HISAN: Journal of History Association of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan <p>HISAN: Journal of History Association of Nepal is the official multidisciplinary Research, Peer-Reviewed Journal of the History Association of Nepal. It has been publishing articles of the concerned faculty researchers annually.</p> History Assocation of Nepal en-US HISAN: Journal of History Association of Nepal 2091-2900 Serpent Culture in Nepalese Society https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53062 <p>Serpent culture is found in many religions and cultural groups across the world from time immemorial in different forms, i.e. art, festivals, and worship, due to religious and ecological diversities. It is associated with water, earth, trees, longevity, fertility, and is considered a killer, protector, or both. This article explains the culture related to serpents found in Nepal, especially the Maithili and Tharu people of Terai. This article explains the serpent culture of Nepalese terai. The emic view of serpent belief and practices is supported by etic perception during the collection and analysis of data. It is found that serpent culture denotes the belief system, gender role, leadership practices, social bonding, art skills, understanding of nature and natural objects, human desire, cosmology, and above all, it is the system of preservation of tangible and intangible culture.</p> Apar Kumar Lamsal Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 1 4 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53062 Role and Contribution of Pokhara's Civil Society in the People's Movement of 2005/2006 https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53063 <p>The people of Nepal have made numerous sacrifices and engaged in various democratic movements and armed conflicts in order to achieve democracy in the country. These efforts have been successful, and Nepal is now a federal democratic republic. In the past, Nepal was ruled by a centralized monarchy, but this changed in 1950 with the Movement for democracy. However, the elected Nepali Congress government was not able to effectively address the people's needs, and King Mahendra's ambition led to the implementation of the autocratic Panchayat system in 1990. This system was eventually replaced with a multi-party democracy and constitutional monarchy in 1990, but the people were dissatisfied with the parties' governing style and the 2001 Royal massacre and King Gyanendra's ambition led to the country being ruled directly by the King. The Maoist insurgency fought for the political rights and socio-economic uplift of the people, but it was the 2005/2006 civilian movement, led by civil society, that had the greatest impact on the country. This research studies the role and contribution of Pokhara's civil society in the 19-day movement of 2006, which aimed to bring about political change and overthrow the autocracy, and its impact on Nepal.</p> Arjun Bahadur Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 5 13 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53063 Rural Tourism in Nepal: Opportunity and Challenges https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53064 <p>This study is focused on rural tourism in Nepal, including its opportunities and challenges. Rural areas, where the majority of Nepal's population resides, have the potential to attract tourists and contribute to the country's economic development. Involving the local people or villagers in the tourism industry can also increase the value of local products, culture, and traditions. However, there are also negative impacts of tourism on society, and it is important to carefully manage the industry to ensure a bright future for tourism in Nepal. The objective of this study is to examine the opportunities and challenges of rural tourism in Nepal.