Geographical Journal of Nepal <p>The Geographical Journal of Nepal is the official publication of the Central Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities and Social Studies, Tribhuvan University.</p> en-US <p>© Authors</p> (Dr Hriday Lal Koirala) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 18 Feb 2022 08:33:56 +0000 OJS 60 Drivers of changing crops and cropping patterns in the different elevation zones of middle mountain, Nepal <p>Studies on rural livelihood, agriculture patterns from different parts of Nepal have mentioned the introduction of new crops from different pocket areas of the country primarily resulted due to climate change and market development. However, these<br>studies have lacked scholarship on how the changes occur in rural areas and how rural households have adopted the changes are least focused. Based on the field surveys using questionnaires, interviews, FGD, analysis of climate data, and map data, this<br>paper aims to fulfill the aforementioned gap based on the study from three elevation zones. It shows a wider adoption of different new crops and vegetables which are varied by elevation zones and by the cultural groups living there. The detailed analysis of<br>various events and underlying processes concludes that out-migration and off-farm employment, infrastructure development and increasing connectivity, climate change, access to market, and changing food habits are the major drivers of the changes. These<br>drivers began to play their roles at different times, and different scales in different zones, and finally their complex interplay resulted changes in the rural agricultural landscape.</p> Prem Sagar Chapagain, Payaswini Ghimire, Jianzhong Yan, Xian Cheng, Linshan Liu, Yili Zhang Copyright (c) 2022 Prem Sagar Chapagain, Payaswini Ghimire, Jianzhong Yan, Xian Cheng, Linshan Liu, Yili Zhang Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Changing precipitation patterns in far-western Nepal in relation to landslides in Bajhang and Bajura districts <p>The geologically young terrains of the Nepal's Lesser Himalaya are strongly affected by the multiple and interrelated geo-hazards of landslides, floods, and debris torrents. One of the main factors that trigger these hazards is the duration and intensity of monsoon rainfall. Here, we interrogate precipitation data for a variety of different periods, the longest of which comprises 40 years (1977-2017) of annual rainfall data, for 17 rainfall stations in far-western Nepal. The average rainfall over the past 10 years (2007-2017) was found to be declining for most stations. The summer monsoon season (i.e. June to September) accounts for 70–80% of the total annual rainfall, and is critical for agricultural production; but the vast majority of floods and landslides also occur during this time. Changes in daily rainfall magnitude and frequency are analysed. The intensity of rainfall during monsoon time was found to increase by over 100% in the past 40 years, with this change especially pronounced in 2008. The variation of intensities of rainfall in relation to landslides at different elevations has also been explored. We found that rainfall intensity increased by 40–60% over an increase in elevation from 1 to 2 km in the study area of the Bajedi landslide in far-western Nepal.</p> Janak Lal Nayava, Jagat Kumar Bhusal, Jonathan D. Paul, Wouter Buytaert, Bhanu Neupane, Januka Gyawali, Saugat Poudyal Copyright (c) 2022 Janak Lal Nayava, Jagat Kumar Bhusal, Jonathan D. Paul, Wouter Buytaert, Bhanu Neupane, Januka Gyawali, Saugat Poudyal Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Land evaluation for land use planning in Sambhunath municipality of Saptari district, Nepal <p>Dynamics of land use are closely related with society, development activities and environment. For the sustainable management of land resource of an area, land use may act as one of the elements of conflicts which could be resolved through land use planning ensuring equitable access and right of land to the owners. The present paper attempts to assess the land use for land use planning and infrastructure development through land evaluation including risk factors. Sambhunath municipality located within Saptari district of Nepal has been used as the study area to test the issues raised. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used for data generation and analysis. Land use changes have been analyzed for the period 1986 to 2017. Potential land use zones have been identified through land suitability analysis using MCE-AHP and in relation to the risk factors such as flood, soil erosion, landslide, and fire. The infrastructure development plan has been allocated based on land use suitability index maps and planning guidelines. Land use projection have been made through Cellular Automata technique, and land use plans have been developed based on projected land use and optimized through SWOT analysis. Implementation strategy is developed based on legal framework to implement land use plan at local level. The land use change patterns are characterized by the increase of agriculture and built-up area and the decrease in areas under forest cover and water body simultaneously. Altogether 27 different criteria are identified and applied in land use suitability evaluation. Risk prone area is found mostly surrounding to the foot of Chure hill and along Khando river. Almost 46% of the total areas have been planned for future agriculture land use followed by residential, commercial, industrial and public uses which are 201 ha, 26 ha, 3ha, and 345 ha respectively. An implementation strategy has been devised to empower and enforcement for compliance of land use zone together with guidelines for outlined development activities.</p> Shobha Shrestha, Bikash Kumar Karna, Hriday Lal Koirala Copyright (c) 2022 Shobha Shrestha, Bikash Kumar Karna, Hriday Lal Koirala Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reflection of nature in the material culture of the Karbi tribe: A case from Kamrup (M) district, Assam, India <p>The processes of nature-culture interaction and resulting landscapes in an area form fertile fields for geographical research. The present study is an attempt to analyse the reciprocal relation between people and nature in a tribal village environment of the Brahmaputra Valley, Assam. Based on intensive field survey and interviews with the inhabitants, the study reveals that the human-environment relationship in the village is still mutually helpful and more or less sustainable. However, perceptible changes have occurred in the traditional cordial relationship between the people and their environment in respect of habitat, economy and mode of living mainly due to the growing influence of modernization.</p> Barasha Rani Das, N. Deka, A.K. Bhagabati Copyright (c) 2022 Barasha Rani Das, N. Deka, A.K. Bhagabati Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrochemical Characterization of Lentic and Lotic Environments of Ramaroshan Area, Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal <p>Ramaroshan of Sudurpaschim Province is rich in biodiversity, and ecologically distinct but scientifically unexplored rural and remote area of Nepal. There is a holy perennial Kailash River as a lentic and aesthetically well-known Ramarosan Lake Cluster (Batula Lake) as a lotic environment located in the region. This study has analyzed and then characterized the water quality status of both the lentic and lotic environments. The physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), and major ions were analyzed for the hydrochemical characterization. The results revealed that the dominancy orders of cations and anions of the study area were found to be Ca<sup>2+</sup> &gt; Na<sup>+</sup> &gt;Mg<sup>2+</sup> &gt; K<sup>+</sup> &gt; NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> and HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> &gt; Cl<sup>-</sup> &gt; SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> &gt; PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> &gt; NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, respectively. The concentrations of most of the parameters were relatively higher in the Kailash River than the Batula Lake except for the SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> and NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>. The water facies displayed the Ca-HCO<sub>3</sub> type indicating the calcium carbonate type of lithology in the area. Additionally, the carbonate weathering is also higher than the silicates and evaporates. Similarly, the source controlling mechanisms indicated that the hydrochemistry of the Ramaroshan area is determined by both geogenic weathering and precipitation. Water quality assessment for irrigation parameters confirmed its suitability for irrigational purposes. The finding of this study could be the baseline dataset for assessing the future status and management of water resources of the Ramaroshan area.</p> Ramesh Raj Pant, Alina Dangol, Tarka Bahadur Chalaune, Jiban Sharma, Bina Thapa, Lal B. Thapa, Kiran Bishwakarma Copyright (c) 2022 Ramesh Raj Pant, Alina Dangol, Tarka Bahadur Chalaune, Jiban Sharma, Bina Thapa, Lal B. Thapa, Kiran Bishwakarma Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Flood risk mapping and analysis: A case study of Andheri Khola catchment, Sindhuli district, Nepal <p>Nepal is one of the world's most vulnerable countries to a variety of risks, including severe floods. This could result in the loss of lives and property, the relocation of people, the damage of physical infrastructures, homes, and the disruption of people's socioeconomic functions and the country's economy in a variety of ways. River flooding is caused by heavy monsoon rainfall, weak geology, unplanned infrastructure construction along the embankments, and mining in upstream riverbeds. The Andheri Khola (river) is a tributary of the Sunkoshi River that frequently floods, affecting the inhabitants along the way. In Nepal, little effort