Far Western Review https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr <p>Far Western Review is a multidisciplinary, double-blind, peer reviewed journal published by Far Western University, Mahendranagar, Kanchanpur, Nepal.</p> Far Western University en-US Far Western Review 3021-9019 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC</a>: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator.</p> The Emergence of Nepali Dalit Literature https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62107 <p>The under-representation of Dalits in Nepali-language literature until the late 20th century— both as the subjects of texts and the authors of texts—is very striking, and a category of Nepali-language writing labelled dalit sahitya only began to emerge after 1990. This paper report draws upon research on this issue conducted in 2021-22. First, it introduces a selection of Nepali-language texts produced by non-Dalits in which Dalit characters and Dalit-related issues have been portrayed. Most of these were published before Dalits began to author such texts themselves; a few are of more recent origin. It then offers a preliminary thematic summary of the Dalit-authored literature that has appeared in more recent years, and a summary of the debate that has arisen about the definition of dalit sahitya and the authoritative representation of Dalit issues in Nepali-language literature.</p> Michael Hutt Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 1 15 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62107 The Far West of Nepal as a Remote Area https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62108 <p>Remoteness, as a subject for multi-disciplinary analysis, remains largely under-studied and under-theorised. Though the idea of remote areas is familiar in Nepal, thanks to the government’s long-running ‘Remote Area Development Programme (1966-2017), there has hardly been any conceptual work on the subject in the Nepalese context. We ask who defines ideas of remoteness and for whom it is an issue. Data were collected through two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), organized in Bajhang and Kanchanpur in 2022, as well as through interviews, informal discussion, and observations during fieldwork in the region between 2020 and 2022.</p> <p>The paper suggests that remoteness: (a) is both a fact of geography and a state of mind and culture; (b) thus, is an idea imposed from outside, but also a condition of lived reality; (c) is a relative concept, defined in relation to multi-layered hierarchical power centres located elsewhere; and (d) is a development category. Therefore, we argue, the very notions of ‘sudūr’ and ‘remote’ (durgam) are imposed political constructs, symbolizing (more than spatial position) the loci of power elsewhere, and can have detrimental consequences: persistent neglect, the reproduction of marginalization, and increasing dependency.</p> Krishna Prasad Adhikari David N. Gellner Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 16 28 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62108 Teaching Profession in Nepal: Attitude and Job Satisfaction of the School Teachers https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62109 <p>Quality education is the key factor for overall development of an individual and nation. Quality of education is directly related to competency and dedication of the teacher, as teacher is the main implement or of the educational program. This study investigates the attitude of permanent school teachers towards teaching profession and their level of job satisfaction. Quantitative research design over a sample of randomly selected 200 teachers was used in this study.</p> <p>&nbsp;A Likert type attitude scale was prepared and standardized by the researcher on the sample of 374 school teachers of five districts of Nepal and India but this study is based in context of Nepal. Job satisfaction level was measured by Job Satisfaction Scale (JSST-DM) published by National Psychological Corporation, Agra, India. Normative survey method was used to collect required data. Maslow’s theory of motivation based on the needs hierarchy system was used to interpret the findings of this study. Result was interpreted by using z-score norms based on seven categories, which explored that 20.50 percent of the teachers were favorable towards their profession, 46 percent were unfavorable and 33.50 percent were neutral towards teaching profession. Similarly, percentage of teachers found above Average Satisfied on their job was 37 percent, below Average Satisfied was 40 percent and percent of Average Satisfied teachers was 23. Out of which, nine percent school teachers were extremely satisfied and 13 percent were extremely dissatisfied.</p> <p>Teachers cannot do well on teaching profession unless they have a positive attitude towards their profession and are not satisfied with it. This study reveals that a significant number of teachers are not satisfied with their profession and do not have a positive attitude towards it. It is imperative that the concerned authorities review the policies regarding salary, facilities and position in the national protocol for teachers in order to bring a positive change in the situation.