</p> Dol Raj Kafle Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 14 23 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53064 India-Nepal Relation From Nation-Building Perspectives https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53065 <p>Nepal is a landlocked country with a unique national history and geopolitical location between two giant neighbors, India and China. Its relationship with these two nations has had a significant impact on the process of nation-building in Nepal. This article discusses the influence of the changing relationship between Nepal and India on various dimensions of nation-building, using the conceptual framework of Saunders' Research Onion Peeled Method and Harris Mylona and Stein Rokkan's theory of nation-building. The study uses a qualitative approach with phenomenology and historical methods to examine the trends of nation-building around the world and the paradigms of nation-building in Nepal during various periods of its history, including the unification period, the aftermath of the Anglo-Nepal War, the Rana Regime, the Monarchical period, and the aftermath of the end of the monarchy. The research found that internal and external forces, such as globalization and industrialization, as well as geopolitical developments, have had an impact on state nation-building in Nepal.</p> Gopal Bahadur Karki Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 24 37 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53065 Implications of Geopolitics in International Diplomacy https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53066 <p>Almost all the nations in the world by virtue of their sovereignty, independence and feeling of nationalism tend to capitalize their potentialities for the benefits of their nations, citizens, economy and boost up production and power in the global context, respecting the territorial integrity and independence for the co-existence and sustainability. Each nation at the utmost level ponders over their wellbeing of its people and hegemony in the international political trauma either for economic, political, social, political or commercial gains. The Russia-Ukraine conflict and the doomed relation that developed between China and Taiwan in the international relationship is the dirty politics engraving the international peace and prosperity in the world. The foul game played by the power-hungry nations to the dominated and weak nations ate internationally condemned which is against the international laws in diplomatic procedure.</p> Gunanath Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 38 42 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53066 Girls Education in Nepal: History, Challenging factors and Promoting Factors https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53068 <p>This study attempts to explore girls’ education history, challenging factors and promoting factors in. Similarly, it has raised the questions in girls' education like how they are getting education .in different type d socio-cultural values and norms. Therefore, government made many efforts to create girls friendly environment in schools but it has not been achieved as we have targeted. So, how the parents' biased mentality and socio-cultural mind hampers the girls’ education is the major concerning part of this study. It is found that some school and household related factors promote girls’ education. It is based on field data generated through interaction with participants.