Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal 2022-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Prof. Dr. Krishna Raj Tiwari Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Balkhu, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Editorial Vol.18(1) 2021-12-24T09:52:21+00:00 Editorial Board <p>No abstract available.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Knowledge power nexus in Nepal's community forest planning 2021-12-25T14:51:17+00:00 Srijana Baral Prabal Bir Jung Rana <p>The forest management plans started as simple document turned to complex silviculture based plans that included compartmentalization and detailed mapping of the forests. Several researches focused on the community forestry outcomes, but there is a paucity of studies on the implications GIS based mapping of small patches of community forests from the users perspectives. The plans have switched the users from adopting local knowledge to technical scientific knowledge. Thus, this paper explores the understanding of local communities about the forests and implications of complex GIS tools in community forestry. Taking a case study approach, this study compared participatory maps produced by the local communities with the maps produced through Landsat Image classification in terms of accuracy, acceptability by the local users and associated costs. Semi-structured interviews of community forest user groups and forest bureaucracy and focus group discussions with the users were carried out to analyse the significance of the role of GIS based mapping in community forest management. The findings revealed that participatory maps performed better in terms of accuracy, cost and acceptability by the users. The local communities found it difficult to interpret the GIS-based maps. The users considered that the forest bureaucracy is using these GIS-based maps as a means of controlling the users from a distance. Hence, blending of local and scientific knowledge will yield better results and increase the ownership of technical interventions in community forestry.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Prospects of Payment for Ecosystem Services: Case from Water Service Scheme in Nepal 2021-12-25T15:48:04+00:00 Kunju Dhakal Sushma Bhattarai Benju Dhakal <p>Payment for ecosystem services (PES), a voluntary transaction for the optimum use of scarce natural resources, are highly recommended for conservation of forests and watershed. Despite multiple recommendations, there has not been enough studies regarding PES in Nepal, except for limited areas like hydropower plants and community forests. Every PES scheme is unique, depending upon the conditions prevalent in its site therefore more studies are required to understand appropriateness of PES mechanism. Taking drinking water scheme in Sundarijal watershed as a case, this study assessed drinking water supply scheme prevalent in the site, and prioritized its problems, and expectations, from stakeholders’ perspectives. A phenomenological cross-sectional research approach was used and data were collected through in-depth interviews with major stakeholders. The result transcripts were analyzed in Atlasti version 7 and prioritized based on their frequency. The proper buying and selling mechanisms were not found in the current drinking water supply scheme in Sundarijal. The poor economic condition of users, inadequate funds in water users committee, and inadequate water collection for sales were determined as primary obstacles associated with PES establishment at the study site. Since the area has immense potential for PES, building additional water collection tanks with filter plants, a collaboration of multiple local organizations in the preparation of baseline document, identification of additional water sources, and adequate funding are perquisite to establish proper payment mechanism.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Pitfalls of Scientific Forestry Practices in the Community Forestry of Nepal 2021-12-25T16:08:39+00:00 Bijendra Basnyat bbasnyat@yahoo.coom <p>The government of Nepal abolished scientific forest management in 2021, however, the underlying reason remained unexplored. Hence, this study explores reasons that pushed on abolishment of this practice in the community forestry. The study followed the qualitative methods and reviewed the policy documents, published and unpublished literature followed by semi-structured interviews with forest officials and community forestry leaders. Though scientific forest management was promoted to maximize timber production and employment generation, stakeholders often raised concern over the exploitation of forests, including the appropriateness of the proposed silviculture system along with the governance issues related to it. On the contrary, forest bureaucracy promoted this as an “one size fit approach” irrespective of management objectives while poorly integrating locality factors, and research-generated knowledge. Apparently, scientific forest management is highly contested on technical and managerial grounds, while it is utterly uneconomical to forest user groups. Diverse views, interests and disbelief of the stakeholders, along with inadequate scientific evidence is primary reasons for a failure. Hence, the study argues for promoting “research in use approach” in strengthening forest management practices with the wider engagement of the stakeholders from knowledge generation, use, and dissemination in the community forestry.