</p> Madan Singh Deupa Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 29 45 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62109 Working Environment and Benefit Differences in Indo-Nepal Labour Migration https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62110 <p>The open border between Nepal and India has encouraged people to migrate across the border for better livelihood. People from Sudurpaschim Province are disproportionately attracted to India for four important reasons: close distance, low travel cost, access to jobs and network. Likewise, Indian people from particularly from the border towns of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal States usually come to Nepal searching for employment or better opportunities. The burgeoning migration research in Nepal often ignores migration to India, and there has hardly been any research on Indian migration to Nepal. This paper attempts to make a comparative study of Indo-Nepal migration, focusing on working environment, i.e., work natures, working conditions, and their benefits such as income, and welfare benefits of both migrants’ groups. Bhimdatt Municipality of Kanchanpur District was selected as the study area. A mixed methodology has been adopted for this study. For Quantitative data collection, sample survey was conducted with 650 respondents (370 for Nepali-labour migrants to India and 270 Indian labour-migrants to Nepal). Using ISCO/08, ILO (2012), skills classification framework, this paper shows Nepali migrants works lack technical skills (91% being at basic level, as menial workers) as opposed to the Indian migrants, majority of whom have some technical skills, such as operating machines (54.3% vs. 7.3%). This has reflection on their earning and welfare benefits and condition of work and living. Indian migrants earn an average of NRs. 40635.5 per month, compared to NRs. 19061.6 earned by Nepali migrants. In case of Nepali labour-migrants who work in registered companies, business houses along with mutual agreement for job get allowances, overtime facility, medical insurance however, it is not found in case of Indian labour-migrants working in different technical sectors in Nepal. Policy makers need to work on promoting skills of the migrant workers enabling them to take up better paid jobs at home and migration destinations.</p> Deepak Chandra Bhatt Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 46 69 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62110 What Artefacts may Reveal and Hide about Power? Insights from the Pillars at Ningalasaini Temple, Far West Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62113 <p>This paper deals with a type of organisation found at the temple of the goddess Ningala Saini, in Dehi Mandu, Baitadi district, Far Western Nepal. The temple is located in a region where small independent kingdoms ruled by Chand Thakuri kings developed after the fall of the Khas Malla Empire (12-14th century), between the two antagonistic powers of Kumaon to its east, and of Doti, to its west. The temple of the goddess Ningala Saini stands as a neutral territory, ruled by lower-rank ritual kings, and it presents a complex arrangement of artefacts related to power. Supported by massive wooden pillars, carved with motifs, the temple is also surrounded by a forest of pillars or posts (kham, maul) of varying sizes, colours and shapes. The paper aims to explore the variety of signs that the different pillars found at Ningala Saini stand for, and what they may reveal, or purposely hide, of the local configuration of power.</p> Marie Lecomte-Tilouine Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 70 83 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62113 Precast and Prestressed Concrete for the Future Construction of Sudurpaschim https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62131 <p>Concrete is the second most consumed material in the earth after water. While concrete has been used for more than 2000 years, widespread use of precast elements has emerged as the latest concrete technology for quality of construction. Precast concrete follows modular construction approach which is sometimes classified as one of the top ten construction innovations. The widespread application of precast concrete was augmented by the invention of prestressed concrete as a revolutionary technology in concrete. This study provides an overview of the use of precast and prestressed concrete technology in Nepal. It highlights the benefits of concrete for national economy by utilizing domestic resources and in realizing sustainable development through durable construction. Recent applications of precast and prestressed concrete in Nepal are highlighted, with examples from various structures including building, river training, and slope stability, hydropower and tunnel projects. The challenging aspects of precast and prestressed construction are also illustrated with examples. Research and development of precast and prestressed concrete products in Nepal are highlighted by presenting the initiatives from experimental studies and academic research. Even though Nepal is in the early stage of application of precast and prestressed concrete technology, the initial applications indicate huge potential and great benefits of application of such products for the faster, cost-effective and durable construction in various parts of Nepal.