</p> Hikamat Bahadur Khatri Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 43 50 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53068 Decentralized School Management in Government Schools in Nepal: Policy for Quality Improvement https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53069 <p>This research article gives a holistic view of the status of school management committee in our country. Education is one of the basic needs of human beings which has brought changes all over the world. Today, we are around the formal schooling system for which school level is the first step. We are also in the hold of globalization of education and social structure for which we have to compete globally for employment. In such situation, the system and management of education should be of global standard. School management has been a kind of burning issue at the present situation in education system. The state has to follow the trends of decentralization of education. But in Nepal, there is fully centralized education system. Due to this reason, it is thought that the state is the only responsible body for overall education sector. The SMC members are not fully authentic bodies in Nepalese schools. They have no more interest about the problems related to school. They are mostly politically related and also there is absence of true guardianship of SMC members. Most of the SMC members' children do not study in public schools but they are selected with political sources. As a whole school management committee has not supported for the improvement of teaching learning activities. They have no any plan to raise funds and support the school. Most of the children in public schools are also from lower class people. The guardians also cannot support their children by providing necessary things. As a consequence, the SLC result of public schools is very poor except some rare cases. SMC members are not found capable of taking management responsibility of schools. The state also has not fixed any criteria to become SMC members. This research study has found clear obstacle in education system of the politicalized group in management sector. Political interference should not be given emphasis and priority in education sector. Moreover, politics in education sector should be strongly discouraged to make public sector responsible towards school management in public schools in Nepal. This research study tries to reply the research question “What type of management at schools should be developed to improve the quality of education?” The general objective of this study is to analyse the overall status of the school management committee (SMC) in public schools in Nepal.</p> Janardan Paudel Anil Kumar Pokharel Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 51 59 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53069 Nepalese and Indian Foreign Policy and International Relations https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53070 <p>The relationship between and among the foreign political units of the world waite since the establishment of modern state system (1648 Westphalia treaty). With the development of science and technology (sophisticated arms, means of transportation and communication) international relation has been highly complex. Likewise, modernism also has dragged international relation towards vagueness. International relations is a phenomena emerged with the creation of nation states. The development of nation states itself was a logical corollary to the growth of capitalism. Capitalism created larger territories which was basically due to expanding markets. Capitalism not only to the emergence of Nation-state but to colonialism as well. Therefore, international relations, till the end of world war II, was not between sovereign equal nations but most often between colonial power which were European and their colonies. To study international relations, colonization and decolonization theory, idealist school, realist school, liberalist school and geopolitical theory etc. are commonly used. While talking about foreign policy of Nepal and India, we find similarities i.e. NAM, panchasheela, respect to international law/organization etc, but Indian foreign policy practice towards Nepal is quite different than its theories.