Far Western Review https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr <p>Far Western Review is a multidisciplinary, double-blind, peer reviewed journal published by Far Western University, Mahendranagar, Kanchanpur, Nepal.</p> Far Western University en-US Far Western Review 3021-9019 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC</a>: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator.</p> Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah: Of Hybrid Subjectivity, its Locations and Subverting Potential https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58268 <p>This paper looks into Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s <em>Americanah </em>as a postcolonial text. Using the Bhabhaian constructs of “mimicry,” “hybridity” and “the third space,” this paper argues that Adichie’s narrative portrays how the coming together of cultures induces “mimicry” of the cultural norms of the seemingly dominant culture. Owing to this “mimicry” the mimicking characters develop a “hybrid” identity characterized by “ambivalence.” This paper also argues that the location/ site of mimicry and consequent development of hybrid identity are not conditional upon physical migration, or moving beyond the borders of one’s homeland. The tendency to look up to the supposedly dominant culture can prevail within the confines of natives’ own society as well, which is perhaps an indication of the post-colonial society still reeling under the continued colonial influence. Whatever maybe the location of “hybrid” characters, “ambivalence” invariably crops up in their identity. Although ambivalence indicates being indecisive about one’s identity, and about how one looks at the identity of the other, it might also mean emancipation from the burden of restricting and discriminating categories as exemplified by Adichie’s narrative. In the ambivalent state the hybrid subjects can nurture hopes to rise above the assumed purity of cultures. The native- colonial or white-black nexus in this sense may be understood to have steered away from confrontation, and found a way towards reconciliation.</p> Anuradha Rokaya Copyright (c) 2023 Anuradha Rokaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 1 10 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58268 Inequality and Education: A Critical Analysis of Class Theories in the Present Context https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58270 <p>The purpose of this article is to analyze how education works in Nepal based on theories related to class inequality. The paper argues that the unequal distribution of wealth and power, prestige, social discrimination and cultural hegemony creates social inequality. Karl Marx and Max Weber made significant contributions to the study of social inequality arguing that the education system is controlled by the class that has the most wealth and power. As a result, the ruling class of Nepal has not paid much attention to improving the quality of government schools to be studied by children of lower economic classes. However, the class structure is in the changing process at present. The service sector is becoming wider than the manufacturing sector. The role of the manager is stronger than that of the owner. The education system is closely related to the new class structure. Therefore, the present educational inequality cannot be understood only from the viewpoint of the traditional class system. It is necessary to understand and find solutions to the new class structure created on the basis of economic as well as cultural hegemony and administrative status in the present context of the world including Nepal. And equality and quality should be sought in education to reduce class inequality in Nepali society. For this, it is necessary to make structural changes from national policy to classroom teaching and learning.</p> Bhawan Singh Chalaune Copyright (c) 2023 Bhawan Singh Chalaune https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 11 23 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58270 Awareness of Consumer Rights on Marketing Practices in Kailali District of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58271 <p>The aim of this study is to examine the awareness status of consumer rights on marketing practices in Kailali district of Nepal. The empirical study depends on a convenience sample of 418 consumers in different locations of Kailali district with a structured questionnaire to measure consumer awareness regarding four consumer rights: Right to safety, right to be informed, right to choose and right to be heard, utilizing a five-point Likert scale for measurement. The overall findings show that the current consumers’ awareness towards marketing practices related to protection of consumer rights is <em>medium </em>favorable. There is significant difference among the gender, age group, occupation and educational level except location of the consumers related to the consumer awareness. In addition, consumer awareness leads to a rational buying behavior, critical thinking, right decision to purchase, improved life skills, increased self-confidence and safe from market exploitations. The outcomes of the study become important to consumers, consumer forum, business firms, government units and policy makers for understanding the current status of consumer rights with implications for better business practices issuing on policy making for consumer protection.