepal has witnessed a significant surge in the utilization of digital payment systems. The examination of the adoption of digital payment methods in Nepal is of paramount importance as it sheds light on behaviors related to financial technology that can shape the future of the country's financial system and contribute to its economic development. This study aims to explore the factors influencing the adoption intention of digital payment systems in Pokhara Metropolitan City, Nepal. The study population consists of the youth of Pokhara, with 400 respondents selected using a purposive sampling technique. Data analysis encompasses frequency distribution, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. The exploratory factor analysis extracted six factors, which include effort expectancy, performance expectancy, security and privacy, social influence, facilitating conditions, and adoption intention. The structural equation modeling reveals that security and privacy, performance expectancy, and facilitating conditions have a significant positive impact on the adoption intention, whereas effort expectancy and social influence do not significantly affect the adoption intention of digital payments. In conclusion, the study suggests that the use of digital payment systems can be increased by providing secure digital payment systems, enhancing access to resources that support digital payments, and raising awareness about the benefits of digital payments among the youth in Pokhara Metropolitan City. These findings can guide policymakers in developing strategies and policies to promote the adoption of digital payments.</p> Hem Kanta Poudel Deepesh Ranabhat Pradeep Sapkota Mala Ranabhat Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 160 172 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59495 Taxi Driver’s Perception Towards Taxi Management in Kathmandu Valley: A Structural Equation Model Analysis <p>Taxi drivers around the world operate in a mobile environment that challenges the traditional concept of the workplace. They play a vital role in enabling us to reach our destinations with ease, security, and time-saving benefits. Therefore, transportation is considered one of the five crucial infrastructure facilities for the development of a country. The current study aims to analyze the factors that determine taxi drivers' perceptions of taxi management in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The results, obtained through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), reveal five constructs fitting within the model. The findings conclude that accessibility, convenience, price, and intention to use taxi management are significantly related to each other. This indicates that all four variables significantly influence taxi drivers' perceptions of taxi management. As a result, this study suggests that the taxi industry must adapt to taxi management practices to enhance customer engagement.</p> Anshu Ghimire Vaibhav Puri Niranjan Devkota Surendra Mahato Udaya Raj Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 173 188 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59497 Impacts of Green HRM Practices in Employee Environmental Commitment in the Context of Nepalese Manufacturing Industry <p>The purpose of this study is to identify various green Human Resource Management (HRM) practices applied in the Nepalese manufacturing industry that contribute to employee environmental commitment. The study adopts a deductive approach grounded in a positivist perspective, utilizing a quantitative approach to collect and analyze data through structured survey questionnaires. The sample size for this study is 446. The researcher collected primary data from employees working in the Nepalese manufacturing industry that has implemented Green HRM practices, using a self-administered questionnaire. The initial data was subsequently analyzed using various statistical techniques, including percentages, frequency analysis, calculating the mean and standard deviation. Additionally, structural equation modeling was employed for inferential analysis. Based on the results of the structural equation model, it was found that green training, green rewards, and organizational culture significantly contribute to employee environmental commitment. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of organizations prioritizing and investing in sustainable HR practices, such as green training, green rewards, and organizational commitment strategies. By doing so, organizations can enhance their commitment to environmental sustainability and ultimately improve their long-term organizational performance.</p> Rheet Rijal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 189 201 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59499 Impact of Personality Traits on Sustainable Entrepreneurship Development <p>The evolving landscape of globalization is bringing about inevitable changes in the development of sustainable entrepreneurship. Sustainable entrepreneurship combines entrepreneurial traits with a focus on both market success and social impact. However, in today's competitive environment, it is imperative for every entrepreneur to possess specific personality traits to enhance their competitiveness. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the influence of four significant personality traits: agreeableness, openness, extraversion, and neuroticism, on the sustainable development of entrepreneurship in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The study employed a positivist research philosophy, an explanatory research design, and a quantitative survey method using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 396 entrepreneurs from the registered SMEs in the Surkhet district were identified as samples. Inferential statistics, specifically structural equation modeling, were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that personality traits such as agreeableness, openness, and extraversion had a positive influence on the development of sustainable entrepreneurship. This suggests that individuals possessing interpersonal skills, innovativeness, curiosity, situational sociability, confidence, and passion played a foundational role in promoting entrepreneurial sustainability. On the other hand, the personality trait of neuroticism demonstrated an insignificant positive impact on sustainable entrepreneurial development. This implies that neurotic individuals, prone to anxiety, stress, and emotional instability, may hinder decision-making processes and disrupt the stability of sustainable entrepreneurship. Based on these findings, the study suggests that entrepreneurs should prioritize instrumental features of personality traits like agreeableness, openness, and extraversion for sustainable entrepreneurship development, while minimizing the influence of neuroticism.