</p> Jant Raj Karky Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 60 66 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53070 Mustang where civilization flourished https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53076 <p>Mustang is one of the Trans-Himalayan districts of western Nepal, famous for its biodiversity, geology, prehistoric caves and cultural uniqueness. Geographically, it is divided into Upper and Lower Mustang. The area north of Kagbeni is Upper Mustang or Lo-Tsho Dun which consists Lomanthang, Charang, Dhee, Surkhang, Yara Ghara, Tangya, Dhey, Ghemi, Dhakmar, Marang, Ghiling, Chonup and Chhoser and south area of Kagbeni is called Serib (Bara Gaun) which consists of Lupra, Kagbeni, Khinga, Jharkot, Muktinath, Dzong, Tangbe, Chhuksang, Tetang, Tsaile, Ghyakar, Samar. In the south is the area of Thak Saatsae, which literally means seven hundred houses, which comprised of the villages of Ghasa, Lete, Kalopani, Taglung, Kunjo, Larjung, Kobang, Naurikot, Khanti, Tukuche. Culturally, this area is dominated by the Thakalis. The Panch Gaun is comprised of Chimang, Chairo, Marpha, Syang and Thini. The Kaligandaki River flows from the Tibetan Plateau, cutting through Himalayas and ends up flowing into the Ganges of northern India. While flowing between the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri massifs, the Kaligandaki forms the deepest river valley in the world. It is the only river where Shaligram or ammonite is found. Ammonite is considered as a fossil of the Tethys Sea. Mustang was a famous salt route through north to south trade. There are many abandoned settlement ruins like Ghemi, where exploration and excavation is necessary.</p> Prakash Darnal Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 67 78 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53076 Tradition, Political and Legal Systems of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53077 <p>This study concerns the political system, and traditional rituals practiced in Nepal. It focuses on the analysis of the unique relationship between the political system and tradition in Nepal. The Nepali legal system is based on customary law. Nepali society is largely based on the traditional framework. Perhaps all societies have been developing their social norms. Britain, which is considered the mother of democracy, has been operating its governing system according to tradition. In this way, no one would deny that the state or society is progressing in its way or pattern. In that way, I have conceptualized tradition as trends that have been practiced for a long time or accepted by people. Ancient civilizations, be those Atheinns or India, have been bound in some tradition. This study is focused on what traditions are maintained in the political and legal systems in Nepal, and how those traditional rituals have influenced today’s political system of Nepal. As a library study, it is purely qualitative in nature, and it has descriptively analyzed the secondary materials from the Middle Age to the present day.