Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology 2022-01-14T04:55:47+00:00 Prof. Dhan B. Karki, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>The Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology (HiJOST) is a peer reviewed journal published by the Central Campus of Technology, Tribhuvan University, Dharan, Nepal. It welcomes articles from basic sciences, food sciences and technology, nutrition and dietetics, engineering and medical sciences. Papers relating directly or indirectly to all aspects of these fields are also welcomed. The journal aims to provide a forum for expression of new ideas, as well as exposing the knowledge that can further the understanding of issues and concerns relating to science and technology.</p> Dust Structure Nearby G229-03 2022-01-05T03:18:26+00:00 Hem Shrestha Ajay Kumar Jha Saroj Nepal Aatmaram Tiwari Kamana Bantawa Dhiren Subba Limbu <p>The Sky View Virtual Observatory was used for the systematic search of dust structures within the far-infrared loop G229-03. The source (object) responsible for the formation of the cavity of interest was detected by the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data (SIMBAD) database. The total mass of the loop was 8.50031 × 10<sup>29</sup> kg which is about 0.425 times the mass of the Sun at a distance of 1300 pc. The size of the cavity was 3.67° × 3.6°, whereas its core size was 0.531° × 0.255° located at R.A. (J2000) = 7<sup>h</sup>10<sup>m</sup>0.8<sup>s</sup> and Dec.(J2000) =15<sup>h</sup>55<sup>m</sup>30<sup>s</sup>. The minimum and maximum temperatures were between 20.24 ± 1.16 K and 18.63 ± 1.96 K respectively. In the core region, the average temperature was 19.53 K, approximately equal to Gaussian center 19.267 K with an offset temperature of 0.4 K showing that the core region of the cavity is dynamically stable. The Far-infrared loop was found to be located within a 1° radius around the high-velocity cloud HVC oriented by 45° to the plane of the sky. The inclination angle of the core of the loop was greater than 60° whereas the inclination angle for the larger structure was 13.71°. The Gaussian distribution of temperature was well fitted with the center of 19.267 K which shows that the cavity was in thermal equilibrium and the outer region with offset temperature of about 35 K suggesting that the loop was dynamically unstable possibly due to high-velocity cloud</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Effect of Proteolytic Enzymes (Bromelain and Papain) on Sensory and Chemical Quality of Sukuti (an Indigenous Dried Meat Product of Nepal) 2022-01-05T09:15:28+00:00 Kabindra Bhattarai Suman Lamichhane <p>The present work was undertaken to compare the effect of bromelain and papain on the sensory quality of sukuti (Nepalese indigenous dried buffalo meat). Buffalo lean meat (round cut) was purchased from the local market of Dharan and used for the preparation of sukuti after injection of 10% m/m enzyme (bromelain and papain) solution at the concentration (0-100 mg/L) and resting for 4h followed by drying at 65°C up to the moisture of 5%. The optimized concentration of each enzyme was selected by sensory evaluation based on color, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability. The proximate composition, collagen content, and collagen solubility were studied for two optimized samples with enzyme treatment and control. The best tenderizing effect of papain and bromelain enzyme was found at 40 mg/L and 10 mg/L respectively from the sensory analysis and the sensory attributes for these concentrations were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than other samples. The soluble collagen content increased from 0.44 mg/g tissue in untreated meat to 0.52 for bromelain treated and to 0.98 mg/g for papain treated samples. The collagen solubility for the untreated sample was 4.74% which increases to 7.80% for bromelain and 13.82% for papain-treated samples. The protein content of optimized papain and bromelain treated samples was significantly decreased (p&lt;0.05) from 82.44 to 80.25% and 81.43% respectively for papain and bromelain treated samples. There were no significant changes in fat, ash, and moisture on enzyme treatment.