Humanities and Social Sciences Journal 2022-12-01T12:09:26+00:00 Prof. Dr. Rudra Prasad Paudel Open Journal Systems <p>The Humanities and Social Sciences Journal is a bi-annual, double-blind peer-reviewed journal published by the Research &amp; Educational Development Project Management Committee (RMC), Ratna Rajyalaxmi Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Government Expenditure and Economic Growth of Nepal 2022-11-24T09:39:30+00:00 Bashu Dev Dhungel <p>This paper investigates the effects of public spending on Nepalese GDP growth from the fiscal year 1990/91 to 2019/20. This study has applied Stationary Test along with ordinary least square method to investigate the role of explanatory variables on GDP growth of Nepal. Agriculture, education, health and transportation and communication are all included in government spending. All explanatory variables have made favorable effect on Nepal's GDP growth. The multivariate regression analysis confirms that community expenditure in health sector as well as education sector leads to uplift the human capital which have ultimately positive influence on theeconomic growth of the country.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tertiary Education and Economic Growth of Nepal: An ARDL-ECM Analysis 2022-11-24T06:25:18+00:00 Dil Nath Dangal <p>This study examined the relationship between tertiary schooling and economic growth in Nepal. The autoregressive distributed-lagged (ARDL) bound test for cointegration and error-correction method (ECM) were employed. Time series data of 1989/90 to 2018/19 were taken into consideration. Updated time series and ARDL bounds test were applied for cointegration with ECM analysis to estimate the aimed relationship between variable of interests. Economic growth (RGDP) as dependent variable, education (GERT) as a regressor, and controlled variables––physical capital, labor force, and CPI––were used. The results of the study revealed cointegration between education and economic growth, confirming their long-run relationship. The negative and significant ECT1-t strengthened the presence of long-run relationship among RGDP and GERT. This study found tertiary schooling as a productivity enhancer of human capital in Nepal. Based on this finding, this study recommends promoting the tertiary schooling through adequate financing.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Labours’ Condemnations in Informal Employment: Cases of Handicrafts Industries in Kathmandu Valley 2022-11-24T07:01:32+00:00 Padma Kumar Adhikari <p>This paper has attempted to explore labours’ complaints about who jobs informally the whole time and provisionally in some handicrafts industries in Kathmandu Valley. The technique of PCA method conducted to extract latent factors after loading 9 different observed issues at five-point Likert-scale variables. The outcome of the groups of 'change in the technology' rated best probably 3.25 out of a five-point Likert scale while groups of 'injury in work time' rated worst probably 3.17 out of a five-point Likert scale. Labours complained about the change in technology and facility work leave were strongly problems in the handicrafts society of labour in Kathmandu Valley. </p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 An Analysis of Poetic Text and Language: A Reference to Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz" 2022-11-24T07:17:22+00:00 Bam Dev Sharma <p>Poetry is sonic language and it is meant for reading aloud with lyrical and musical tone Furthermore, poetry is figuratively rich language where mere linguistic meanings cannot purport the implied meanings of words and poetic contexts and the readers need to explore both covered and overt meanings to make a better understanding of poetry. Readers can grasp overt meanings by reading the outward shape of the poems like word and syntax. The covered meaning of poetry, however, is explored through special treatments to poetic writing. Considering this basic premise, this article tries to analyze poetic art and language by making an analysis of the famous