</p> Tara Nath Ghimire Shyam Prasad Phuyel Copyright (c) 2022 History Association of Nepal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 79 87 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53077 नेपालमा खश आगमन र सिञ्जा राजधानी : एक अध्ययन {Khash arrival and Sinja Capital in Nepal: A study} https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53083 <p>प्रागऐतिहासिक कालमा नै नेपालमा खश जातिको उपस्थिति पाइन्छ । खश जाति मात्र नभएर महाजाति हो । युरोपका विभिन्न भूभागमा साम्राज्य कायम गर्दै एशियाका विभिन्न भूभागमा साम्राज्य फैलाएर लामो समयसम्म राज्य गरेको पाईन्छ । विभिन्न भौगोलिक, राजनैतिक, जैविक विविधताका कारण बसाई सर्दै भारतको काश्मिर हुँदै कुमाउ गढवाल क्षेत्रलाई आफ्नो कब्जामा लिई शासन गर्दै नेपालमा आएको मुख्य जाति मध्ये एक हो । खश जाति नेपालमा एकैचोटी र एकै स्थानबाट प्रवेश गरेको पाईदैन । यी जातिहरू विभिन्न स्थान र समयमा आएको जातिको रूपमा पाइन्छ । पाँचौ शताब्दीतिर खशहरूको प्रवेश नेपालमा बढी तीब्रताकासाथ भएको थियो । भारतका गुप्तहरूबाट राज्य विस्तार गर्ने क्रममा खशहरू लखेटिए । खश जातिहरूको ठूलो समूह उत्तरतर्फ लागे । त्यही जातजातिहरू कुमाउँगढवाल र तिब्बतको यारी, ताक्लाफर, गेला प्रदेश हुँदै तिब्बतबाट फर्केका शासकहरूले नेपालमा एघारौं शताब्दीमा खश साम्राज्य खडा गरेपछि खश जातिको शासकको रुपमा उदय भएको हो । पश्चिम नेपालमा खश मल्ल तथा दक्षिणमा मिथिला कर्नाटक वंशीयहरूका त्रिशक्ति सन्सतुलनको अवस्था मधययुगमा बन्न पुगेको पाइन्छ । यसपछि नै खशहरूले नेपालको राजनीति, आर्थिक, सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, भाषा र धर्ममा समेत महत्वपूर्ण प्रभाव पारेको थियो । कर्णाली प्रदेशको नामले चिनिएको जुम्ला राज्य अन्तर्गत पर्ने सिञ्जा तत्कालीन समयमा राजधानीले विशेष महत्व रहेको पाईन्छ । कर्णाली प्रदेशका बाइसी राज्यहरूमा खास गरी सिञ्जा राज्यले नेपालको समष्टिगत रुपमा बृहत इतिहास दर्शाउँदै खस भाषा र संस्कृतिले नेपालको धार्मिक र सांस्कृतिक क्षेत्रमा महत्वपूर्ण स्थान ओगटेको छ ।</p> केशवप्रसाद Keshavprasad निरौला Niraula Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 88 93 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53083 सामाजिक–सांस्कृतिक समन्वयको केन्द्र : छिन्ताङ जाल्पादेवी (अन्वेषणात्मक ऐतिहासिक अध्ययन) {Center for Socio-Cultural Coordination: Chintang Jalpadevi (Exploratory Historical Studies)} https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53084 <p>ऐतिहासिक कालखण्डदेखि नै आफ्नो मौलिक पहिचान र प्रसिद्धिको शिखरमा रहेको धनकुटा सुन्दरतम, आकर्षकीय प्राकृतिक छटाहरूको कारण निकै महत्वपूर्ण मनोरम् जिल्ला मानिन्छ । महाभारत पर्वतीय शृंखलाको उत्तरी भागमा अवस्थित धनकुटालाई तेह्रथुम, पाँचथर, भोजपुर, उदयपुर, संखुवासभा, मोरङ र सुनसरी जिल्लाहरूले स्पर्श गरेका छन् । यसको केही सीमित क्षेत्रलाई शिवालिक पर्वतीय शृंखलाले पनि छोएको छ । धनकुटाबाट लगभग २४ कि.मी पश्चिम–दक्षिण दिशामा छिन्ताङ गाउँपालिका पर्दछ । यस जिल्लामा रहेका ३५ वटा गाउँपालिकाहरूमध्ये ‘छिन्ताङ’ सबैभन्दा ठूलो र पैmलहर क्षेत्रमा अवस्थित छ । यस अन्तर्गत रहेका ९ वटा वडाहरूमध्ये १ , २ र ३ वडाहरूको करिब करिब मध्येभागमा रहेको घना जंगलभित्र ‘जाल्पादेवी’कोमन्दिर स्थापित छ; जसको निकै ठूलो ऐतिहासिक महत्व रहेको छ । त्यहाँको सामाजिक परिवेश, धार्मिक–सांस्कृतिक सहिष्णुता, राजनतिक च ै ेतना, शैक्षिक जागरण, आर्थिक विविधीकरण जस्ता बहुआयामिक सन्दर्भहरूले गर्दा नेपालको पूर्वी भागमा मात्र यसको लोकप्रियता बढोत्तरी नभएर राष्ट्रिय तथा अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय क्षेत्रमा समेत यसको ख्याति र प्रसिद्धि अभिवृद्धि भइरहेको देखिन्छ । ‘छिन्ताङ–जाल्पादेवी’ को यो पावन भूमि बहुजातीय, बहुधार्मिक, बहुसांस्कृतिक एवं बहुभाषिक विशिष्टताले ओतप्रोत छ । भौगोलिक अवस्थिति कठिनग्रस्त भए तापनि सामाजिक विविधताले गर्दा यस क्षेत्रको पहिचान फराकिलो बन्दै गएको छ । आवागमनका अनेकन कठिनाई, उकाली–ओराली, प्रशस्त विघ्नवाधाहरू लगायतका विविध विषमताहरूका बीच पनि छिन्ताङ–जाल्पादेवीको पुण्य–प्रताप र प्रभावशालिताले गर्दा देश–देशाटनमा सामाजिक सद्भाव, सहिष्णुता तथा समन्वयात्मक भाव विस्तार गर्दै पारस्परिक सौहार्दता अभिवृद्धि गर्न बहुकोणीय दृष्टिबाट महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निर्वाह गरिरहेको देखिन्छ l</p> जगतप्रसाद Jagatprasad पराजुली Parajuli Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 94 109 