</p> Bhupal Bikram Kathayat Dipak Singh Rawat Bablu Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 202 216 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59500 Nexus Between Consumer Ethnocentrism and Purchase Intentions <p>The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of Consumer Ethnocentrism (CE) on the purchase intention of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) in Kathmandu. The study involved the administration of a structured, close-ended questionnaire to 324 FMCG consumers aged between 13 and 65 residing in Kathmandu. The results indicate that consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin information significantly affect consumers' intentions to purchase foreign FMCG products by influencing their attitudes. The analysis of the Consumer Ethnocentrism Tendencies Scale (CETSCALE) and the results of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PL-SEM) reveal that FMCG consumers in Kathmandu tend to exhibit ethnocentric tendencies, prioritizing domestically made products and being mindful of the economic implications of relying on imports. Notably, young adults, particularly those with lower income levels, hold stronger ethnocentric beliefs than others. Additionally, the study finds that FMCG consumers actively seek country-of-origin information, with females displaying a higher likelihood of seeking such details. Moreover, consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin information jointly influence purchase intentions for foreign FMCG products through their distinct effects on consumers' attitudes toward foreign FMCG brands. These findings have significant implications for FMCG businesses and researchers interested in understanding consumer behavior dynamics in the market.</p> Dipendra Karki Upashan Khadka Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 217 232 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59501 Co-worker Relations and Working Environment: Influences on Turnover Intentions in Co-operatives of Surkhet <p>This study aims to construct a conceptual framework for analyzing and forecasting the factors that influence employee turnover intentions in cooperative organizations in Surkhet, Nepal. Cooperatives play a crucial role in economic growth as they generate jobs, collect and invest funds, and offer a wide range of public services. Cooperatives engage in various activities to achieve their objectives, but they have been struggling with high turnover rates. The study employed a cross-sectional design, with data collected in a single contact with the respondents. The study's demographic consisted of all cooperative employees in Surkhet, and a convenience sampling method was used to gather 167 responses through a structured Likert questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS 23 software, with structural equation modeling as the statistical tool for hypothesis testing. Hypotheses were formulated using a deductive research approach. The results indicate that co-worker relations and the working environment were significantly associated with employee turnover intentions among cooperative employees. However, promotions showed no significant association with turnover intentions. This study has certain limitations, including the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, variations in employee education levels, the comprehension of content, and a relatively small sample size. The respondents were a relatively uniform group of employees, so the results may not be generalized to other employees and institutions. Nevertheless, the study's findings suggest that cooperative organizations should place greater emphasis on improving co-worker relations and the working environment to reduce turnover intentions. This research can be particularly useful for managers in cooperative organizations.</p> Amrit Kumar Sharma Gaire Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 233 246 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59502 Decolonial Rhetoric of Indigenous Tharu Homestays in Nepal <p>The Tharu, an indigenous people residing in the southern plainland region known as the Terai in Nepal, have a historical memory of marginalization, displacement, and internal colonization. In the past decade, the emergence of homestay businesses among the Tharu has not only provided economic opportunities but has also played a crucial role in promoting their indigenous identity. Building on this phenomenon, this article investigates Tharu homestays in Nepal, with the aim of assessing the ways in which they embody indigenous decolonial rhetoric. Using a qualitative e-research method (Salmons, 2022), this article collects, analyzes, and interprets digital sources such as websites, online newspapers, YouTube videos, Facebook updates, and official reports. The interpretation is grounded in the theoretical framework of indigenous decolonial delinking (Mignolo, 2012; Smith, 2021). The article elaborates on how indigenous Tharu homestays function as decolonial spaces through six distinct lenses: their portrayal in national news coverage, their cartographic presence on Google Maps, their web-based territoriality, indigenous settings, the embodiment of indigenous culture and culinary traditions, and their amplified presence in the socio-digital media. In conclusion, the article finds that indigenous Tharu homestays in Nepal embody decolonial rhetoric by creating an amplified presence of indigenous Tharu identity across multiple spaces. This research contributes to the discourse of indigenous rhetoric, advocating for the protection and promotion of Tharu homestays in Nepal and emphasizing their role in the process of indigenous decolonization.</p> Purna Chandra Bhusal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 247 263 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59503 Human-Nature Interface in William Cowper's "The Poplar Field" and E.B.White's "Once More to the Lake" <p>This paper attempts to analyze William Cowper's poem "The Poplar Field" and E.B. White's essay "Once More to the Lake" from an ecocritical perspective. Ecocriticism explores the relationships between elements, human culture, and the physical environment as presented in literary texts. In their respective works, both Cowper and White address issues related to nature, the acknowledgment of social ecology within the natural world, and the necessity for humans to coexist with it while respecting ecological balance. Both literary texts delve into the unpleasant and devastating environmental degradation and the interface between humans and nature, which forms the core of ecocriticism. In this context, human culture is intricately connected to the physical world, affecting and being affected by it. The texts also highlight the issue of biodiversity degradation and the loss of natural beauty. Furthermore, they touch upon environmental philosophy and ecocriticism, assuming that the human world and the physical environment are closely interlinked. This perspective teaches us to be more humane and to reject an anthropocentric approach.</p> Arjun Nath Dhurba Prasad Timalsina Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 2 2 264 273 10.3126/idjina.v2i2.59504