poem, "My Papa's Waltz" by Theodore Roethke, one of the famous American poets. To prove the claim, I have relied on literary views and scholarly arguments by great scholars and eminent poets. This article, therefore, makes an analytical approach of poetic writing, thereby examining distinct poetic elements like linguistic, rhetoric, figurative and sonic in the poem " My Papa's Waltz": exposing why poetic language differs from normal prosaic writing in terms of stylistic corpus and its form and presentation. The analytical part of the article examines aspects of linguistic, rhetorical and sonic elements in the poem to be different from prosaic genre of expression.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Embodied Homo Sacer in Mahasweta Devi's "Draupadi" 2022-11-24T07:26:50+00:00 Pradip Sharma <p>Foucauldian biopolitics ultimately turns into necropolitics when the regime incorporates state racism. This article analyzes the process of dehumanization of the homo sacer in Mahasweta Devi's story, "Draupadi" which entails the Naxalites Movement of India at the background and the state's hard power deployment to deter it. It excavates how the all caring biopolitical regime wields terror, exile, and imposes rampant killing over the penury-laden subalterns in Birbhum India. While resisting the death in life Dulna is killed and Dopdi is sieged, incarcerated, disrobed, mangled, and finally raped with impunity which replicates the ordeal of the Muselmann in Nazi Camp. The story flays the paradox of welfarism for the elite not for the poor in azad India. This article aims at the suspension of law and imposition of legal terror over the dalits. While probing into the unequal social praxis, and state sponsored bioviolence, Mahasweta's Draupadi dramatizes the stark outlawry and violence over subaltern homo sacer.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Quest for Identity in Diasporic World of V. S. Naipaul’s Half a Life 2022-11-24T07:39:14+00:00 Ram Prasad Rai <p>This paper aims to explore the pursuit of identity in the diaspora in V. S. Naipaul’s Half a Life. Willie Somerset Chandran desires to establish himself as a writer, but his own father does not like his writing. He receives scholarship to study in London. There, too, he writes books, but he is discouraged by the publishers. Apart from this, he cannot live in London comfortably because of the strange culture and social activities unlike in India, his home country. In the South Africa, he realizes the loss of 18 years without developing his career and goes to live with his sister in Germany. He is in search of identity in the diaspora in different host lands. His mentality is never stable in the foreign lands as he is unsuccessful to maintain a certain identity that he wishes to have. However, his pursuit of identity continues in various host lands despite his failure. In this qualitative research work, the researcher applies the concept of 'identity' in diaspora theory in order to study the quest of identity of the main character Willie Chandran. Various journal articles and books in relation to diaspora, identity and Naipaul’s Half a Life have been consulted for the support of this research project. This study will certainly be helpful to the further researchers on the particular text and the diaspora theory.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Study of “Tradition” in Ziauddin Sardar’s “Surviving Postmodernism” and Paul Gilroy’s “Not a Story to Pass On: Living Memory and the Slave Sublime” 2022-11-24T07:47:05+00:00 Rishiram Ghimire <p>This article is concerned with the study of ‘Tradition’ in Ziauddin Sardar’s essay“Surviving Postmodernism (1997)” and Paul Gilroy’s “Not a Story to Pass On: Living Memory and the Slave Sublime (1993)” which discuss on non-Western culture and black cultural production respectively. Both essays have entailed the issue of ‘tradition’ and the problem with tradition in Western society is that being traditional is to become parochial and regressive by ignoring the progress of modernity whereas in the eastern society it is a way