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53084 मध्यकालीन लमजुङ राज्यको अस्तित्वभित्र गृष्मकालीन दरबार : पुरानकोटगढी {A summer palace within the existence of the medieval Lamjung kingdom: Purankotgarhi} https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53088 <p>लमजुङमा शाह खलकका पुर्खाहरू कालु शाहसमेत गरेर यशोब्रह्म, नरहरी, चूडा, नरेन्द्र, भीम (दशिवन्त) अचिन्द्र, केहरीनारायण, रिपुमर्दन र वीरमर्दन नामक शाह राजाहरूले झण्डै ३ सय वर्ष शासन गरे । कुसुमाकर घिमिरेकोपहलमा दुरा जातिको सहयोग लिएर गुरुङ, मगर र घिमिरेहरूको समर्थनमा लमजुङको मुख्य रजस्थल गाउँशहर, शीतकालीन बेसीशहर र गृष्मकालीन पुरानकोट राजधानीको अतिरिक्त राइनासकोट, तार्कुकोट, तान्द्राङकोट, बजारकोट, जिताकोट, याङ्जाकोट, तुर्लुङकोट र पुरानकोटमा सैनिक टुकडीहरू राखिएका थिए । लमजुङका घलेराजाको विरुद्धमा दुरा जातिका पुर्खाहरूलाई आफ्नो बशमा लिइ कास्कीका राजा कुलमण्डन शाहका माइला छोरा कालु शाह र कान्छा छोरा यशोब्रह्म शाहलाई ल्याएर लमजुङको पहिले तुर्लुङकोट र पछि पुरानकोटमा राजा बनाउने भूमिकाको अग्रज घिमिरेबन्धुका जिजु कुसुमाकर घिमिरे थिए । लमजुङ विशाल नेपालमा विलय हुँदा गोरखाली सेनासँग तार्कुघाटमा वि.सं. १८३९ को वर्ष घमशान युद्ध भयो । गोरखाको नेतृत्वमा लमजुङ राज्यको विलय विशाल नेपाल राज्यमा भएपश्चात् कैयौं राजकीय विशेषताहरू लमजुङबाट नेपालमा हस्तान्तरण भएको छ । यहाँ लमजुङ राज्यको तुर्लुङ्गकोटपछिको दोस्रो रजस्थल सामरिक दृष्टिले महत्वपूर्ण पुरानकोट गढी एवं किल्लाको सन्दर्भमा विशेष चर्चा गर्नु यस लेखको मुख्य ध्येय रहेको छ । यसको अतिरिक्त लमजुङका ऐतिहासिक, पुरातात्विक तथा पर्यटकीयस्थलहरू र मध्यकालीन लमजुङ राज्यका उपरोक्त रजस्थलहरूसहितका सैनिक टुकडीहरूको उल्लेख गरी पुरानकोटगढी, काउलेपानी, गाउँशहर रजस्थलका सन्दर्भमा व्याख्या विश्लेषण गर्दै गृष्मकालीन पुरानकोट दरबारकोसम्बन्धमा चर्चा गर्नु यस लेखको मुख्य सार रहेको छ ।</p> बमबहादुर Bambahadur अधिकारी Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 110 122 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53088 पाल्पा, तानसेन क्षेत्रमा बौद्ध–धर्मको ऐतिहासिक विकास र वर्तमान अवस्था :एक अध्ययन {Historical Development and Current Status of Buddhism in Palpa, Tansen Region: A Study} https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53090 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख पश्चिम नेपालको पाल्पा जिल्लामा बसोबास गर्ने बौद्ध धर्मावलम्बी, उनीहरुको ऐतिहासिक विकास र पाल्पा क्षेत्रको परिचयमा आधारित रहेको छ । पाल्पा जिल्लामा मध्यकालमा एक निकै प्रसिद्ध र शक्तिशाली राज्य रहेको थियो । नेपाल एकीकरण पछि त्यो राज्य नेपालमा समाहित भएको थियो । पाल्पा क्षेत्र मगर जातिका मानिसहरुको बाहुल्यता रहेका क्षेत्र हो । तर यस जिल्लाको सदरमुकामा भने नेवार जातिका मानिसहरुको संख्या सबैभन्दा बढी रहेको छ । यस क्षेत्रमा बसोबास गर्ने धेरैजसो मानिसहरु बौद्ध धर्म मान्ने गर्दछन् । यो जिल्ला पर्यटकीय दृष्टिले समेत निकै महत्वको रहेको छ । पाल्पा जिल्ला ढाका टोपी, करुवा जस्ता परम्परागत नेपाली उत्पादनको केन्द्रसमेत रहेको हुँदा यसको महत्व छुट्टै रहेको छ । लेखको उद्देश्य पाल्पा जिल्ला, त्यस जिल्लामा बसोबास गर्ने बौद्धमार्गी र उनीहरुको ऐतिहासिक विकासका बारेमा प्रस्ट पार्नु रहेको छ ।</p> सौन्दर्यवती Saundaryavati शाक्य Shakya Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 123 126 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53090 मधेसी संस्कृति र यसको सामाजिक रूपान्तरण {Madhesi culture and its social transformation} https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53095 <p>प्राचीनकालको मध्यदेशको अवशेषमाथि काशी, कोशल, विदेह, अंग, बज्जि आदि सोलह महाजनपदहरु स्थापित भए । यसले छुट्टै छाप छोडे । त्यसैगरी भारतमा मुसलमान र इसाईहरुको प्रवेशसँगै मधेसलाई कहिले मुस्लिम शासन त कहिले अंग्रेजी शासनमा बस्नुपयो । यी विभिन्न राज्य र शासनहरुले आ–आफ्नो प्रभाव पार्दै गए । आज नेपाल र भारतबिच विभाजित मधेसलाई भारतीयहरूले हिन्दुस्तानी आवरण दिएर पुरानो पहिचान बिर्सिसकेका छन् भने नेपालको दक्षिणी तराई भू–भागमा बसोबास गर्ने मधेसीहरु अझैपनि आफ्नो पुरानो पहिचान र अस्तित्वका लागि संघर्षरत देखिन्छ । संसारमा देखिएको परिवर्तनसँगै यसमा पनि समयानुकूल रुपान्तरण भइरहेको छ । यस परिवर्तनशील युगमा आफ्नो अस्तित्व र मौलिकताको संरक्षण गर्दै परिवर्तनलाई आत्मसात गरी पहिचान कायम राख्ने कार्य निकै चुनौतीपूर्ण रहेको छ । खासगरी आफ्नो भाषा, साहित्य र संस्कृतिमा समृद्ध देखिएपनि नेपाल र भारतबिचको विभाजनले गर्दा कहिं भारतीय आवरण त कहिं नेपाली चोला धारण गर्नुपरेको छ । अतः संस्कृति र विकृतिको पहिचान गरी विकृति हटाई संस्कृतिलाई समय अनुकूल नवीकरण गरी आफ्नो मौलिकता र पहिचान कायम गर्न आवश्यक देखिन्छ ।