</p> Dhavindra Rawal Copyright (c) 2023 Dhavindra Rawal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 24 42 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58271 Teaching Large Classes: What Teachers Say and Do? https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58273 <p>Class size is often considered as one of the crucial factors that determines the effectiveness of teaching and learning in the classroom setting. In Nepal, large classes are very common in rural areas or even in urban areas. This study presents the findings of an empirical study on the challenges of teaching in large classes and how teachers are dealing with these challenges in Nepal. The main aim of this article is to explore the challenges of teaching in large classes and to find out the strategies they can be adapted to overcome these problems. The research was conducted by including 10 teachers teaching large classes, following a qualitative research design with a judgmental, non-random sampling procedure. Interviews and classroom observations were taken as the main research tools for the data collection. The research findings are divided into two categories: the challenges of teaching in large classes and how they deal with the large classes. Mainly, teachers found student participation, classroom management, disciplinary issues, and individual feedback as the main problems, and to deal with these problems, they explored various strategies like grouping students, changing seats of students, setting a code of conduct, and using alternative ways of giving feedback.</p> Gambhir Bahadur Chand Copyright (c) 2023 Gambhir Bahadur Chand https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 43 54 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58273 Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Management Graduates of Far Western University towards the Entrepreneurship Intention https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58275 <p>Entrepreneurs are contributing a lot for the economic and social development of each country of world. The aim of this study is to explore perceived benefits and challenges of management graduates of Far Western University towards the entrepreneurial intention. Data were collected from 107 students who are currently studying M.Phil., MBA and MBS in central campus Far Western University. A set of questionnaires was designed as the main instrument of data collection which consist the 17 questions related to perceived strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the respondents. Out of the 17 questions, first four are related to the opportunities, second five are related to challenges, third four are related to strength and last four are related to weakness. The instrument for data collection comprised of 6-point Likert type scale. To explore the perceived benefits and challenges of entrepreneurship intentions of management graduates of Far Western university descriptive statistics has been used. Data were processed by using computer software SPSS. The result indicates that ongoing rapid urbanization has perceived a great opportunity or highly motivates the students to start up business and financial problem is perceived as main obstacles to be an entrepreneur.</p> Hari Shankar Pant Copyright (c) 2023 Hari Shankar Pant https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 55 61 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58275 Stomatal Variation in Wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Disomic Addition Lines https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58276 <p>Stomatal characteristics are inconsistent and greatly influenced by genetics of the plant and environmental conditions. Present study aimed to determine the impact of addition of a pair of chromosomes from <em>Thinopyrum elongatum</em> (2n=14, Genome EE) to common wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> cv. “Chinese Spring”; 2n=42, Genome AABBDD) on stomatal characteristics. Altogether, seven Wheat-<em>Th. elongatum</em> disomic addition lines and a control (Chinese Spring) were used to characterize the density, length, and width of stomata, and the total stomatal area in normal and flag leaves by using leaf impression method. The leaf impressions were made from the middle of the leaves of different wheat lines. The leaves used for impression cast were of the same age. Stomatal density was measured in terms of number of stomata under the field of vision at 400X magnification, while the size (length and width) measurements of individual stomata were done by using ImageJ software. With the exception of flag leaves of 1E disomic addition line, the total stomatal area in leaves of all the lines were significantly lower than that in the control, irrespective of leaf types (normal or flag). These results indicate the potential role of additional chrormosomes of <em>Th. elongatum</em> in stress tolerance in wheat.</p> Homnath Khatiwada Deepak Raj Pant Giri Prasad Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Homnath Khatiwada, Deepak Raj Pant, Giri Prasad Joshi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 62 72 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58276 Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth of Nepalese Economy https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58328 <p>This paper aims to identify the impact of external debt on the GDP of Nepal using a qualitative and quantitative research design (mixed design). The test of the unit root of the series is the first step in determining whether the data are stationary or not. An augmented Dicky-Fuller unit root test and a co-integration test are employed to check the relationship of the variables under study. This study reveals that LNED, LNGFCF, LNTR, LNEXP, LNREM, and LNBRATE are insignificant. The coefficient of LNED (-0.82) implies that a 1 percent increase in external debt leads to a