of moving ahead protecting cultural values with proper refinement. In this regard, this article purports to excavate the ground of tradition in both societies. The nub of these two essays is that tradition is not the exact opposite of modernity and progress, it is rather a force to bridge past and present in an innovative way and a medium to trace back the history and heritage of any community. Sardar sees power in tradition to survive postmodernism and Gilroy finds tradition in black cultural production a potency to revisit African roots. In both culture, spiritual civilization is the basis of their activities, which inhere force to defuse fragmentation caused by material civilization. The researcher has studied ‘tradition’ as a tool of analyzing the two essays under scrutiny.&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Reading Michael Palin's Himalaya from an Insider's Perspective 2022-11-24T07:56:39+00:00 Toya Nath Upadhyay <p>This study reads Michael Palin's travel text, Himalaya (2004) from a cultural insider's perspective and argues how the author gets trapped into the vestiges of conventional Western outlook upon the non-West. Surfacely and even intentionally, the author appears to keep himself away from such outlook, but it resurfaces frequently in the text and exemplifies how the traditional colonial tendency of stressing superiority keeps lurking in the Western travel writers' texts. The author makes a trip across seven nations in 2003 but as a resident of Nepal I focus my analysis on his travel in Nepal. For the analytic purpose, the study borrows conceptual insights from scholars in travel writing genre such as Carl Thompson, Robert Clarke and Debbie Lisle. Terms related to colonial discourse theory will be heavily used.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Gurungs and Their Lhosar Festival 2022-11-24T08:03:28+00:00 Dol Raj Kafle <p>This study makes an attempt to trace the history and identity of the Gurungs who have been living, most densely in the districts of Gandaki province. In order to provide clear information about the physical constitution, the nature of the race belonging to this ethnic group has also been discussed. The study also tries to explore some aspects of Gurungs identity, particularly their identity as indigenous and ethnic people of Nepal given the fact that the Gurungs have been living in Nepal since ancient times. In doing so, the study delves deeper into the Gurung tradition of celebrating Lhosar festival as a New Year, exploring its origin and development. The objective of this study is to clarify what race the Gurungs belong to, where and when they entered Nepal and how it is linked with the way they celebrate the Lhosar festival. The major finding of the study is that the Gurungs are of Mongol race, who entered into Nepal from Tibet in ancient times and among the various Lhosars celebrated in Nepal, Tola Lhosar is celebrated by the Gurungs. </p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Variations of Initial Shape of Deflection of a Stretched String 2022-11-24T08:15:37+00:00 Puskar R. Pokhrel <p>In this paper, One-dimensional wave equation is formulated by applying the Newton’s second law of motion. Employing the one dimensional wave equation, speeds of decay of vibration deflection distribution in initially triangular shape of a string stretched at both ends are analyzed. Eigenfunction and the corresponding Eigenvalues with the various inclination of initial position of the string are found. The frequencies of the vibrations are analyzed from the Eigenvalues and Eigenfunction with different mass of the string. The initially triangular shape string is varied for analyzing the deflection of the string. The deflection of a string distribution withm different initial triangular shape positions of the string is analyzed. Finite difference method is applied to find the deflection distribution numerically. Deflections of the string with the different mass and tension forces in the different time interval are observed.