Ganeshman Darpan https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd <p>Ganeshman Darpan is published by the Research Management Cell, Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus, Kalanki, Kathmandu, Nepal. It covers a wide range of topics related to the field of education, humanities and social sciences.</p> Research Management Cell, Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus en-US Ganeshman Darpan 2091-2404 Impact of Celebrity Endorsement and Reference Group on Customer Purchase Intention for Non-durable Goods https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57229 <p>Consumer purchasing behaviour is impacted by a range of factors that must be identified. This study's main goal was to investigate how reference groups and celebrity endorsements affect consumers' choices for non-durable goods. Reference groups and celebrity endorsements both have a significant impact on how consumers choose products. The study's population encompassed customers from different age groups and sectors, including students, homemakers, bankers, teachers, and professionals in various fields. A total of 430 respondents received self-administered questionnaires through convenient sampling techniques, and 400 completed questionnaires were collected. The study's findings indicated that the reference group is a potent factor with a significant influence on consumer buying decisions, while the correlation between celebrity endorsements and consumer purchasing decisions was found to be weak.</p> Sajeeb Kumar Shrestha Binita Manandhar Mahesh Basnet Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 1 12 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57229 Women and Animals in Anita Desai’s Fire on the Mountain: A Study of Violence https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57328 <p>This paper examines the novel Fire on the Mountain by Anita Desai within the context of materialist postcolonial ecofeminism. Despite the fact that both women and animals are excluded from society, I contend that the "other" in the shape of both women and animals is the focus of the book. Through the story, the author reframes topics like women and animals which are typically discussed through the male perspective. The woman serves as the interpreter between humans and animals. The animal figure is used to mediate self-politics and relationships between the two sexes. I demonstrate the significance of the ambivalent viewpoint when discussing the novel's protagonists. These ladies do not fall into either the cultural or natural domains in the culture-nature dichotomy. They demonstrate their ambivalence about both the culture/nature notions by straddling the binary in-between. No demeaning romantic or celebratory association exists between women and the natural world or with animals. The issue of violence against both women and animals has been looked at within this paradigm.</p> Ravindra Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 13 19 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57328 Patterns and Trends of Out-migration in Syangja District of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57329 <p>When migration occurs, it has a significant impact on the lives and livelihoods of individuals, communities, societies, and the nation. In this regards, the paper aims to examine the patterns and trends of out-migration in Syangja district of Nepal. As key data sources, government records, Nepal Census Data 2021, and related reports were used for analysis. This research has employed a descriptive research approach for the analysis of the trends and patterns of migration in Syangja district. On the basis of secondary data, the information on the population growth, migration pattern and trend, causes of migration, and the preferred destination has been presented and discussed. The article has also discussed the factors influencing decisions on migration. The study reveals that people of Syangja had chosen to migrate both within the country and outside. The main reasons for migration were primarily employment and education, which is considerably lacking in Syangja. The findings indicate that migrants expect a higher standard of living as a result of their migration. Understanding the migration patterns and trends which are helpful for the policymakers and decision makers to formulate the district specific policy and strategy as well as to regulate and harness the benefits of migration.</p> Chandra Parajuli Bibek K. Naupane Bishnu B. Khatri Arjun Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 20 34 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57329 Concept Mapping: Unleashing the Power of Visual Learning in Science Education https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57330 <p>Concept mapping is an effective approach for improving learning in science education by using visual representations of knowledge. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study is to determine the effectiveness of concept mapping as visual representations in increasing understanding of concepts and knowledge retention among secondary school students studying science. The students in the research are divided into two groups: the experimental group (N = 45), which gets instruction using concept mapping methods, and the control group (N = 50), which receives instruction using conventional methods of teaching. Participants in this study were chosen at random from two public secondary schools in Kathmandu and the Lalitpur district. To evaluate both groups' understanding and recall of scientific concepts, a pre-and post-test approach was used. The outcomes of this study will give important insights into the effectiveness of concept mapping as a method of instruction in science education. It is hypothesized that students in the experimental group who participate in concept mapping activities will show better conceptual understanding and retention than students in the control group.