</p> Bishnu Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 84 100 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62131 The Gendered Implication of Declining Spring Sources in the Rangun Watershed Area https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62134 <p>Rangun Khola watershed of Mahakali River Basin, located in Dadeldhura District in the mid[1]hill region of Nepal, serves as a model watershed for the region’s challenges associated with climate change. Springs are the lifeline for human survival and ecosystems in such watersheds. Data of spring discharge change of 1,122 springs in the region between 1998 and 2008 estimated using recall method showed that spring sources are drying up raising critical concern not only in terms of ecological wellbeing but also in terms of the community’s access to water. This study used data collected from focus group discussions and household survey to evaluate the gender implications of such dwindling spring sources in the watershed area. Results show that historically, women have been managing the majority of the family’s water demands. Due to declining spring water sources, women are becoming more time impoverished due to the lengthier time required for water collection, which has an effect on their own and their family’ well-being. Limited participation from women, the population most directly affected by climate change was found in local adaptation planning procedures. This study adds evidence of the gendered effects of climate change and advocates for the promotion of gender-responsive local adaptation planning in the water management sector.</p> Anju Pandit Okke Batelaan Smrittee Kala Panta Vishnu Prasad Pandey Sanot Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 101 116 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62134 Study of Common Construction Practices and Structural Defects in RC Buildings in Darchula District Far-Western Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62137 <p>This paper presents the common construction and structural deficiencies noticed in Mahakali municipality Darchula. The RC building constructions are common in the Darchula district. The main objective of this study is to find existing structural and construction mistakes in RC buildings. Field observations, interviews with engineers, technical people, local house owners, photographs, reviews of works of literature, bye-laws, buildings code, etc. are taken to fulfill the objective ofthe study. This paper examines the cause and effects of faulty construction practices and structural defects by using both analytical and numerical methods. Structural defects are present in the RC buildings due to improper construction methods, poor use of bye[1]laws, poor workmanship; do not consult with professionals, corruption, lack of training, etc. The results show that these structural defects and faulty constructions practice may lead to serious failures of structures during strong earthquakes. This study provides relevant information on the building’s collapse in a recent earthquake (Gorkha 2015) and the major cause of failure of RC buildings to compare the defects present in existing RC buildings in the Darchula district. The results concluded that almost 48% of buildings have column sizes less than 300mmx300mm, 24% of buildings have poor beam-column joints and 11% of buildings are soft storey and irregular building shapes. The numerical results pointed out that non-engineered buildings show poor seismic performance, poor seismic capacity and failure mechanism. The study strongly recommended that to prevent future hazards, the construction of buildings should follow the building’s laws and codes and also should be ensured by the municipality and other government bodies also provides sufficient training and knowledge in the local level. To improve the existing structures, it is important to increase the strength capacity and ductility of the joint by providing a suitable retrofitting process or maintenance process.</p> Birendra Kumar Bohara Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 117 137 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62137 Evaluation of Nepali Aggregates for Alkali-silica Reactivity Using Accelerated Mortar Bar Test Method https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62148 <p>In many countries, large concrete structures needed to be replaced by new structures because treatment of Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) was not feasible. Availability of amorphous or poorly crystalline silica is a necessary condition for ASR and it has been a common problem in several countries located in cold geographical regions. Some Nepali rocks also comprise amorphous silica as detected in Sanjen Hydropower Project (SHP) and Tanahu Hydropower Project (THP) during the examination of aggregate through various tests. ASR kinetics and the resulting expansion are observed to be enhanced with an increase in temperature and humidity. Accordingly, the risk of ASR is expected to be prominent in Nepal where temperature and humidity are relatively high. However, systematic research on ASR in Nepal is scarce and the possibility of ASR is little known. This paper determines the reactivity of potential aggregate sources considered for some large infrastructures in Nepal. Accelerated mortar bar test based on the guidelines of ASTM C1260 was performed on aggregate specimens collected from the Pokhara Regional International Airport Project (PRIAP), THP, and SHP. 14-day longitudinal expansion of the mortar bar prepared from the aggregated collected from PRIAP, THP, and SHP was 0.1%, 0.17%, and 0.06% respectively. The aggregate collected from THP is deleterious, whereas aggregate collected from PRIAP and SHP is non-reactive. This study demonstrates that Nepal may have many sources of aggregates that are reactive.