decrease of 0.82 percent in gross domestic production, just as a 1 percent increase in gross fixed capital formation contributes to an increase of 3.28 percent in GDP. other macroeconomic variables like the coefficient of LNTR (-3.78) imply that a 1 percent increase in total revenue decreases 3.78 percent in GDP; the coefficient of LNEXP (2.93) implies that a 1 percent increase in government expenditure increases 2.93 percent in GDP. In the same way, LNREM and LNBRATE contribute negatively to GDP. The speed of adjustment from the previous year’s disequilibrium in GDP added to the current year’s equilibrium is only 20.63 percent. Heteroscedasticity test: Breusch-Pagan-Godfrey and normality test are greater than 5 percent, which is desirable. So, this model is free from heteroscedasticity. The residual is normally distributed. The model is robust and stable, as both the lines’ long-run and short-run coefficients are acceptable over the study period from 1974/1975 to 2019/20. The diagnostic tests confirm that the models have the desired econometric properties.</p> Keshar Bahadur Kunwar Copyright (c) 2023 Keshar Bahadur Kunwar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 73 86 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58328 Transformation of Built Environment in Karnali and Far Western Himalayan Region of Nepal: A Case Study of Settlements of Chandannath and Martadi https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58329 <p>The built environment in Nepal has undergone significant changes due to the construction of transport infrastructures, particularly roads, and the establishment of local governments in 2015. The Karnali and Far Western Himalayan Region (KAFHR) in Nepal have unique traditional rural settlements characterized by distinctive settlement patterns, house forms, roof structures, building materials, and spaces. In the upper Karnali region, buildings have flat mud roofs called ‘Thada’ and are interconnected at the roof level known as ‘Bada,’ which serves as a public gathering place. In the Far Western region, buildings have sloped roofs covered with slates and are connected through courtyards, narrow passages, and public spaces. The development of road access and the influx of population have transformed these settlements, not only as market centers but also in terms of their patterns and features. The new political and administrative power of municipalities has influenced the self-governance of these settlements. However, they still face significant risks from disasters such as landslides and earthquakes. This paper focuses on analyzing the transformations in two settlements, Chandannath-Jumla and Martadi-Bajura, using a mixed-method approach. The study utilizes secondary data from literature reviews, spatial analysis, and open street maps through a QGIS-based application. Additionally, the knowledge of local citizens is incorporated through key informant interviews, enabling the development of a trajectory of settlement transformation from 2000 to 2020. The analysis identifies various drivers of transformation in socio-cultural, ecological-environmental, economic, and political domains, along with their dynamics. By filling the knowledge gap regarding the transformation process in the KAFHR, this research contributes to understanding process of shaping settlement patterns, forms, features, inclusivity, and sustainability in these regions.</p> Madhab Raj Neupane Kishan Datta Bhatta Copyright (c) 2023 Madhab Raj Neupane, Kishan Datta Bhatta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 87 121 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58329 Evaluating the Practices of Monitoring Mechanism in Local Government https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58330 <p>This paper seeks to evaluate the existing practices of monitoring system and explore the perception of stakeholders towards the monitoring mechanism of the local government. Additionally, it assesses the strengths and weaknesses of monitoring system of the local government provisioned by the Act (LGOA-2017) in Nepal. The paper applies a descriptive research design, as well as in-depth interviews to justify its findings. Separate questionnaire schedules were used to collect information from both service providers and recipients. Similarly, a tested observation checklist was used to assess the compliance with the current monitoring actions of the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools using the SPSS computing technique. The findings of the study show that local governments have not adequately followed the monitoring practices and processes. However, the elected representatives and the citizens have taken monitoring action as a positive way. It appears that monitoring mechanism has served as a tool for local governance activities and service delivery. Yet, local governments have not prioritized monitoring tools as a governance compliance strategy. It is necessary to institutionalize the monitoring mechanism for effective service delivery.