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dalit Community, Political Paradox and Problems of Rural Development 2022-11-24T08:20:20+00:00 Kripa Ram Bishwakarma <p>This paper argues that the excluded communities of south Asian continent are not conscious of their basic human rights, they usually face several sorts of discriminations from their companions. The conventional politics of Nepal has not focused to their upliftment despite the state has prioritized structurally. Even the investment of abundance state capital and narratives for development could not transform livelihood of rural strata. It aims to explore the existing condition of the excluded and marginalized communities, describe contemporary development comprehension and evaluation of the dynamic contributions from the political forces in context of the rural development. The political forces, in the name of facilitating the development process for comprehensive wellbeing of citizens, have grasped politics as a tool for opportunities multiplier for their extensive vested pursuits. Politics is reliable force for structural transformation of a society that enhances citizens' sovereign thought, but the political performance in Nepal is questionable. It discloses that the excluded communities are beyond the access of contemporary development and political participation because of paradigmatic complexities. The data were accumulated from primary as well as the secondary sources, personal communication, participant observation and focus group discussions. It explains development is not a mere installation of physical infrastructure to facilitate society; it is the conglomeration of attitude, thought and perfect demeanor and it is significant for the inquisitive individuals as it disseminates enriched notions. Ultimately, it influences as the milestones for structural changes in the rural society of Nepal where modern amenities are in short. </p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Economic Dimension and Empowerment among Rural and Urban Women in Nepal: Analysis from 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2022-11-24T08:27:33+00:00 Rita Devi Karki Naba Raj Thapa <p>Economic background is taken as one of the crucial influencing factors of women's empowerment. This paper attempts to assess the key economic features of women and their degree of association on empowerment by place of residence. For this, the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2016 data were used. In total, 9,875 currently married women aged 15-49 years were used to analyze by applying descriptive and bivariate analysis techniques. The findings showed rural women have poor economic status compared with urban women. Agriculture is the main profession of women among both rural and urban areas but the non-agricultural profession is lower especially among rural (11.7%) women to compare with urban (24.6%) women. Similarly, unpaid work seems still prevalent in both urban (46.6%) and rural (59.6%) areas. The male domination is clearly observed in earning a position with their husband, being paid in the same job, and ownership of property related to land and house. The study showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between working women and their empowerment in both rural and urban areas. The better economic status of women has higher empowerment in comparison to the women who have poor status. Hence, economic power has an automatically positive influence on women's empowerment. However, it needs to be paid high attention to improve the prevailing poor women’s economic status in different circumstances. </p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Description of Cultural Factors Related to Comprehensive Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Women in Nepal 2022-11-24T08:36:47+00:00 Uddhav Sigdel <p>This research paper has analyzed the individual and cultural factors related to comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission. Secondary and primary data are used to identify the individual and cultural factors of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS among women in Nepal. Secondary source of quantitative data is based on NDHS, 2011 and 2016 whereas qualitative data collected from Nam Nagar of Naalparasi (Susta West) district. The total sample size of NDHS 2011 (N=12674) and 2016 (N=12862) are large and nationally representative. The study reveals that only 20 percent of women have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The individual cultural factor such as native language of women[OR= 3.34 (2.21-5.05) in 2011 and OR= 1.47 (1.01-2.13) in 2016] and ethnicity[OR= 1.90 (0.90-3.96) in 2011 and OR=1.74 (1.10-2.74) in 2016] are the influential factors for comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Beside these, socially constructed knowledge of HIV/AIDS has been determining the misconception of HIV transmission. The lower level of comprehensive knowledge is trigger by the cross-cultural context of women in Nepal.&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Agricultural Land Intensification Practices in Nawalparasi District (West) 2022-11-24T08:42:58+00:00 Bhola Nath Dhakal <p>Land intensification is the process whereby land use activity is delicate through increasing yield per unit area and by crop intensification. The present study has examined the agricultural land intensification practices in different parts of Nawalparasi District. This study has used primary and secondary data. Primary data has been produced from household survey, focus group discussion, and key informant interview and field observation. Furthermore, published and unpublished reports such as profiles, annual progress reports, research articles, maps and images have been used to create secondary data. It is observed that farmers have practiced to cultivate many crops than the past to increase production even in the same area of land, changing crop and varieties within the particular crop and priority has been given to market oriented production of agricultural commodities like vegetables, livestock rising and diary product, poultry farming, and bee-keeping activities. </p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 नेपालको राजनीतिमा कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी र बहुमतको सरकार 2022-11-24T08:50:06+00:00 ढाकाराम सापकोटा <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा नेपालको राजनीतिमा कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी र बहुमतको सरकारसम्बन्धी विषयलाई अनुसन्धनात्मक स्वरूपमा राखिएको छ । यसका निम्ति नेपालको राजनीतिक श्रृङ्खलामा आएका कम्युनिष्ट पार्टीहरूको उल्लेख गरिएको छ । कम्युनिष्ट पार्टीको बहुमतको सरकार निर्माण भएका विविध अवस्थालाई निक्र्यौल गर्नु यस आलेखको उद्देश्य हो । यसमा कम्युनिष्ट पार्टीको बहुमतको सरकार बन्ने कारक पक्षहरू के कस्ता रहेका छन् भन्ने सन्देशलाई शोधात्मक समस्या रहेको छ । आलेखमा प्रयोग भएका सामग्रीहरू पुस्तकालयीय स्रोतबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको&nbsp; &nbsp;छ । विश्लेषणात्मक ढाँचा र एपिए शैलीको प्रयोग गरी लेखलाई सम्पन्न गरिएको छ । ऐतिहासिक घटना र तथ्यका आधारमा कम्युनिष्ट पार्टीको बुहमतको सरकार बन्ने अवस्था रहेको साथै विभाजित भएर त्यसको असर परेको निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत आलेखबाट प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 नेपाली गीतमा प्रतिनिधित्व र पहिचान 2022-11-24T09:05:04+00:00 गीता थपलिया त्रिपाठी <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा नेपाली गीतमा अभिव्यक्त सीमान्तीय प्रतिध्वनिलाई प्रतिनिधित्व र पहिचानका मान्यतामा आधारित भएर विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सीमान्तीय अध्ययन सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनको एउटा महत्त्वपूर्ण सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणा हो । यसले इतिहासलाई समाजको तल्लो वर्गका आधारबाट हेरिनुपर्छ भन्ने सैद्धान्तिक मान्यता राखेको छ । प्रतिनिधित्व, पहिचान, उत्पीडन र प्रतिरोध सीमान्तीय विश्लेषणका पर्याधार हुन् । यस अध्ययनमा नेपाली गीतमा प्रकट भएका वर्गीय, जातीय र लैङ्गिक स्थितिलाई प्रतिनिधित्व र पहिचानका आधारमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यसका लागि आधुनिक नेपाली गीतका स्रष्टा लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटादेखि खुसीराम पाख्रिनसम्मका गीतहरूको अध्ययन गरी साक्ष्य लिइएको छ । ती साक्ष्यलाई पाठपरक विश्लेषण विधिका आधारमा अध्ययन तथा मूल्याङ्कन गरिएको छ । यसबाट नेपाली गीतमा वर्गीय, जातीय र लैङ्गिक प्रतिनिधित्व र पहिचानसम्बन्धी चिन्तन प्रखर रूपमा प्रकट भएको निष्कर्ष प्राप्त भएको छ ।