</p> Pawan Acharya Bishnu Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 138 150 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62148 Vernacular Architecture of a Rural Magar Settlement of Nepal: The Case of Taka, Putha Uttarganga Rural Municipality, East Rukum https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62149 <p>The vernacular settlement of the Magar community in the Taka village of East Rukum are still lively, and represent the society, cultural and history of the place, which reflects the sustainable living pattern of a rural community. This study of Taka village clearly defines the geography, settlement pattern, community groups, settlement cluster, social structure, construction of dwelling and rituals. It further identifies the dwelling types and construction technology on the basis of three features: i. representation of each community, ii. Representation of each locality, and iii. Representation of variation in house form. The settlement pattern and dwelling form in a way represent the characteristics of social structure and life style in the sharing of spaces of the dwelling environment. The dwelling form, building materials and construction technology blends with the terrain profile and climate creating a harmonious settlement pattern with nature and society. There is also community awareness on the conservation of Taka rural settlement heritage which is the positive sign on maintaining the identity of the community and place.</p> Mohan Moorti Pant Ram Prasad Suwal Sampurna Maharjan Orna Awale Rajan Shrestha Punam Lakha Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 151 166 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62149 Effect of Different Methods and Planting Density on the Growth and Yield of Spring Rice at Tikapur, Kailali https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62150 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy farm, Far Western University, Tikapur-1 to study the effect of different planting methods and density on yield of spring rice variety (chaite-4), when sown a month earlier than normal time. The research was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with seven treatments and three replications during Feb-June, 2022. The treatments consisted of planting methods viz. early broadcasting (T1 ), early line sowing (T2 ) on the day of nursery bed (1st Feb), transplanting 20 hills m-2(T3 ), transplanting 30 hills m-2 (T4 ), transplanting 40 hills m-2 (T5 ), late broadcasting (T6 ) and late line sowing, (T7 ) on the day of transplanting (2nd Mar). The results showed that transplanting significantly outperformed broadcasting method of rice planting in terms of yield attributing traits and yield. Broadcasting method showed significant reduction in tiller number, biological yield and grain yield than line sowing. But performance of late line sown rice was better than early line sown rice. Similarly transplanting 30 hills m-2 showed significant effect in early tiller formation followed by 20 hills-2resulting in significant increase in grain yield of spring rice as compared to transplanting 40 hills m-2. There was no difference in tiller number between line sown rice either early or late. This study recommends sowing of 30 hills m-2 and suggests further research on line sowing of spring rice at different dates ranging from 1st February to 3rd March at same planting density to define appropriate time for preponing planting time under similar condition.</p> Raksha Sharma Niranjan K. Kushwaha Kumar Gupta Naresh Joshi Pramo Kumar Sah Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 167 176 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62150 Being a Naturalist Guide in Bardiya, Nepal: Evolution and Retrospective Analysis https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62151 <p>This article, dealing with the profession of guiding in Bardiya National Park, is based on a previous paper (Vouiller, 2022) recently published in Studies in Nepali History and Society (SINHAS, Kathmandu), highlighting data gathered in 2019 with that of 2021-2022. While I presented the guide profession as being a clever adaptation to modernity, as an ‘in-between’, I would like here to accentuate the role of social networks, the process of ‘’heroisation’’ that takes place, but also the importance of the senses and the reading of signs in the practice of the profession. Bardiya National Park, established between 1988 and 1989, hosts very little anthropological work, it is more the object of research from developmental or natural sciences. The PhD I am currently pursuing in social and political sciences in Belgium (ULiège) and France (EHESS), is based on more than one year of fieldwork in Bardiya. It aims to understand how humans adapt psycho-corporeally and socially to the proximity of the Park’s animals. I am working with participant observation, semi-directive interviews with the professions most in contact with the animals of the Park, direct and indirect observations of encounters and finally linguistic analysis of the terms used in the discourses and on social media.</p> <p>The guiding subject in Bardiya is complex and representative of very topical internal and political tensions. Based on part of my doctoral work, I hope to show some of the factors that I believe will determine the future of tourism and human-animal cohabitation in Bardiya.