</p> Min Bahadur Shahi Copyright (c) 2023 Min Bahadur Shahi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 122 142 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58330 Perspectives of Teachers Towards Students with Diverse Disability: A Case of Special School in Kailali District https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58332 <p>Working with differently able children in the classroom is challenging in under-resourced contexts for Nepal teachers. This study explores teachers’ perceptions toward managing the diversity of the students in terms of disability, teaching-learning activities, assessment practices, and interpersonal skills in a special school. This qualitative study adopts a case study design. In-depth Interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), and participant observation were the major methods for data collection. Six teachers (three ordinary and three with disability) for FGD and two key informants (head teacher and chairperson) were selected purposively for in-depth Interviews from a special school located at Attariya in Kailali district. The study shows that teachers have positive perceptions toward disabilities, especially teachers with disability. Teachers have invested efforts in managing diversity in instruction and in assessment; however, it is challenging due to the traditional approach of teaching and evaluation, lack of training and resources, and the gap between policies and practices. The study further indicates that teachers’ positive perceptions and extracurricular activities are crucial for developing students’ interpersonal skills.</p> Narayan Datta Bhatta Copyright (c) 2023 Narayan Datta Bhatta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 143 159 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58332 Deudā: A Verbal Art of the Subaltern https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58333 <p>Folk songs express the felt experiences and feelings of the common mass and seek to re-envision the traditions and practices of society. <em>Deudā</em>, in particular, is a folk poetic song popular in the Sudurpaschim and Karnali regions. The present research on <em>Deudā</em> songs holds special promise as it opens up avenues to look into folk traditions, practices, and social standings. Delving into Antonio Gramsci, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, and Ranajit Guha’s ideas of the subaltern, this study analyzes social association and representation by touching upon the subaltern consciousness in <em>Deudā</em>. It attempts to make an assessment of <em>Deudā</em> as the art of the humble people from the lower strata of life who create it to express their emotions and subaltern consciousness. The researcher has used interviews, focus group discussions, and observation as data collection techniques in this qualitative research. The main purpose of this study is to examine the voices of people from the margins, such as peasants, poor, women, and unprivileged caste groups belonging to the lower echelons of the communities, who express their felt experiences of life and break their silent marginal borders through <em>Deudā</em> songs. The findings of this research show that the <em>Deudā</em> songs convey the throbbing hearts of the subaltern people of the region with their emotions of pain, pathos, suffering, misery, hardships, compassion, fury or anger, silent protest, and rebellion</p> Narendra Bahadur Air Copyright (c) 2023 Narendra Bahadur Air https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 160 172 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58333 Statistically Left Outs and Socio-Historically Legitimized Groups in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58335 <p>This article explores the realities underpinning the statistically left outs and socio-historically legitimized groups in Nepal by relating the Vedic and Western theoretical perspectives to perceive the reality at the grassroots level. It does so by summarizing the Vedic perspectives and various sociological theories and then looking at the local issues linking with the Western perspectives with my reflection. It reveals that experiential knowledge, globalization, and legitimization are the major sociological aspects influencing the Structure of Nepalese society. The article concludes that the ruling class prepares Statistical data for their purpose, which leaves out the actual/accurate data about the subaltern, ethnic, and minority groups. Voices of the poor students, girls, ethnic and minority group of the School can be addressed by making the policy in education and transforming the school structure with inclusive pedagogy into equity and equality social environment for the students is the major implication of this article.</p> Nathuram Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2023 Nathuram Chaudhary https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 173 186 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58335 Actuarial Profession and Factor Impacting on the Role of Partly Qualified Actuaries in Insurance Companies of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58337 <p>Actuarial science is a discipline that assesses financial risks in the field of insurance and finance using mathematical and statistical methods. Actuaries are creative, curious and adaptable human resources and problem solvers, who need to possess different skills and knowledge to solve risk-related problems. Partly Qualified Actuaries (PQA) are semi-professional actuary. They are in the process of studying &amp; appearing for the professional exams, while also garnering work experience &amp; skills in an entry-level Actuary job. From analyzing the financial costs of risk and uncertainty to pricing and reserving, partly qualified actuaries are important in doing the basic to advanced actuarial tasks in these businesses. The research paper investigates the role of partly qualified actuaries in the insurance industry in Nepal and analyzes the factors impacting the role of PQA in Nepalese insurance companies. Basically, this research paper investigates the role of partly qualified actuary in Nepal and to studies the scenario of partly qualified actuary in Nepal. The research uses qualitative and quantitative data collected from PQA, insurance companies’ staffs, policy makers and some academicians of Nepal who are well informed about actuary. The research shows that the number of PQA is increasing in Nepal every year and they are working in different insurance companies. The study shows that Partly Qualified Actuaries can reduce the need for foreign actuaries in Nepal.