</p> Bishnu Kumar Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 35 43 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57330 Teacher's Perception Regarding the Use and Challenges of ICT in Teaching-learning https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57331 <p>ICT is considered a better tool for improving the quality of education. It is an effective network to develop the whole nation through the development of education. This study explored the Use of Information and Communication Technology in teaching-leaning economics classrooms at the university level. The study focused on the Mahendra Ratna Campus of Tribhuvan University. It had two objectives, i.e., to explore the teachers' perception regarding the use of ICT in an economics classroom and to examine the challenges that economics teachers face in using ICT tools in the economics classroom. With a focus on qualitative research, the study used a phenomenological design with five purposively chosen participants from Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal. The researcher's experiences and the experiences of others have to be included in the study's philosophical framework. This inquiry used the Heideggerian phenomenological research design. This study found the keen interest of economics teachers in using ICT in their classrooms. Teachers are considering ICT as a current context needs in education. However, teachers think of ICT as an emerging tool for teaching-learning and have faced many challenges in the classroom to use it.</p> Bishnu Maya Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 44 56 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57331 Mathematics Teacher’s Autonomy in Students' Performance https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57332 <p>This study aims to investigate the perceptions of mathematics teachers’ autonomy in students’ performance. I applied quantitative research design, and positivist paradigm. In Kathmandu district's 40 public secondary schools, 80 respondents in the basic level teachers, 40 male and 40 females-were randomly selected for the sample. Data collection was carried out using a self-created questionnaire that had 50 statements and five Likert-type response alternatives. The self-developed questionnaire's validity was verified by the opinions of experts, and reliability was established Cronbach's alpha, 0 .89. I prepared five factors according to loading components. According to research, teacher’s autonomous teaching makes high performance of students in mathematics classroom practices.</p> Yagya Prasad Gnawali Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 57 71 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57332 Chemistry Anxiety Among Bachelor-Level Students in Science Education https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57333 <p>This research aims to investigate the reasons for anxiety among Bachelor's level Chemistry students. This study adopted a phenomenological research approach to elicit in-depth responses from teachers and students about their lived experiences and perceptions that cause anxiety in science classes due to the chemicals in the lab. The data was collected through in-depth interviews with students who suffer from anxiety in Chemistry classes. This study tried to uncover some of the roots of scientific fear. The interviews resulted in clear descriptions of the pupils' anxiousness. Fear appears to be linked to language issues, instructional approaches, and perception of chemistry views the student’s main source of anxiety is the language problem. Understanding the causes of science anxiety may also help educators construct more effective classes. They can think about the reasons for worry in these students and create some experiences for them to motivate them to complete the course. If teachers are aware of the issues that arise from students' chemistry anxiety, they can assist students in reducing their worry. furthermore, they can focus more effectively on course activities and materials. Using visual resources, asking questions, and creating activities that require active student participation, the instructor can help students overcome their passive approach to the subject during a lecture.</p> Paras Mani Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 72 78 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57333 Practicing Local Curriculum in Basic Level: As an Educational Innovation and Creativity https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57334 <p>This study aims to investigate the practicing local curriculum at basic level schools through the educational innovation and creativity in Nepal under the teachers’ view. I applied quantitative research design, and positivist paradigm. In Kathmandu district's 25 public lower secondary schools, 125 respondents in the basic level teachers, were randomly selected for the sample (Five teachers from each school). Data collection was carried out using a self-created questionnaires that had 50 statements and five Likert-type response alternatives. The self-developed questionnaire's validity was verified by the opinions of experts, and reliability was established Cronbach's alpha, 0 .895. I prepared five factors according to loading components. According to research, practicing a local curriculum empowers individuals by acknowledging their own knowledge, skills, and expertise. It motivates students to participate actively in their education and community development. Practices can shape their own learning experiences by engaging with the local curriculum and choosing choices that match their interests and objectives.