&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोजनपरक भेद 2022-11-24T09:12:05+00:00 यज्ञेश्वर निरौला <p>नेपाली भाषाका प्रायः सबै वक्ताले सामान्य बोलचाल र लेखपढका काममा प्रयोगमा ल्याउने नेपाली भाषाको भेद नै सामान्य नेपाली हो तर ज्ञानविज्ञान र प्रविधिका साथै सञ्चार, कानुन, साहित्य, दर्शन, राजनीति, कृषि, प्रशासन, व्यापार वाणिज्य आदि नेपाली भाषाका विशिष्ट क्षेत्रमा प्रयोग गरिने भाषिक भेदलाई प्रयोजनपरक नेपाली भनिन्छ । विषयगत रूपमा प्रयोग हुने प्राविधिक तथा पारिभाषिक शब्द शब्दावली, वाक्य गठन, प्रस्तुतिको शैली आदिबाट भाषाका भेद छुट्टिँदै जाने क्रममा भाषाका प्रयोजनपरक भेदको जन्म हुन्छ । मानिसले जीविकोपार्जनका निम्ति गर्नुपर्ने कुनै न कुनै कामका आधारमा समाजमा बसोबास गर्ने सबै मानिसहरूको कार्य क्षेत्र एकै खालको हुँदैन । भिन्न भिन्न कार्यक्षेत्रका व्यक्तिहरूले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषाको प्रयोजनअनुसार शैलीमा फरक हुने गर्दछ । प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा नेपाली भाषामा केकस्ता प्रयोजनपरक भेद रहेका छन् भन्ने बारेमा चर्चा गरिएको छ । यस क्रममा प्रयोजनपरक भाषिक भेदको सैद्धान्तिक ढाँचा प्रस्तुत गर्दै नेपाली भाषामा पाइने प्रयोजनपरक भेदको परिचय दिई विश्लेषण गर्नु यस लेखको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यही उद्देश्य प्राप्तिका लागि पुस्तकालय पद्धतिबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको सामग्रीलाई विश्लेषण गरी यस लेखमा नेपाली भाषामा रहेका प्रयोजनपरक भेदहरूको निरूपण गरिएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 पिकदूत खण्डकाव्यमा ध्वन्यात्मक सौन्दर्य 2022-11-24T09:19:39+00:00 विनोद कार्की <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा पिकदूत खण्डकाव्यमा ध्वन्यात्मक सौन्दर्यको अवस्था कस्तो रहेको छ भन्ने मूल जिज्ञासा उठाई विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसका लागि संस्कृत काव्यशास्त्र अन्तर्गत आनन्दवद्र्धनको ध्वनिवादी सौन्दर्यका आश्रयगत र स्वरूपगत स्थापित मान्यतालाई काव्य विवेचनाको आधार बनाइएको छ । यस गुणात्मक अध्ययनले समालोचनामा ध्वन्यात्मक सौन्दर्यको अवस्था पहिचान गर्ने कार्यलाई सहयोग पु¥याउनेछ । यस लेखमा पुस्तकालयीय विधि बमोजिम मोतीराम भट्टको पिकदूत खण्डकाव्यलाई प्राथमिक स्रोत सामग्री र सौन्दर्य चिन्तनसँग सम्बद्ध जानकारीमूलक समालोचनाहरूलाई द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा उपयोग गरिएको छ । विश्लेषण गर्दा निगमनात्मक विधिलाई स्वीकार गरिएको छ । पिकदूत खण्डकाव्यमा प्रेमी प्रेमिका अर्थात् पति पत्नीको विछोडमा पक्षीले सन्देश पु¥याई दिइएको सन्दर्भलाई चित्रण गर्ने क्रममा कोसिस गरेमा र धैर्य गर्न सकेमा मिलन सम्भव छ भन्ने काव्यको संयोगान्त सन्देशमा आश्रयगत अनि स्वरूपगत ध्वनिको प्रयोगले काव्य रमणीय तथा शोभनीय छ भन्ने ध्वन्यात्मक सौन्दर्यमा आधारित निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 लङ्गडाको साथी उपन्यासमा क्षण 2022-11-24T09:26:40+00:00 हरिप्रसाद सिलवाल <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेख उपन्यासकार लैनसिंह बाङदेलद्वारा रचिएको लङ्गडाको साथी उपन्यासमा व्यक्त समाजशास्त्रीय पक्षहरूको विश्लेषणमा आधारित रहेको छ । यसनिम्ति पश्चिमी विद्वान् हिप्पोलाइट तेनको साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तको उपयोग गरिएको छ । यसमा लङ्गडाको साथी उपन्यासमा प्रयुक्त क्षणगत अनुभूतिको अभिव्यञ्जनालाई शोध समस्याका रूपमा लिइएको छ । क्षणका मान्यता साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तअन्तर्गत रहेको एक महत्त्वपूर्ण पक्ष हो । लङ्गडाको साथी उपन्यासमा क्षणको अभिव्यक्ति के कसरी प्रकट भएको छ भन्ने प्राज्ञिक समस्याको निरूपण गर्नु प्रस्तुत आलेखको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान तथा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको यस लेखमा पुस्तकालयीय स्रोतअन्तर्गत रही लङ्गडाको साथी उपन्यासलाई प्राथमिक साम्रगी र सम्बद्ध रहेका अन्य सामग्रीलाई द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा प्रयोग गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत आलेखमा उक्त उपन्यासमा निहित क्षणको निक्र्योल गरिएको छ । यस आलेखमा सामाजिक यथार्थका सापेक्षतामा तत्कालीन समाजमा मानवीय सद्भाव र युगचेतना ह्रासोन्मुख एवं कमजोर बनेको औपन्यासिक अभिव्यञ्जना लङ्गडाको साथी उपन्यासमा प्रकट भएको मूल प्राप्ति प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022