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among the Patients Visiting Sub-Regional Hospital, Dadeldhura, Nepal 2022-01-06T07:47:22+00:00 Madhav Raj Sharma Sohan Jha Pawan Jha Prashant Dahal <p>Intestinal parasitic infections caused by intestinal helminthes and protozoa are the most common human infections endemic throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries including Nepal. This study was conducted to study the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients visiting Sub-Regional Hospital, Dadeldhura, Nepal. Altogether 480 stool samples were collected from April 2017- October 2017. Microscopic examination of stool was done by using formal-ether concentration technique in the Microbiology Laboratory of Sub-Regional Hospital, Dadeldhura Nepal. The overall prevalence rate was found to be 10.625%. The prevalence of parasitic infection was higher in males (52.94%) than in females (47.06%). In the age group below 15 years, the prevalence was found to be higher (52.94 %) than other age groups. Total 6 species of intestinal parasites; 2 (33.33%) were protozoan parasites viz. cysts and trophozoites of Giardia lamblia, and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, and 4 (66.67%) were helminths viz. ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria, Hymenolepis nana, and Ancylostoma duodenale. The infection rate was found to be higher in people taking normal tap water. The study concluded that intestinal protozoan infection is still a public health problem of concern among the people of Dadeldhura. The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection was found to be high in children and low educated groups in Dadeldhura. Thus, health education along with infection management actions and awareness programs for sanitation improvements are required to reduce protozoan infections. </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Effect of Salt Concentration on the Preparation and Quality of Lemon Pickle (Nimki) 2022-01-06T07:19:46+00:00 Anubha Acharya Mahalaxmi Pradhananga <p>The main aim was to study the effect of dry salting (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight) on the quality of lemon pickle. The samples were analyzed for microbial profile (Yeast, mold) and chemical characteristics at 15 days intervals till 90 days and the organoleptic quality of the product was evaluated after 90 days of storage. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA (no blocking) at a 5% level of significance results showed that titratable acidity decreased with storage time till 60 days and remained constant thereafter at all levels of salt concentrations; Vitamin C remained fairly constant at all levels of salt concentrations over the storage periods whereas it decreased steadily during storage in the control sample (i.e. 0%); Mold count was nil at 15 days for all the level of salt except control and 5% concentration and Yeast count increased with storage time regardless of the salt% used in a lemon pickle. The optimized salt concentration for the preservation of lemon was found to be 15% salt which was the best product through sensory evaluation with the least microbial load and having appreciable sensory attributes and good vitamin C retention. </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Associated Risk Factors Among School-going Children of Age 1-5 years in Dharan, Eastern Nepal 2022-01-05T14:25:21+00:00 Dhiren Subba Limbu Samana Shrestha Kamana Bantawa Ramesh Majhi Milan Kharel <p>Intestinal parasitic infections have been a major public health burden of developing countries, especially in children. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in rural areas of Nepal where water, toilets, hygiene, and sanitation facilities are insufficient. This cross-sectional study was carried out from April to September 2019 to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-going children1-5 years of Dharan, Nepal, and to assess the associated risk factors. Stool samples were collected in a clean, dry, screw-capped, and wide-mouthed plastic container, kept in an icebox, and transported to the laboratory. Data relating to different risk factors were collected from the parents of 116 participants using a structured questionnaire. The parasites were identified by using the direct wet mount method and formal-ether concentration method. Pearson’s chi-square test was carried out to establish associations between dependent and independent variables using SPSS version 20, and the test considered a greater than &lt; 0.05% as statistically significant with a 95% confidence level. Out of the 116 stool samples, 9 (7.75%) tested positive for the parasitic infections in which 5 (55.5%) were protozoa and 4 (44.45%) were helminths. The prevalent parasites, were <em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>(23%), <em>Hyamenolepis nana </em>(22%), <em>Giardia lamblia </em>(11%), Hookworm (11%), <em>Entamoeba coli </em>(11%), <em>Ascaris lumbricoides </em>(11%), and Intestinal parasitic infections had a significant association with drinking water, bowel syndrome, bathing habit, toilet facility, and washing hands after toilets (p&lt;0.05). Lack of toilets, poor hygiene, and unsafe drinking water were the main risk factors. Improved hygienic practices, safe drinking water, and the use of latrines could lower the rate of parasitic infections.