</p> Bishnu Sharma Gyawali Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 79 95 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57334 Information Communication Technology in Education: Bringing Innovation in Classroom https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57335 <p>ICT (Information Communication Technology) has revolutionized education by bringing innovation into the classroom. This paper explores the integration of four key elements: learning through games and gamification, Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) and mobile education, learning with adaptation and artificial intelligence (AI), and online cooperation and connections. The study examines the benefits and implications of these innovative approaches in enhancing teaching and learning experiences. It highlights how games and gamification engage students and promote active learning, while BYOD and mobile education provide flexibility and access to educational resources. Additionally, it discusses the personalized learning opportunities offered by adaptation and AI, as well as the collaborative and global connections fostered through online cooperation. The research underscores the importance of these elements in transforming education and preparing students for the challenges of the digital era.</p> Parshu Ram Upadhayaya Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 96 110 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57335 Roles and Rationale of Using English on social media https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57336 <p>Many people utilize social media as one of the instruments in information and communication technology to communicate ideas in regular communications. The current study identified Tribhuvan University students at various levels who used social media to increase their English language skills. Since this study aimed to gather specific information about social media usage in developing English language competency from the perspective of college students, a survey research design was used. The responses' results demonstrated that social media (SM) platforms play various roles in enhancing EFL learners' English comprehension. Most respondents fervently concurred that using social media significantly contributes to developing English ability.</p> Nikesh Panday Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 111 118 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57336 Existing Situation of Digital Pedagogy in the Mathematics Classroom https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57337 <p>This article examines the existing situation of digital pedagogy in mathematics classrooms at Tribhuvan University, focusing on the skills and activities of mathematics teachers. Digital pedagogy, the integration of ICT tools and techniques in teaching, can potentially enhance teaching and learning activities. However, there are challenges in implementing digital pedagogy, such as limited access to technology and inadequate teacher preparation programs. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design with quantitative methodology. Data were collected from mathematics teachers of constituent campuses at Tribhuvan University using self-constructed closed-structure questionnaires. The results indicated that mathematics teachers possess varying levels of digital skills, with proficiency in producing documents and using emails but lower proficiency in developing questions and mathematical documents using Latex. The teachers frequently use the Internet to collect information and employ digital presentation tools. However, the usage of online resources and platforms for learning materials and homework posting was occasional. The findings underscore the importance of targeted training and resource provision to enhance digital skills among mathematics teachers. Tribhuvan University should prioritize technology access, improve teacher preparation programs, and promote digital literacy. By addressing these challenges, Tribhuvan University can effectively integrate digital pedagogy in mathematics classrooms, leading to enhanced teaching and learning experiences and improved student outcomes.</p> Umesh Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 119 126 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57337 Women Empowerment through Cooperative: A Case Study of Ichangu Mahila Jagriti Multipurpose Cooperative Limited https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57338 <p>Women empowerment involves participation of women in political structures and formal decision-making and economic decision-making which is achieved through education, raising awareness, literacy, and training. Co-operatives in general and specifically women-led co-operatives, have played an important role in women empowerment. This study aims to identify the contribution of Ichangu Mahila Jagriti Multipurpose Co-operative Limited (IMJCL) located in Nagarjun municipality Kathmandu on economic, socio-cultural and political aspects of women empowerment who became its member. The study was conducted in Nagarjun municipality Kathmandu among the 124 women inheritors with 10 years of experiences and cooperative activities were randomly selected using lottery method for data collection. Primary data was collected via structured questionnaire, focus group discussion and key informant interviews. For the data analysis paired sample t-test was applied in three different domains of empowerment: economic, socio-cultural and political dimensions. The finding showed there was positive impact on women empowerment with significant difference in socio-cultural, economic and political empowerment of its member. The study shows there were significant changes after involvement in different programmes of IMJCL. Finally, its finding focusses on the crucial role of cooperative in the overall empowerment of women. Extension of cooperative organizations is indispensable for the nation.</p> Padma Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 127 133 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57338 Women Empowerment Reinvented: Recognizing the Role of Religiosity in Gender Equality https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57340 <p>Religious practices world-over play a significant role in shaping societies, cultures, and people’s beliefs and attitudes towards life. In Nepal, religion has been an integral part of the social fabric with women playing an active role in various religious practices. This paper mainly reflects the self-experience of ‘situated reality’ of Far-West Nepal by the author with the supportive literature from relevant sources. The discussion shows that women’s assertive presence at ‘religious space’ of their family and community has a positive impact on their social empowerment, enabling them to access resources, participate in decision making, and challenge gender-stereotypes. It has improved their self-confidence, enhanced their social status, and given them a sense of identity. Moreover, it has provided them a platform to activate their agency, build social capital, challenge patriarchal norms, and promote their rights. This paper concludes suggesting that women’s religious engagements can be a powerful means of achieving gender equality and their social empowerment.</p> Yashoda Bhatta Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 134 140 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57340 स्नातक नेपाली शिक्षाका साहित्यिक विधा सम्बद्ध पाठ्यांशहरूको मूल्याङ्कन https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57341 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय, शिक्षाशास्त्र सङ्काय, डिन कार्यालयले लागु गरेको चार बर्से बिएडको नेपाली शिक्षाका साहित्यिक विधा सम्बद्ध पाठ्यांशहरूलाई शिक्षाशास्त्रीय दृष्टिले मूल्याङ्कन गर्ने उद्देश्य राखी तयार गरिएको हो । यो लेख गुणात्मक अनुसन्धानको पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययनमा आधारित छ । पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययन अनुसार नेपाली शिक्षाका साहित्यिक विधा सम्बद्ध नेपाली कथा र उपन्यास, नेपाली नाटक, एकाङ्की र निबन्ध, नेपाली कविता काव्य तथा साहित्यशास्त्र र नेपाली समालोचनाका पाठ्यांशबाट तथ्यहरू सङ्कलन गरेर तिनलाई तालिकीकरण गरी व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । स्नातक तहको नेपाली शिक्षाका पाठ्यांशको प्रकृतिलाई हेर्दा भाषासँगै साहित्यिक विषयवस्तुलाई पनि उच्च महइभ्व दिइएको देखिन्छ । उक्त साहित्यिक विधा सम्बद्ध पाठ्यांशहरू पूर्णतः सैद्धान्तिक प्रकृतिका छन् । निर्दिष्ट पाठ्यांशमा समाविष्ट पाठ्यविषयलाई भाषा शिक्षण सिकाइसँग जोडेको पाइँदैन । निर्धारित पाठ्यविषयलाई भाषिक दृष्टिले संयोजन नगरेको भए पनि सम्बन्धित कृतिहरूको पठनबाट विद्यार्थीहरूमा अप्रत्यक्ष रूपमा पठनबोध, अभिव्यक्ति (समीक्षा ः मौखिक तथा लिखित), शब्द भण्डार जस्ता भाषिक सिप तथा पक्षहरूको विकासमा मद्दत पुग्ने देखिन्छ । विद्यार्थीहरूमा पर्याप्त भाषिक सिप तथा पक्षहरूको विकास गराउन शिक्षाशास्त्रका सैद्धान्तिक पाठ्यांशहरूलाई प्रायोगिक किसिमले भाषा शिक्षण सिकाइसँग जोडेर प्रस्तुत गर्नुपर्ने देखिन्छ ।</p> बुद्धराज खनिया Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 141 149 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57341 समाज तथा राष्ट्र निर्माणमा पत्रकारको भूमिका https://nepjol.info/index.php/gd/article/view/57342 <p>नेपाल पत्रकार महासंघमा आबद्ध करिब पन्ध्र हजारभन्दा बढी पत्रकारहरुमध्ये आधाभन्दा बढीलाई पत्रकारिताको मूल मन्त्रबारे अनविज्ञ रहेको पाइन्छ । कतिपयले त आफ्नो कर्म र मुख्य आयश्रोत पत्रकारिताबाट नभई अन्य विविध श्रोत रहेको पाइन्छ । यसो हुनुमा जो पत्रकार भनिन्छ उसले पत्रकारिताको धर्म निर्वाह गरेकोे पाइदैन । पत्रकार हुँ भनेर अनेकौ नामले राजनीति, दलाली र सौदाबाजी गरेर हिड्ने व्यक्तिहरुलाई पत्रकार भन्नु परेको छ । यस्ता कयौँ उदाहरणहरु च्याउँसरी विकास भएका मिडयाको परिचयपत्र भिरेर हिड्नेहरुलाई लिन सकिन्छ । पत्रकारको जोड समाचार, विचारलाई सत्य, तथ्य र वस्तुनिष्ठ भइ मिडियाबाट उपलब्ध गराउनु भन्ने हुन्छ । तर कतिपय पत्रकारहरु कुनै निश्चित पार्टी, दल वा संगठनका एजेण्डा बोकेर समाचार लेखन गर्छन । त्यसकारण आमसञ्चार माध्ययमप्रतिको विश्वसनीयता गुम्दै गएको छ । यस पक्षबारे विश्लेषण सहित प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । पत्रकार कसैको प्रवक्ता होइन । उसले एकपक्षको मात्र समाचार सम्प्रेषण नगरी अर्को पक्षको भनाइलाई समेत प्रस्तुत गर्नुपर्छ । असल पत्रकारले समाज तथा राष्ट्र विकासमा ठूलो प्रभाव छर्छ । समाज रुपान्तरणमा अहम् भूमिका खेल्ने पत्रकारले पूर्वाग्रही भएर कसैको पक्षपोषण गर्नु हुदैन । असल पत्रकार बन्नलाई स्वविवेकका साथै पत्रकार आचार संहिता र राष्ट्रको मुल कानुनको पालना गर्नुपर्छ । यस लेखमा पत्रकार, पत्रकारमा सत्यता, असल पत्रकार र पत्रकारिता, पत्रकारको निष्ठामा विचलन, समाज निर्माणमा पत्रकारको महत्व विषयहरुबारे विश्लेषण तथा व्याख्या गरिएको छ । जसका कारण नव युवा पत्रकारहरुले असल पत्रकारिता गर्नेछन भन्ने अपेक्षा गर्न सकिन्छ । पत्रकारका विभिन्न लेख, रचना तथा विचारहरु दैनिक हजारौ कहाँ पुग्छन, तिनीहरूलाई ज्ञान, सूचना, शिक्षा र मनोरन्जन प्रदान गर्दछ जसले परिवार, समाज र राष्ट्र रुपान्तरणमा मद्धत पु¥याउँछ । पत्रकार राष्ट्रको बर्दिवेगरको सिपाही हो । समाजको ऐना हो । सिकायतखोर र टिकाखोर हो । घटनालाई जस्ताको तस्तै या स्पष्ट र पारदर्शी रुपमा समाचार पस्किन सक्ने, समाचार सुघ्न सक्ने खुवी भएको आर्दशवान व्यक्ति हुनुपर्छ भन्ने कोणबाट यो लेखलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> Sudip Raila Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Ganeshman Singh Multiple Campus 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 8 1 150 157 10.3126/gd.v8i1.57342