Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal <p>Official journal of the Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Balkhu, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal en-US Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal 2631-2425 <p>© Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry</p> Editorial Vol.20(1) <p>Not Available</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2023 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 Agroforestry: An Inspirational Case of Diversified Farmers Income and Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Mid-hills of Central Nepal <p>Agroforestry (AF) plays an important role in food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and environmental resources preservation and restoration. This study was carried out in Raksirang rural municipality of Makwanpur district, Nepal aiming at assessing existing AF practices, their contribution to climate change adaptation, household income and livelihood improvement of the indigenous <em>Chepang</em> Community. Mixed methodological approaches including key informant interviews, group discussions, household surveys were employed for data collection. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics (percentage, mean, frequency distribution, graphics) and F-test. Local communities have been found practicing various AF systems including Agri-silviculture, Silvo-pasture, Horti-silviculture, Apiculture and Silvo-fishery. Adoption of AF practices contributed 72.82% of total Household’s income, in which income from livestock was highest (32.88%). The strategies followed by the local communities in response to climate change included planting of trees and grasses, improved farming practices by growing commercial fruits; replacing farm activities with non-farm activities; use of&nbsp; farm yard manure, chemical fertilizer, pesticides and planting crop earlier than actual sowing time. Trees and grass plantation should be done periodically and promotion of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in their AF practices should be encouraged. It will finally contribute in the improvement of local adaptation.</p> Anita Bhattarai Kabita Pandey Gayatri Paudel Sanjeeb Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 1 11 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64266 Exploring the Potentiality of Ecotourism in Betana Simsar Community Forest, Koshi Province, Nepal <p>The Government of Nepal has focused on ecotourism activities within community forests; but not all community forests are equally potential for ecotourism. This paper mainly focuses on available facilities and services regarding ecotourism development; and tries to analyse local people’s perception of ecotourism promotion as well as visitor’s satisfaction in the Betana Simsar Community Forest of Morang district in Koshi province, eastern Nepal to explore the potentiality of ecotourism.&nbsp; This research was based mainly on household survey (n=53), visitor’s interviews (n=96), key informant survey (n=10) and observation of available infrastructure related to ecotourism development. The study revealed that rich biodiversity and natural scenery of the wetland have attracted more than four million visitors annually. The income received from the tourism has not only supported management of the community forest but also provided employment to eight local people and supported local livelihoods. Two third of the visitors were found satisfied with the available facilities and natural beauty of the area. These facts show the opportunities for ecotourism development in Betana Simsar community forest; however, lack of institutional collaboration among different agencies has been identified major limitation for converting this potentiality into the reality.</p> Bina Kumari Rajbanshi Keshav Raj Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 12 24 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64271 Forest Product Preference and Timber Subsidies: Unveiling Economic Differences in Forests of Eastern Mid-hill <p>The preferences of forest users regarding forest products are shaped by diverse socio-economic conditions, contributing to a complex preference-policy nexus. However, the factors influencing these preferences remain puzzling. This study aimed to analyze the preferences for forest products and assess the relevance of price subsidies across different economic strata (i.e., rich, medium, poor, and ultra-poor) based on cases from four community forests. &nbsp;The study employed stratified random sampling and well-being rankings to explore the socio-economic dynamics in community forests. Our findings revealed significant variations in forest product preferences among economic classes, with the wealthier class favoring timber, the medium preferring fuel wood, and the poorest class striving for fodder. Despite efforts to implement price subsidies, they proved ineffective, as the discounted timber rates failed to attract households with lower income. Therefore, to ensure the sustainability of community forestry, this study recommends initiating discussions among policymakers to develop policies that facilitate a fair distribution system. One practical solution suggested is to reconsider the current subsidized price differences between wealth groups. By addressing these issues, community forestry can achieve a more equitable and sustainable approach.</p> Prayash Ghimire Pragya Khanal Saurav Lamichhane Srijana Baral Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 25 35 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64274 Effect of Various Bamboo Species on Soil Properties in Pani Kholsi Micro-Watershed, Nepal <p>The biological characteristics and growth habits of bamboo enormously contribute to improving physical and chemical properties of soil. This study focuses on understanding the influence of four bamboo species on soil properties: <em>Bambusa tulda, Bambusa balcooa, Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa nutans subsp</em>. cupulata. For this, 15 soil samples were collected from open space (degraded land site) and bamboo species plantation areas in Pani kholsi micro-watershed and analysed in laboratory to determine soil pH, organic carbon content, available Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in soil. The soil pH decreases under all bamboo species compared rather than in open space. Lowest soil pH was recorded in the surface soil of <em>B. balcooa</em> and <em>D. strictus.</em> The organic matter content was the highest in surface soils under <em>B. tulda</em> (1.68%) and the lowest in the soil of open space (0.08%). Similarly, availability of Nitrogen (0.14%) and Phosphorus (4.27 kg/ha) was the highest in surface layer soil under <em>B. tulda</em> but the lowest (0.1% and 0.71 kg/ha respectively) in open space. And, the surface soil under <em>B. tulda</em> had much higher potassium content (68.4 kg/ha) than the soil in open space (8.88 kg/ha). Overall, the soil chemical properties under <em>B. tulda</em> were found to be better than under other species.</p> Pravesh Pandey Madhavi Parajuli Anish KC Aayush Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 36 48 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64275 Survival Status of Young Plants in Paluwatar Plantation Site of Udayapur District, Nepal <p>Forests provide multitude of benefits, including carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, timber production, and recreational opportunities. However, these valuable ecosystems are facing severe threats due to deforestation and land degradation. To counter this, plantation has emerged as a key strategy to restore degraded lands and ensure a continuous supply of ecosystem services. Yet, the success of these plantation sites remains uncertain due to a lack of systematic assessment of their survival status. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluating the survival status of young plantations on degraded riverbanks in Udayapur District, Nepal. Through systematic sampling at 0.5% intensity, 30 plots, each spanning 25 m², were established for regeneration inventory. Soil samples were collected using soil augers to a depth of 30cm for nutrient analysis. Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K) levels were determined using soil testing kits, while organic matter (OM) content was assessed using the Loss-on-Ignition (LOI) method. The results revealed an encouraging overall seedling survival rate of 95% at the research site. Notably, <em>Dalbergia sissoo</em> (Sissoo) and <em>Tectona grandis</em> (Teak) exhibited the highest survival rates at 100%, whereas <em>Phyllanthus emblica</em> (Amala) and <em>Delonix regia</em> (Gulmohar) showed lower survival rates at 40%. The site demonstrated low levels of N, P, and K, alongside high organic matter content. Unexpected high survival rate (95%) despite presence of a low level of nutrients raises intriguing questions about the adaptive mechanisms of the planted tree species.&nbsp; Further replication of similar studies as well as investigation of factors playing crucial role in seedling survival and growth beyond soil nutrient status is recommended.</p> Renuka Khamcha Sandip Poudel Aman Prabhakar Binita Phuyal Jeetendra Gautam Santosh Ayer Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 49 60 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64278 Forest Fire Dynamics in Nepal’s Mid-hills: Insights from Spatial Analysis and Risk Mapping of Doti District <p>Forest fires have significantly contributed to forest degradation and pollution all over Nepal. Despite their high severity, limited studies have been conducted on the spatial-temporal analysis and risk mapping of these fires especially in the Mid-hill region. This study aims to fill this gap by analyzing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data from 2012 to 2022, along with satellite imagery, using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. Nine variables, including land class, distance to roads, proximity to settlements, temperature, wind speed, precipitation, slope, aspect, and elevation, were utilized to identify forest fire patterns and create a fire risk map. A multi-parametric hierarchical weighted index model was employed, with multicollinearity checked (VIF&lt;2) to ensure model accuracy and validated by Area Under Curve (AUC=0.787). The study revealed an increasing trend of forest fires, particularly during March to May, in broad-leaved forests near human interference. Out of the total forested area of 1447.58 km<sup>2</sup>, 42.9%, 46.03%, and 11.07% were classified under high, moderate, and low-risk zones, respectively. The study emphasizes the recurring forest fire problem in often-neglected Mid-hill districts and underscores the need to prioritize them in future strategies.