</p> हिरालाल Heeralal कर्ण Karna Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 127 133 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53095 नेपाल इतिहास सङ्घको आठौं महाधिवेशन (२०७८) प्रसङ्ग {Proceedings of the Eighth Congress of Nepal History Association (2078)} https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53096 <p>इतिहास विगतमा घटेका सत्य तथ्य घटनाहरूको विवरण हो । त्यसैले इतिहासले अतितका सत्य र तथ्यलाई केलाउँदै प्रस्तुत गर्दछ । हिजोको सत्य र तथ्यबाट आज सिक्दै भोलिको लागि सही मार्ग पहिल्याउन इतिहासको अध्ययन जरूरी हुन्छ । हरेक वस्तु र विषयको इतिहास हुन्छ । इतिहास विनाको विषय र वस्तु नै हुँदैन । इतिहासको ज्ञान विना कुनै पनि वस्तु तथा विषयको प्रगति र विकास असंभव हुन्छ, त्यसैले इतिहास मानव जीवन र सजिव निर्जिव वस्तु सबैको अध्ययनको विषय हुनुसक्छ । इतिहासको अध्ययन र विश्लेषण गरेर मात्र अगाडि बढ्नाले मात्र जो कोहीले सफलता प्राप्त गर्दछ । इतिहासबाट पाठ सिकेर अगाडि बढ्ने सङ्घसंस्था राष्ट्रले नै प्रगति र विकास गर्नसक्छ, किनकी यसले पूर्व कार्यको जानकारी गराई अगाडि बढ्न सही र गलत छुट्याउका लागि सहज बनाउँदछ । आजको समाजमा इतिहास विषयको आवश्यकता र औचित्य अझ बढी सावित हुँदै गएको छ । त्यसैले इतिहास विषयका विद्धान्हरूको जमघट, छलफल, आपसी मेलमिलाप, लेखन प्रकाशन, अध्ययन, अनुसन्धान तथा प्राज्ञिक र उन्नयन आदि कार्यलाई अझ बढी सशक्त बनाउनु आजको आवश्यकता हो । इतिहासको संरक्षण र सम्बद्र्धन गर्दै नेपाली समाजलाई सही मार्गमा डोर्याउन र अन्य सरोकारवालाहरूको सल्लाह र सहयोग पुगोस भन्ने उद्देश्यका साथ इतिहास सङ्घको स्थापना भएको हो ।</p> ज्ञानेन्द्र Gyanendra पौड्याल Poudyal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 134 138 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53096 सामाजिक विज्ञानमा अनुसन्धान पद्धति : पुस्तक समीक्षा {Research Methodology in the Social Sciences: A Book Review} https://nepjol.info/index.php/hisan/article/view/53098 <p>प्रस्तुत पुस्तक अनुसन्धान विधिमा आधारित महत्त्वपूर्ण कृतिको रूपमा रहेको छ । यसका कृतिका लेखक डा. जगतप्रसाद पराजुली हुन् । उनले इतिहास, संस्कृति, पुरातत्व, पर्यटन लगायत जनसरोकारका अनेकौँ विधामा कलम चलाएर समाज र मुलुकलाई महत्वपूर्ण गुण लगाएका छन् । प्रस्तुत पुस्तक त्यही पाटोको एउटा ज्वलन्त दृष्टान्त हो । मानवीय क्रियाकलाप, गतिविधि, जीवनसङ्घर्षका अनुभव, त्याग, समर्पण, साहसिक योगदान र महत्वपूर्ण भूमिकालेगर्दा समाज विकासको प्रकृया निरन्तर अगाडि बढ्ने क्रमसँगै अनेकौँ सफलताहरू उपलब्धिका रूपमा प्राप्त भइरहेका छन् । त्यसैले मानव सभ्यता र संस्कृतिको श्रीवृद्धि हुनमा मानवीय क्रियाशीलताको अभूतपूर्व योगदन रहेको छ । समयानुकूल उत्पन्न भएको सोच, आवश्यकता अनुरूप अगाडि बढेको खोजमूलक कार्य, जीवन पद्धतिलाई सरल, सहज र सभ्य तुल्याउने अन्वेषणात्मक आविष्कार र सांस्कृतिक विशिष्टताहरू युगान्तकारी, परिवर्तनगामी र ऐतिहासिक महत्वका विषयहरू बन्न पुगेका छन् । यसको अर्थ सभ्यता र संस्कृतिको उत्थानसँगसँगै मानव मष्तिष्कमा सचेतनाका अनमोल गुणहरू कायम रहेकोले समाज विकासको यात्रा सुगम बन्दै अग्रगमनतर्पm उन्मुख भइरहेको छ । समयसापेक्ष सुधार, प्रगति, विकास र परिवर्तन आउँदै गर्दा मानवीय सङ्घर्षशील योगदानको चर्चा नगरी हुन्न । मानव सभ्यताकोक्रमिक विकास अनुसन्धानकै माध्यमबाट गतिशील भएको तथ्य नकार्न सकिन्न । समाज विकास र मानवकल्याणका गतिविधिमा शोध, खोज तथा अन्वेषणको गहन तथा ऐतिहासिक महत्व रहेको छ । समय–समयका युगान्तकारी परिवर्तनहरू अनुसन्धानकै परिणामद्वारा निस्रित भएका हुन् ।</p> मुरारीकृष्ण Murarikrishna गौतम Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 8 1 139 143 10.3126/hisan.v8i1.53098