</p> Nolwen Vouiller Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 177 193 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62151 Perspectives of HRM Professionals on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62153 <p>Diversity Management has not yet been a significant part of now much discussed topic HRM in Nepal although the concepts of Diversity Management (DM) emerged in the USA, Canada in 1980s. Most of the developed countries in European Union have been the flagship of diversity management. There is handful of renowned organizations today either catering HRM services or implementing full-fledged HRM discipline in their own organizations. College text books and, seminars and dialogues conducted by development sectors have indicated that the emergence of concepts of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) is pertinent in today’s context. In developed countries, both profit making and non-profit making organizations have been emphasizing the concepts of DEI and focusing on those in organizations. It’s a thought[1]provoking idea to learn the perspectives of current organization leaders in Nepal about their views on DEI. The article has been prepared based on findings of in-depth interviews taken with leaders and/or senior HR managers of reputed companies those are promoting HRM in Nepal. It attempts to provide an exploratory review seeking to shed light on their perspectives of regarding DEI in their pre-established HRM domain. The article explores the opinions, experiences and competencies and the initiatives taken by HRM leaders. The article also discusses the challenges faced by the HRM leaders in the pursuit of promoting the diversity management.</p> Ujjwal Sundas Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 194 207 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62153 Investigating the Nature of Plasma Oscillations in Cold Plasma https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62155 <p>Plasma oscillations are one of the important phenomena in plasma. The research in the field of plasma oscillation has a long history for more than six decades. The cold plasma is one in which electron temperature is very large but the neutral atoms are at room temperature. This study aims to obtain electron number density, electric field and velocity profile in cold plasma. Analytical method has been used to conduct this study. Fluid equations were solved to get the solution for number density, electric field and velocity of electron. To get the solution, first fluid equations are transferred to Lagrangian co-ordinates, where equations become linear and expression for respective parameter was obtained. A sinusoidal perturbation was taken as an initial condition and solution for number density; electric field and velocity were obtained. Value of perturbation was varied and corresponding waveforms were achieved and analyzed. As the perturbation increases the wave amplitude also increased. It is found that as the perturbation value is there is wave breaking in number density profile. Unlike in the number density, no such wave breaking is obtained for electric field and velocity profile. However the amplitude of waveform of electric field and velocity profile found to increases with increase in perturbation level.</p> Prem Raj Joshi Keshab Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 208 224 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62155 Impact of Microfinance on Women Empowerment: A Study Based Upon Micro Finance Institutions of Kanchanpur, Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/62156 <p>This study explores the transformative impact of microfinance on the lives of women in Kanchanpur, emphasizing the role of microcredit in fostering economic self-reliance and social empowerment. The research aims to analyze the contributions of women entrepreneurs, evaluate socio-economic activities, and assess the effectiveness of microfinance in improving living standards. The investigation focuses on the ability of group-based micro loans to alleviate poverty, address socio-economic vulnerability, and foster the formation of social capital among women in Kanchanpur.</p> <p>Using a descriptive survey research method with both quantitative and qualitative paradigms, the study randomly selects 350 informants from five microfinance institutions in Kanchanpur. Data collection involves schedules, focus group discussions, interviews, and field observations. The research framework includes control, dependent, and independent variables, with four criteria—access, creation, and control over private resources; decision-making freedom at home; self-confidence in socio-economic activities; and status in the community and family— used to examine the impact of microfinance on women’s empowerment.</p> <p>The empirical findings reveal that small loans provided by microfinance institutions stimulate income-generating activities among rural women, leading to improvements in their well-being and socio-economic status. The study concludes that women owning and utilizing microcredit positively influences their decision-making abilities at home, contributing to an overall elevation of their socio-economic status. The results suggest a need for government initiatives to facilitate rural women through targeted microcredit schemes, thereby further promoting women’s empowerment in Kanchanpur.</p> Nisha Bhatt Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 1 2 225 240 10.3126/fwr.v1i2.62156