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Processing Impact on Nutritional, Antinutritional, and Phytochemical of Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum L.) 2022-01-05T15:53:38+00:00 Babita Adhikari Shonu Rai <p>Phytate and tannin are more pronounced antinutrients limiting the nutritional quality of fenugreek. The impact of roasting (130±5°C for 7 minutes), soaking (12 hrs. at room temperature) and germination (72 hrs. at 25°C) on bioactive compounds (polyphenol and antioxidant activity), nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds (phytate and tannin) in Fenugreek were studied. Experimental data were analyzed using the software GenStat 12th Edition. Protein increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) during roasting, soaking, and germination whereas fat decreased significantly. Iron and calcium increased during roasting whereas decreased during soaking and germination. Maximum reduction of phytate (54.55%) and tannin (66.73%) were found when fenugreek seeds were germinated (72 hours). The reduction percentage of antinutrients by soaking (12 hours) and roasting (130±5⁰C for 7 mins) was found to be a lesser effective method compared to germination. All the treatments had a significant (p&lt;0.05) impact on their bioactive components. Phenolic content increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) during roasting, soaking, and germination. Antioxidant activity (IC50=1.28mg dm/ml) was found to be high in the germinated samples as compared to raw, roasted, and soaked samples. Hence, Germination of fenugreek seeds for 72 hours is concluded as the most effective and promising method for the reduction of antinutrients and increasing the nutritional components, phytochemicals, and antioxidant properties.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Quality Attributes and Shelf-Life Estimation of Cassava Flour Incorporated Bakery Product (Biscuit) 2022-01-05T23:59:17+00:00 Sabin Bahadur Khatri Dev Raj Acharya <p>Cassava (Manihotesculentacrantz) is not true cereals are largely grown all over the world. They are very important due to their excellent nutritional contents especially protein, crude fiber, and carbohydrates. Biscuits were prepared by mixing cassava and wheat flour. Six treatments were prepared by adding 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% cassava flour with wheat flour (Sample B, C, D, E, and F respectively) along with controlled treatment of 100% wheat flour (A). The proximate composition of flours was analyzed and prepared biscuits were subjected to sensory evaluation and shelf-life estimation. The obtained data was analyzed statistically by Genstat Discovery Edition 3 (DE3), for Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at a 5% level of significance. Statistical analysis showed that sensory parameters and overall acceptability of 80 parts wheat and 20 parts cassava flour incorporated biscuit was significantly superior to all biscuits formulations. The proximate results of the best product showed that moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, total ash content, and total carbohydrate were found 3.44±0.25%, 13.80±0.33%, 8.13±0.13%, 1.29±0.19%, 2.41±0.06%, and 70.99±0.50 (g/100g) respectively. The shelf life of the best product was estimated by analyzing acid value and moisture content of the product by using three different packaging materials biaxially polypropylene (BOPP), high-density polypropylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP) respectively. The shelf life of the best product (80-20) wheat and cassava flours was found to be satisfactory for 8 weeks. The projected shelf life was found high in polypropylene (PP) and high-density polypropylene (HDPE) for 13.5 and 17.81 weeks for acid value and moisture content respectively. </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Intestinal Parasitosis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Infected Patients from Dharan, Nepal 2022-01-06T00:52:56+00:00 Arjun Ghimire Kishor Rai Hemanta Khanal <p> Intestinal parasitic infestation reflects a health threat with patients living with HIV &amp; Tu-berculosis (TB). Parasitic infections caused by protozoa and helminths are the most com-mon infections worldwide. The present study was done to find out the frequency of intes-tinal parasitosis among HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) patients of Dharan total of 53 samples (&gt;15 years) from HIV seropositive patients and 28 samples (&gt;20years) from TB patients were collected in a clean, dry and capped fitted container and subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination for ova, cyst, adult parasites and or segments of parasites. Stool samples were fixed in a 10% formalin-ether solution. Sedimentation technique, with modified acid-fast (Ziehl-Neelsen) staining method, was performed for opportunistic in-testinal parasites in both patients. Multi-parasitic infection was noted in the study. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 54 (66.67%). This result had shown that the participation of male patients was comparatively higher than female pa-tients. Out of 81 stool samples, 15 (27.78%) <em>G. lamblia</em>, 12(22.22%) <em>E. histolytica</em>, 12 (22.22%) <em>Cryptosporidium parvum</em>, 6 (11.11%), <em>Isospora belli </em>4 (7.40%) <em>Microspridium</em>, 1(1.85%) <em>Blastocystis hominis</em>, 2(3.70%) and <em>Taenia spp</em>, 2(3.70%). To prevent this infec-tion appropriate health education should be given to the patients concerning disease trans-mission, antiparasitic therapy, personal hygiene, and safe drinking water.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Preparation of Whey-Based Banana Beverage and its Quality Evaluation 2022-01-06T05:58:25+00:00 Kunjal Shrestha Abhishek Dahal <p>A value-added functional beverage was formulated utilizing unprocessed whey with excellent nutritional qualities and bland flavors; along with banana juice and the required amount of sugar. Five different formulations were prepared with varying proportions of whey, banana juice, and sugar. Sensory analysis was carried out for all five formulations and based on statistical analysis the one which showed the highest value for body, color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability was selected for further analysis (85% liquid whey and 15% banana juice). The shelf-life of the final product was observed for 30 days at room temperature (25±5°C) and refrigerated temperature (7±1ºC). A significant variation in body, color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability were observed by varying the composition of whey and banana juice (p&lt;0.05). The beverage was pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored at normal (25±5°C) and refrigerated (7±1°C) for 30 days. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical (TSS, pH, acidity) and microbial (TPC, yeast &amp; mold count) properties were evaluated. Out of five formulations, the one selected via sensory analysis had TSS of 12.4°Bx, total solids 14.21%, 0.302% acidity, pH 5.72, 5.087% reducing sugar, 0.53% protein, 0.56% ash, 0.87% crude fiber, 184.43mg potassium (mg/100gm) and 0.912mg vitamin C in 100 ml. The prepared beverage was stored for 30 days under refrigerated and normal conditions, and changes in TSS, pH and acidity were observed: 12.413.3%, 5.72-5.214, 0.32-0.43%, and 12.4-13.8%, 5.72-4.64, 0.32-0.68% respectively. Overall analysis showed that the beverage prepared with 85% liquid whey and 15% banana juice could be stored for 30 days under refrigerated conditions without the addition of preservatives.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology Effect of Incorporation of Oats and Malted Barley Flours on the Quality of Cookies 2022-01-06T06:16:21+00:00 Bunty Maskey Ashish Paudel Nabindra Kumar Shrestha <p>The study aimed to determine the potential of oats and malted barley flours incorporation on cookie making. D-optimal mixture design was employed for formulating the recipe of cookies. Seven different formulations of recipe containing oats flour: malted barley flour: wheat flour in the ratio of 20:25:55, 15:30:55, 13:32:55, 10:35:55, 7:38:55, 5:40:55 and 100:0:0 was prepared. The prepared cookies were subjected to sensory evaluation for consumer acceptability and the data obtained were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA (no blocking) at a 5% level of significance. From the mean sensory scores, the formulation 10:35:55 was selected as the optimized formulation and subjected to proximate analysis. The optimized cookies were significantly (p&lt;0.05) superior in the case of protein (7.50%), fat (22.93%), fiber (2.90%), and ash content (0.97%) to wheat cookies (6.43%, 18.83% 0.83% and 0.41% respectively) as seen higher in oats and malted barley flours than wheat flour. The calcium content was found to be significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in optimized cookies (35.3 mg/100g) than wheat cookies (18.40 mg/). </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology