Gyanjyoti 2023-03-24T06:35:54+00:00 Prof. Ashok Kumar Jha Open Journal Systems <p>Gyanjyoti is published by the Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus Unit, Dharan 10, Sunsari, Provihnce 1, Nepal. It publishes multi-disciplinary articles.</p> Re-traumatization in Saadat Hassan Manto’s Black Borders: A Trauma Study 2023-03-06T14:12:42+00:00 Bidur Rai <p>The research article analyzes the re-traumatization of the victimized and the survivors in the partition violence in Saadat Hassan Manto’s “Black Borders”, portraying the trauma of war and the conflicts of the residents. Its purpose is to show how the victims get traumatized through the literary text of the partition and to evaluate the atrocities in the history of the partition riots and huge holocaust. This vignette describes the unspeakable scales of reports of the riots of a culturally diverse people. They cannot safeguard the culture of that society, their beliefs, perceptions, values, and cultural ideology. These people are compelled to either remain faithful to the legacy of previous generation or choose their own destiny. A number of people formulate the worldviews in the case of the partition violence to accept the incident as an aberration. A valid philosophy of the partition is that it creates the shift in the cultural, political, and economic position of the nations. To interpret the text, the paper writer embraces the perspectives of Trauma and memory devices as a theoretical framework. For this matter, the perspectives of Cathy Caruth, Jennifer Yusin, Gyanendra Pandey, and Stefano Bianchini have been used. Since partition violent atrocities displace and deprive the people of the freedom and a choice, this article examines the experiences of the traumatized characters. The study concludes the significant role of the partition literature in helping the people to resolve their psychological disorder resulted due to the violence.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus Narrative Inquiry as a Viable Method in Language Teaching Research: A Short Analytical Study 2023-03-06T14:18:25+00:00 Ganesh Kumar Bastola <p>This paper portrays my personal experience articulating narrative inquiry as a viable research approach to language pedagogy. It brings a personal nostalgia to the epistemic understanding of narrative inquiry. For this, I employed a qualitative research approach in my paper. For the successful accomplishment of the paper, I employed secondary sources; particularly data collected from research articles, books, dissertations, different websites and reports related to narrative research, etc. Within the qualitative continuum, I used the document analysis method and connected it with my own research experiences of using secondary sources of data in narrative research. More specifically, it explored how the research's paradigm was undergoing to bring the narratives as information to systematize the random experiences in research. In particular, this paper offers a metaphorical three-dimensional narrative inquiry space as a way to explore the aesthetic and artistic dimensions of narrative inquiry. Furthermore, narrative inquiry research paves the way to understanding what researchers know and what they believed about their research practices. The core process of narrative research is to systematize its design and set its conceptual framework. The principal attraction of narrative as a method is its capacity to render life experiences, both personal and social, in relevant and meaningful ways. It shows that researchers must learn to assume possible research procedures linearly to address their actions and performance. Moreover, narrative inquiry as a method serves as a pioneering foundation to replicate human experiences and establish itself as a prior research method in educational research<em>.</em></p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus Exploration of Nature in Śṛī Kṛṣṇa's Rāsa Līlā with Gopīs in the Śrimad Bhāgavata Mahāpurāṇa 2023-03-06T14:25:26+00:00 Mohan Kumar Pokharel <p>The focus of this article is to explore Nature in rāsa līlā of Śṛī Kṛṣṇa with gopīs in the Śrimad Bhāgavata Mahāpurāṇa. The objective of this article is to explore rāsa līlā as a union of male and female for the creation and continuation of Nature of this world. In rāsa līlā, Śṛī Kṛṣṇa represents the entire male element (Puruṣa) of creation whereas the gopīs typify Prakṛiti, the female element. There is the union of Prakṛiti (Nature) and Puruṣa (consciousness) in the rāsa dance of Śṛī Kṛṣṇa līlā. To evaluate the rāsa līlā superficially, from the materialistic perspective is a problem of this study. The researcher incorporates Nature for the analysis of the rāsa līlā between Śṛī Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs. He has used theory of Immanuel Kant to explore Nature in <em>rāsa līlā </em>of Śṛī Kṛṣṇa with <em>gopīs</em>. The philosopher realizes divine being in the objects of Nature and argues that Nature is not different from divine being. It is based on the interpretation of critics and scholars in the rāsa līlā of Śṛī Kṛṣṇa. The findings of this investigation are to provide new perspective with evidences in the rāsa līlā of Śṛī Kṛṣṇa. It gives a new insight to readers about this divine dance. The main conclusion to be drawn from this research paper is that men and women are fragments and incomplete in themselves without union between them. There should be continuation of rāsa in different forms for the existence of humans and other creatures on earth.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus Does Fiscal Deficit Cause Economic Growth? Evidence from Nepal 2023-03-06T14:31:57+00:00 Ram Prasad Gajurel Dill Nath Dangal <p>The fiscal deficit soared tremendously after Nepal endorsed economic liberalization aftermath of the 1990s democracy. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the effects of fiscal deficit in the economic growth of Nepal. Data from 1980 to 2019 were used to estimate the short- and long-run causal relations of fiscal deficit proxied by total government expenditure minus total government revenue as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and growth rate of real GDP as a proxy of economic growth along with other control variables. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) error correction regression and vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality have employed to meet the purpose of the study. The study reveals that there is short-run statistically significant negative relationship between Nepal's economic growth and the fiscal deficit of the previous year. However, both domestic and foreign loan and economic growth have positive and significant relations in short run. In contrast, the results reveal that there is positive but not significant relationship between the fiscal deficit and the economic growth of Nepal in long run. The Granger causality suggests that fiscal deficit does not Granger cause the economic growth of Nepal. However, economic growth does Granger causes the fiscal deficit in Nepal. Thus, the growth-driven fiscal deficit will be more effective in the economy of Nepal. Based on stylized facts, it will be necessary to redirect deficit financing into productive channels in order to enhance the sustainable economic growth.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus Influence of Training Programs on Motivation in Selected Cooperatives in Nepal 2023-03-06T14:41:35+00:00 Rohit Kumar Shrestha Bharat Rai <p>This study aims to examine the influence level of training on employee motivation in selected Saving and Credit Co-operative Sector in Kathmandu valley. This is a descriptive study. The study applied a quantitative research design. Primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire. The study applied judgmental sampling. Responses were entered in Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), where statistical analysis was done. Inferential statistics i. e., correlation, and regression analysis were applied for data analysis. Multiple correlations indicate that employee competency, employee job knojob knowledge, technique, skill, and high correlation with motivation. The multiple linear regression model of employee motivation is significantly well-fitted to the given dataset. There is a satisfactory level of a significant and positive relationship between employee competency and motivation. The regression coefficient indicates that there is an insignificant and positive correlation between employee job knowledge and motivation. Both employee technique and employee skill have an insignificant and positive relationship with motivation. There is a significant, positive, and low relationship between employee morale and motivation. It is concluded that there is a significant relationship between dimensions of training and employee motivation. The training program helps to increase the motivation of employees in Cooperative Societies. The findings of this research study particularly support the Goal-Setting Theory. According to this theory, high self-efficacy individuals should be well-trained to achieve goals that lead to employee motivation. The research study will be helpful to the policymaking level both in the government and private sector.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus The Rule of Law Under the Constitution of Nepal 2023-03-06T14:49:57+00:00 Saroj Kumar Giri <p>This article deals with the constitutional provisions of rule of law, its implementation status and challenges to implement it. Rule of law is the value of democratic institution that focuses on the legal justification of every action by the government officials and adjudication of disputes through the independent and competent court. The Constitution has guaranteed the rule of law through its preamble, fundamental rights with constitutional remedy, directive principle and state policies and various other provisions that have added hope for the people of limited government. The Constitution focuses on both horizontal and vertical separation of state power. Horizontal power is divided into three organs of government; legislative, executive and judiciary and vertical power is divided into central, provincial and local level government with the federal character of the nation. The judiciary is empowered to test the constitutionality of legislative and administrative actions which is the essence of rule of law of democratic nations. The Constitution guarantees the functional and institutional independence of judiciary. Thus, the article argues that the Constitution of Nepal, 2015 wants to establish, promote and protect the rule of law in Nepal but its implementation depends on the commitment and actions of the state authority. The finding of the study is there is the need of more laws and institutional arrangements to establish rule of law and to implement Constitution. The analysis is significant to as it helps to understand the constitutional provision of rule of law, its implementation status and challenges to implement.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus Job Condition of Women Laborers in Industrial Area: A Case Study of Balaju industrial Area, Kathmandu 2023-03-06T15:22:39+00:00 Tanka Mani Poudel <p>The paper explores the current situation of women labors in industry. It examines the women worker’s present job conditions in terms of job satisfaction, working hours and wages and their rights. This study was carried out on the Nebico Private Limited at Balaju Industrial Area. There were 65 labors working and I selected only 23 women by using the convenience sampling method as respondents of this study. The nature of the research approach was mix method. Moreover, the research employed both forms of data primary as well as secondary. In order to elicit the primary data, a face-to-face interview was conducted. The study reveals that women’s work is treated as unskilled labor and they face several other difficulties in comparison to males in their working space. It was found that more women labors were working in the factory for a longer period. In this study, out of 23 female respondents’ 39.13 percent are ethnically followed by Chhetri, 21.74 percent by dalits and 17.39 from Brahmin among total respondents. It was found that 43 percent of the women were working between one to three years of duration time period followed by one-third of them working less than years. Likewise, 22 percent of the women shared that they worked for three to five years of time duration. Women during her interview said that it was very difficult for them to find job and when they find a job it was more difficult to satisfy the person in their industry. However, they had no alternative than to continue their jobs.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus Inclusiveness in Gurukul Education System 2023-03-06T15:28:23+00:00 Toya Nath Adhikari <p>Education is as a jewel for human being. It enhances human dignity and prestige in the society. An educated person is also appreciated everywhere. Likewise, happiness is not less than the happiness that mother gives to man through education. It makes people strong. Therefore, education or knowledge is a precious asset of any person. Schooling is very significant to communicate knowledge for the generations to come. Schooling offers skills for people to receive their livelihood so that the lifestyle of people will be developed to make independence. Nowadays, there are worldwide practices on education around the world. Similarly, the education system needs to be relevant to the demand of the diverse culture, languages, ethnicity and tradition of a country. One of the practices in the field of education is the Gurukul education system. This is because all languages, cultures and civilizations of ancient times are in world heritage. According to the eastern philosophy in educational practices, that was mostly well recognized in the eastern part of the world such as India and Nepal. The Gurukul education system is the oldest and most former system of education in the present world. So, the purpose of this research study is to present the inclusiveness in Gurukul Education System.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus 'भुन्टीको भविष्य' कथामा प्रतिनिधित्व {Representation in 'Bhunti's Future' Story} 2023-03-07T04:25:48+00:00 अनिल Anil अधिकारी Adhikari केशवप्रसाद Keshavprasad अधिकारी Adhikari <p>Available with fulltext.&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 तेप्लायुमा डायस्पोरिक भावको अभिव्यक्ति {Manifestations of diasporic sentiment in Teplayu} 2023-03-07T04:40:47+00:00 राजेश Rajesh विद्रोही Bidrohi <p>यो अध्ययन तेप्लायु कविता सङ्ग्रहमा सङ्कलित कविताहरूमा अभिव्यञ्जित डायस्पोरिक चेतनाको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । यस अध्ययनमा तेप्लायुका कविताहरू र डायस्पोरिक चिन्तनको सम्बन्धलाई केलाइएको छ । यस सङ्ग्रहमा सङ्कलित अधिकांश कविताहरूमा पहिचान र युद्धसँग सम्बन्धित भाव अभिव्यक्त भए पनि केही कवितामा डायस्पोरिक चेतनाको भावाभिव्यञ्जन भएको पाइन्छ । विभिन्न कारणले आप्नो मूल थलो अर्थात्जन्मभूमि छाडेर अन्य देशमा बस्न बाध्य नेपाली डायस्पोराको पीडालाई उनले आप्ना कवितामा प्रस्तुत गरेका छन्। यसरी जन्मभूमिबाट टाढिन बाध्य नेपाली नागरिकका पीडालाई उजागर गर्ने यी कविताहरूले तिनका सङ्घर्ष र विवशताका पीडालाई यथार्थपरक ढङ्गमा प्रस्तुत गरेका छन्। सामग्री सङ्कलनका क्रममा तेप्लायु कविता सङ्ग्रहलाई प्राथमिक स्रोतका रूपमा र कविताहरूबारे गरिएका समीक्षा–समालोचना र शोध प्रतिवेदनलाई द्वितीयक स्रोतका रूपमा लिएर डायस्पोरा सम्बन्धी सिद्धान्तका आधारमा गुणात्मक विधिबाट कविताको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ ।</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 गौरी खण्डकाव्यमा रसविधान र शैक्षणिक पक्ष {Rasavidhana and Pedagogical Aspects in Gauri Khandakavya} 2023-03-07T04:50:24+00:00 शक्तिराज Shaktiraj नेपाल Nepal <p>Available with fulltext.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 मोदिआइन उपन्यासमा लैङ्गिक अभिघात {Gender trauma in Modiain's novel} 2023-03-07T06:19:35+00:00 सीता अधिकारी Sita Adhikari थापा Thapa <p>Available with fulltext.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 बाबु, आमा र छोरा उपन्यासमा विसङ्गति, अस्तित्व र नियतिको द्वन्द्व {Dissonance, Existence and Conflict of Destiny in the Novel Father, Mother and Son} 2023-03-07T07:18:51+00:00 सुभाषचन्द्र Suvashchandra न्यौपाने Nyaupane <p>प्रस्तुत लेख उपन्यासकार विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाको बाबु, आमा र छोरा उपन्यासमा प्रयुक्त विसङ्गति, अस्तित्व तथा नियतिको द्वन्द्वगत विश्लेषणमा आधारित छ । उपन्यासकार कोइरालाको २०४५ सालमा प्रकाशित सामाजिक विषयवस्तुमा आधारित प्रस्तुत उपन्यासमा विसङ्गतिवाद, अस्तित्ववाद र नियतिवादको केकस्तो द्वन्द्व देखिन्छ, यहाँका पात्रहरू के कारणले विसङ्गति र नियतिको सिकार हुन बाध्य भएका छन्भन्ने कुराको विश्लेषण यस लेखमा गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेख तयारीका क्रममा प्राथमिक सामग्रीका रूपमा उपन्यासकार विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाको बाबु, आमा र छोरा उपन्यासलाई लिइएको छ भने द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा अस्तित्ववाद, विसङ्गतिवाद र नियतिवादसँग सम्बन्धित ग्रन्थहरूका साथै बाबु, आमा र छोरा उपन्यासका सन्दर्भमा विमर्श गरिएका पुस्तक, जर्नल, शोधपत्र आदिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । सामग्री विश्लेषणका क्रममा निगमनात्मक विधिअनुसार स्थापित सिद्धान्तका आधारमा वर्णनात्मक, विश्लेषणात्मक र व्याख्यात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरी अन्त्यमा अर्थापन विधिद्वारा लेखलाई पूर्णता दिइएको छ । विसङ्गतिवादी, अस्तित्ववादी र नियतिवादी चिन्तनका आधारमा प्रस्तुत उपन्यासमा यी तीनओटै चिन्तनको सशक्त प्रयोग भेटिनाले यो पूर्ण त्रिकोणात्मक द्वन्द्वमय उपन्यास हो भन्ने निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत लेखको विश्लेषणबाट निकालिएको छ ।</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 राजेश्वरी खण्डकाव्यमा वर्णविन्यास वक्रता {Chromatic curvature in the Rajeshwari Khandakavya} 2023-03-07T07:26:53+00:00 ठाकुरप्रसाद Thakurprasad पोख्रेल Pokhrel <p>राजेश्वरी खण्डकाव्यमा वर्णविन्यास वक्रता शीर्षकको लेखभित्र वक्रोक्तिवादी आचार्य कुन्तकद्वारा स्थापित वक्रोक्ति सिद्धान्तअन्तर्गत वर्णविन्यास वक्रोक्तिका आधारमा कवि माधवप्रसाद घिमिरेको राजेश्वरी खण्डकाव्यको पुस्तकालय विधिद्वारा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यहाँ वक्रोक्तिको सैद्धान्तिक परिचय सूक्ष्म रूपमा दिदै प्रस्तुत सिद्धान्तको अर्थ र परम्पराको संक्षिप्त चर्चा गरिएको छ । वर्णविन्यास वक्रोक्तिका प्रकारहरूमा केन्द्रित रही काव्यलाई हेरिएको छ । यो लेखभित्र काव्यमा निहित वक्रोक्तिका रूपहरू के कसरी प्रयोग भएका छन्भन्ने कुराको उदाहरण सहित विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । घिमिरेको राजेश्वरी खण्डकाव्यमा प्रयुक्त एक वर्णविन्यास, द्वि वर्णविन्यास वक्रताका तुलनामा बहुवर्णविन्यास वक्रोक्तिको सुन्दर प्रयोग भएकाले राजेश्वरी काव्य चमत्कारपूर्ण बनेको तथ्य सहितको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Chief Editor's Voice Vol.3(1) 2023-03-06T14:06:05+00:00 Ashok Kumar Jha <p>No abstract available.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Mahendra Multiple Campus