has been made to comprehend the flood risk in tiny catchment regions such as Andheri Khola, despite the fact that this sort of small catchment is affecting Nepal's numerous new rising towns and urban areas in many ways. To analyse the one-dimensional flood plain, HEC-RAS, Ras Mapper, and ArcGIS were used. The WECS/DHM approach was used to estimate flood frequency in different return periods in order to determine the flood risk in the research area. The study finds that the floods of 2, 50, 100, and 1000 years return periods cover a maximum of 35, 41.9, 42.7, and 49.72 hectare area, respectively. The majority of the flooded sites had water depths of more than 3 meters. More than 70% of the sandy area in the study region is prone to flooding. Furthermore, the cultivated areas are located in a low to moderate risk area.</p> Chhabi Lal Chidi, Buddhi Raj Shrestha, Liladhar Sapkota Copyright (c) 2022 Chhabi Lal Chidi, Buddhi Raj Shrestha, Liladhar Sapkota Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Indigenous knowledge and local practices for disaster risk reduction: A study of Kailali district <p>Disasters which are resulted due to the natural or anthropogenic environmental damage processes such as deforestation, desertification, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion etc. and are increasing day by day. As such there are potentialities for outbreaks and their high risk at any places at any time. There are many literatures which suggest the possibility of disaster risk reduction and early warning through local indigenous knowledge and practices. The present study is an attempt to explore, evaluate andanalyse the local knowledge and skills that are being practiced and used to reduce the risk of various types of natural hazards. Kailali district lying in the Sudur Paschim Province of Nepal is chosen as the study area. Chure rural municipality lying within Hill areas and Tikapur urban municipality lying within Terai plain areas of the district were selected as the research sites to evaluate the landslide and flood related local indigenous knowledge and practices respectively. Using a multi-assessment methodology of collecting information through targeted group discussions, key informant interviews, household surveys, and field observation methods, an attempt has been made to analyse the data to explore indigenous local knowledge, skills, and traditional practices related to disaster risk and mitigation in the study area. The indigenous knowledge, skills and practices on disaster risk reduction and early warning system have been developed by generations and tested in the absence of the scientific developments. However, many communities have lost their local knowledge, skills, and traditional practices because of non transfer by the senior citizens to the young generations. The findings of the study indicate that indigenous and local knowledge and practices are valuable resources that can support in the process of disaster management, prevention, preparedness, and cost-effective disaster risk reduction. Therefore, the researchers view that it would be wise decision focusing the policy framework by integrating indigenous and local knowledge, wisdom, and skills of the local people.</p> Narayan Prasad Timilsena, Krishna Maya Devkota Copyright (c) 2022 Narayan Prasad Timilsena, Krishna Maya Devkota Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Distance on learning outcomes: A case study of community school in Dhankuta district <p>The intent of this study is to identify the impact of distance on the educational achievement of students at community schools in Dhankuta district of Province 1. Regarding the philosophical standpoint, this study embraces the positivist paradigm. The ontological assumption is the multiple realities of the phenomena. Similarly, the interaction and experiences of the participants are considered as epistemological understanding. Class eight students' mark sheet (Mathematics, English, and Nepali) were studied to generate the quantitative data followed by a semi structured interview of purposively selected participants to generate the qualitative data. In the quantitative analysis, the mean and variance of distance and achievement were measured. Likewise, the Pearson's correlation coefficient between distance and score in English, Mathematics, and Nepali were obtained by using the statistical software SPSS. In the qualitative phase, the phenomenological inquiry sought two essential themes related to distance from home and educational achievement, named subject preference and home school coordination. The quantitative and qualitative findings from the two phases of study proved that the travel distance of the student affects educational achievement, preferably in major subjects. Implications are provided for policy makers, concerned government institutions, and teachers to consider in countries' educational reform.</p> Dawa Sherpa Copyright (c) 2022 Dawa Sherpa Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000