</p> Om Prakash Bhatt Copyright (c) 2023 Om Prakash Bhatt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 187 208 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58337 Bhuwo Nāch: A Multifaceted Ritual Performance of Sudurpaschim https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58338 <p>This paper aims to explore the multifaceted theatrical performativity of ritualistic <em>Bhuwo Nāch </em>on the occasion of <em>Bhuwo Parva</em>. To reflect on the performative diversity of this dance, the researcher has observed the performance during the festival, especially in Bajhang. <em>Bhuwo Nāch </em>is a traditional folk dance of the people dwelling in hilly regions, especially in Bajhang, Achcham, Bajura, and Doti districts of Sudurpaschim Province of Nepal. The research is based on participant observation, interviews, and focus group discussion. The findings of the study show that <em>Bhuwo Nāch </em>is a ritual performative folk dance which imparts diverse facets of social interaction, religio-cultural performance, regional identity, oral tradition, fits of valorous display and tactics of survival against the natural odds and human intolerance. The dance is performed to carry ritual significance through theatrical performance, shape social identity, display valorous community standing, reveal social reality, maintain harmony among the community people, give continuity to cultural orality, and enhance survival strategy.</p> Pusp Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Pusp Raj Joshi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 209 222 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58338 Walker’s The Color Purple: Portrayal of Celie’s Struggle from Servitude to Sovereignty https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58340 <p>This paper attempts to explore Celie’s struggle for independence in a male dominated African American society as depicted in Alice Walker’s <em>The Color Purple</em> (1982). Focusing on the lives of African-American women in the Southern United states during 1930s, it unfolds the events of black male brutality towards black women. It exposes the ways that the central character, Celie, pursues, when she proceeds to her long journey to freedom. Celie passes through a difficult path of racial/patriarchal oppression before she gets sovereignty. She accepts the solidarity of the female community to accomplish her quest for identity. Applying textual inquiry approach, the present paper highlights the role of deep female relationships in the life of Celie, a poor black girl. Celie becomes stronger when she gets support from other women, which helps her to emancipate herself from the evils of patriarchy and sexism. Celie’s freedom goes through physical, then spiritual, and finally economic phases, specifically, when she establishes her own business. Narrating the accounts of under privileged black community, Walker clarifies that ‘womanism’ is the only medium that helps to liberate inconspicuous southern black women from patriarchy and structural racism and sexism. The harsh circumstances are the key factors which make African American community captive and black women’s lives miserable.</p> Rajendra Prasad Bhatt Copyright (c) 2023 Rajendra Prasad Bhatt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 223 232 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58340 Awareness on Risk Factors and Warning Signs and Belief about Cancer among General Public in a Community of Biratnagar, Morang https://nepjol.info/index.php/fwr/article/view/58341 <p>Globally, cancer is the leading cause of death and increasing in trend in Nepal. Lack of awareness on cancer, particularly of its risk factors, possible signs and screening guidelines is the barrier for early detection of cancer. Myths and misconceptions related to cancer screening need to be tackled through public health education programs. Hence, this study aims to assess the awareness about cancer risk factors, warning signs, and beliefs about cancer in the general public. Descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted, and a total of 188 households in a community at Biratnagar-8, Morang were included by using the systematic random sampling. Sampling frame was designed using interval of 17 (K<sup>h </sup>interval) to meet the sample size. Face to face interview was conducted to collect data within a 4- week period. Data was analyzed in IBM SPSS version 16, and descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean were calculated and are presented in tables. Out of the 188 study participants, more than half belonged to 20-35 years age group, with a mean age 45.9 years, and two-thirds (69.7%) were female. The majority (80.9%) of study participants had inadequate awareness on risk factors and warning signs of cancer. However, half of them believed that cancer can be diagnosed at early stages (49.5%) and preventable (46.8%). The study concluded that study participants had inadequate awareness on risk factors and warning signs of cancer. Therefore, there is an urgent need to focus for the development and implementation of public campaigns to increase awareness on cancer.</p> Roshani Gautam Bhagwaty Kalikotay Deepika Khadgi Maskey Copyright (c) 2023 Roshani Gautam, Bhagwaty Kalikotay, Deepika Khadgi Maskey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 1 1 233 242 10.3126/fwr.v1i1.58341