</p> Khagendra Prasad Joshi Ashok Parajuli Keshav Ayer Rashmi Bhatt Ambika Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 61 78 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64283 Diversity and Distribution of 100 Plant Species of a Community Managed Forest from the Mid-Hills of Nepal: A Phytosociological Approach <p>Phytosociology is the study of interrelationship among plant species which classifies the vegetation in a meaningful manner. The aim of this study was to study diversity and distribution of plant species in Gobankholi Community Forest in the Mid-Hills of Nepal which is dominated by <em>Pinus roxburghii.</em> Trees were enumerated in a 400 sq. m. plot, shrubs and climber in&nbsp; a 100 sq. m plot and herbs in a 4 sq. m. plot. Density, frequency, abundance, and important value index of individual species were calculated. Similarly, Simpson's diversity index, Shannon’s diversity index, and Pielou's evenness index were also calculated, based on life form viz. herbs, shrubs and trees.&nbsp; 66 herbs, 8 Pteridophytes, 8 shrubs, 3 climbers and 15 trees were found, among a total of 100 species. The rare orchid, <em>Satyrium nepalense</em>, was found at an altitude of 1275 m a.s.l. Herbs were more diverse and even than trees, shrubs and climbers.<em> Aleuritopteris bicolor</em>, <em>Colebrookea oppositifolia </em>and <em>Pinus roxburghii </em>were the most dominant herb, shrub and tree respectively.</p> Sushank Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 79 94 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64339 Public Perception and Institutional Involvement in Urban Forestry Development in Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City, Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal <p>Urban Forestry is an integral component of sustainable urban development, involving strategic administration of trees and green areas within urban environments. In this dynamic domain, institutional engagement is closely connected with local governments, sub-metropolitan offices, and division forest offices playing crucial roles in shaping policies and regulations. The significance of public perception in urban forestry practices cannot be overstated, as it shapes community involvement and endorsement for initiatives focused on improving environmental quality and urban well-being.&nbsp; The research aims to look into the public perception and institutional involvement in the development of urban forestry in Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City, Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal. It seeks to assess the awareness levels of the residents regarding urban forestry initiatives and understand their perceived benefits and concerns. Simultaneously, the study will analyze the specific roles played by key institutions, including sub-metropolitan offices and division forest offices, in shaping urban forestry within the region. This paper is based on a household survey (n=210) and key informant interviews (n=7) representing the different institutions related to urban forestry. Roadside plantations, park and avenue plantations, as well as community forest management, were the major activities under urban forestry. Regarding the people’s perception, the majority of the respondents (80%) were found to be aware of the advantages associated with urban forestry however only 35% of people were found engaged in urban forestry activities. Over the past few years, the local government has advocated for urban greenery. Despite these efforts, there is a lack of corresponding legislation or regulations specifically addressing urban forestry. Consequently, the effective management of city forestry demands concrete scientific and professional expertise.</p> Shiva Khadka Prakash Ojha Vijay Kumar Yadav Pratap Rijal Hemant Joshi Keshav Raj Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 95 111 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64340 Bird Diversity in Bhaludhunga: Exploring Avian Diversity in Eastern Mid-hills of Nepal <p>Birds are crucial to biodiversity and serve as an indicator of habitat quality, productivity and stability. This study documents the avian diversity in Bhaludhunga Community Forest and associated tea garden in Ilam, which is a part of the Mai Valley Forests Important Bird and Biodiversity Area. It addresses the limited research on avi-faunal diversity in eastern Nepal, particularly outside protected areas. MacKinnon’s Listing method was used to collect the data following the existing trail transect walk in the study area. During the study period, a total of 132 bird species from 41 families of 10 orders were recorded. Order Passeriformes were the most dominant order with 102 species followed by Accipitriformes and Columbiformes. Muscicapidae was the most commonly represented family with 19 species followed by Phylloscopidae, and Pellorneidae. One globally endangered species, Steppe Eagle along with five nationally threatened species was recorded during the survey. Two Restricted Range Species from the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area Spiny Babbler and Yellow-vented Warbler were also recorded in the area. However, extensive survey in the different seasons is required for further exploration of bird community, which might play a crucial role in developing baseline information and implementing conservation implications.</p> Naresh Shrestha Anusha Shrestha Krishna Prasad Bhusal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 20 1 112 125 10.3126/forestry.v20i1.64341