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Regeneration Status and Diversity under Irregular Shelterwood System: A Study from Panchkanya Community Forest, Sunsari, Nepal 2021-12-25T16:16:06+00:00 Ripesh Kharel Keshav Raj Acharya Aayush Gautam <p>The present study is the outcome of vegetation sampling conducted in the managed and unmanaged forest patch under the irregular shelterwood system to analyze community structure and plant diversity in a degraded mixed forest in eastern Terai, Nepal. Systematic random sampling was followed by laying out 15 quadrates sized 4m<sup>2</sup> with uniform spacing of 50 meters in both managed and unmanaged blocks, respectively. This study revealed that the first and second-year regeneration felling subsisted the Shorea robusta in the managed forest patch. There was observed a remarkable increase in regeneration but a decrease in plant diversity in the managed area in comparison to the unmanaged one. Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.760 and 0.890 and Shannon-Wiener indexes were 1.82 and 2.43 in managed and unmanaged forest blocks, respectively. Independent sample t-test showed a significant difference in the total number of regenerations between managed and unmanaged forest blocks since P-value &lt;0.05 (P=0.0166) i.e., managed blocks with opened canopy had higher regeneration but a lower diversity. This study concludes that the irregular shelterwood system is deemed pivotal for increased regeneration of <em>Shorea robusta</em> particularly in the eastern lowland of Nepal.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry A comparative study of carbon stocks in the Sal forest (Shorea robusta) in core and buffer zones of Shuklaphanta National Park, Nepal 2021-12-26T03:37:34+00:00 Sushila Bhatta Animesh Poudel Yam Bahadur KC <p>Forests play a significant role in sequestering carbon and regulating the global carbon and energy cycles. The amount of carbon in different carbon pools also varies at regional to local scales depending upon the environmental factors and forest management practices. This study was carried out to quantify and compare the carbon stocks in the Sal (<em>S. robusta</em>) forest in the core and buffer zones of Shuklaphanta National Park in Kanchanpur district of Nepal. A total of 50 sample plots with 25 in each core and buffer zone were laid in the field. The total carbon stock in the core zone was estimated to be 258.56 t/ha with 75.64% in biomass and 24.36% in the soil. In the buffer zone, the total carbon stock was almost 25% lower than that at the core zone but a slightly higher composition of biomass (i.e, 80.41% of 193.3 t/ha). These differences are likely due to the effect of the differences in management practice in the core and buffer zones. These estimates suggest that national parks have the great potential to sequester more carbon than the buffer zones. Findings from this study provide useful information on how different management practices could alter forest carbon stocks in Nepal.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Dynamics of Land Surface Temperature in Response to Land Use Land Cover Change in Phewa watershed, Kaski, Nepal 2021-12-26T03:53:57+00:00 Sudip Raj Regmi Mahendra Singh Thapa Rabindra Adhikari Raju Raj Regmi <p>Geospatial tools play an important role in monitoring Land Use Land Cover Change (LULCC) and Land Surface Temperature (LST). This study assessed the extent of LULCC during 1990, 2007 and 2020 using temporal satellite imageries, and estimates LST during the study periods in relation to LULCC and explores various adaptation practices adopted in response to LST change in Phewa watershed. Landsat imageries were used for LULC classification and LST estimation. Purposive household survey (N=150), key informant survey (N=4), focus group discussion (N=4) and direct field observations were carried out to explore various adaptation practices. LULC maps was generated by using supervised classification followed by post classification change detection technique for LULCC analysis. Agricultural land and urban areas were found to have increased by 6.6% and 0.32% respectively while forest area, barren land and water bodies were found to have decreased by 1.88%, 4.41% and 0.63%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007. Forest area, urban areas and barren land had increased by 5.54%, 1.32% and 1.48%, respectively, while agricultural land and water bodies were observed to have decreased by 8.2% and 0.13%, respectively, between 2007 and 2020. The mean LST were 22.59° C, 22.81° C and 24.56° C in March-April and 14.65° C, 14.97° C and 15.27° C in January-December, respectively. Urban areas and water bodies exhibit highest and lowest mean values of LST, respectively, during study periods. LULCC due to urban growth and infrastructural developments had contributed to increase in LST. The highest rank to adaptation practices were for changes in cropping patterns and species, followed by agroforestry, use of improved seeds, shift to other income generation activities, use of more fertilizers, irrigation practices and growing vegetables in poly house which were statistically significant. This study provides scientific insights for policy makers and urban planners in improving urban planning and management.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Common Leopard Attacks: A Case Study from Aadhikhola Rural Municipality, Syangja 2021-12-26T04:16:46+00:00 Deepika Adhikari Thakur Silwal Santosh Pokharel Saru Gahatraj <p>Information on the spatio-temporal patterns of attacks in certain areas contributes to the designing and implementation of effective mitigation measures. The aim of this study was to assess spatial distribution of Common Leopard attacks to highlight conflict risk zone and temporal trend in Aadhikhola Rural Municipality of Syangja districts from 2016 AD to 2019 AD. Data was collected as registered cases caused by Common Leopard at the Division Forest Office, Syangja according to the Wildlife Damage Relief Guideline, 2013 AD. Total cases were 187 with the highest incidents (n=66) in ward no. 4 (Bangsing). The highest cases occurred in summer (44%) followed by spring (20%). By month the highest number of attacks occurred in July (22%) followed by June, May. Most of the attacks occurred inside livestock sheds (84%), during day time (69%), with goats being the major prey. Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) was used for safety analysis. Kernel density attack layer was reclassified using the geometric interval algorithm to generate five risk zones of leopard attacks. Wangsing, Deurali, Faparthum, Setidovan were very high risk zone for leopard attacks. Predator-proof corrals/ enclosures and improved herding and guarding practices are suggested to reduce livestock losses.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Avian Diversity and Abundance in the Machhaplan Complex, Hetauda, Nepal 2021-12-26T04:30:06+00:00 Nahakul Bhusal <p>Avifaunal survey was carried out in Machhaplan Complex, Hetauda from December 2020 to April 2021. The objective of the study was to assess the avian species diversity, richness and abundance. A total of 164 bird species belonging to 19 orders and 59 families were recorded by using Point Count Method. Out of these, 117 species were terrestrial and 47 species were wetland dependent. Passeriformes and Muscicapidae were the most dominant orders and families, respectively with 73 and 12 species. The most abundant species was House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) (n=156). There were 109 resident species, 43 winter visitors, and 12 summer visitors among the recorded species. Common birds accounted for 41% of the total followed by uncommon birds, Rare birds, and Very Common birds with 33%, 17%, and 9%, respectively. Of the total recorded species, two species were Globally Threatened and nine species were Nationally Threatened. Terrestrial birds had the highest Shannon’s Diversity Index (H=3.97) and Margalef 's Richness Index (R=15.53) whereas wetland birds had the highest Pielou's Evenness Index (E=0.86). The assessment of avian diversity suggests that s Machhaplan Complex offers a suitable habitat for avifauna.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Status of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Urban Forest of Hetauda, Nepal 2021-12-26T04:38:17+00:00 Kabita Panedy Gayatri Poudel Ashish Neupane Keshav Raj Acharya Subash Adhikari <p>This paper explores the status of Invasive Alien Plant Species in an urban forest of Hetauda, Nepal. The study is based on a quadrate survey (130 quadrants) within the transect line at an interval of 30 m within different six habitat types. This study identified a total of 22 invasive alien plant species representing 20 genera and 12 families out of recorded 26 species representing 24 genera and 15 families in the country. This study identified four species namely <em>Chromolaena odorata</em>, <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em>, <em>Lantana camara</em> and <em>Mikania micrantha</em> in the study area that were listed as the world’s 100 worst invasive species. The invasion was found to be negatively correlated with canopy cover. The higher the canopy cover; the lower the abundance of invasive alien species. Regarding the habitat type, settlement area had the highest number of invasive species followed by forest and roadside. <em>Mikania micrantha</em>, <em>Lantana camara</em>, <em>Ageratum houstonianum</em> and <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> were mostly abundant in forest whereas <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em> was highly abundant in wetlands. <em>Mikania micrantha</em> was mostly abundant in settlement area and <em>Senna tora</em> was confined to open land. The relative abundance of <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em>, <em>Senna occidentalis</em>, <em>Ageratum adenophora</em>, <em>Leersia hexandra</em>, <em>Mimosa pudica</em>, <em>Bidens pilosa</em>, <em>Oxalis latifolia</em>, <em>Ipomoea carnea</em>, <em>Amaranthus spinosus</em>,<em> Argemone mexicana</em>, <em>Esosphaerum suaveolens</em> were lower.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Status and types of Chiuri (Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H.J.Lam) owned by Indigenous Chepang Communities in Makwanpur, Nepal 2021-12-26T09:21:39+00:00 Roshan Chikanbanjar Umed K Pun Bhola Bhattarai <p>Chiuri (<em>Diploknema butyracea</em>) is a medium-sized tree that inhabits in sub-Himalayan tracks of steep slopes and cliffs at an elevation of 400 to 1400 meters from west to east of Nepal. It belongs to Sapotaceae family of plant kingdom. This study was conducted to assess status of Chiuri tree in Raksirang Rural Municipality (RRM) with particular interest to location, khoria aspect, age and types. Primary data were collected through questionnaire survey, interviews, informal discussion, etc. whereas secondary data were collected through desk review. Biometric data such as seed size and seed count per kg of seeds were measured using measuring scale and weighing balance. Four types of Chiuri namely Wayo, Lanyo, Titiya and Tomyo were found in RRM depending on ripening time of fruit. Most of them have Chiuri older than 30 years of age and their khoria facing south direction. Chiuri takes 6-10 years to start fruiting from seedling. Based on survey, Wayo and Lanyo were found in lower elevation whereas Titiya and Tomyo were found in higher elevation. The timing of fruit ripening was different but followed a pattern of types located in lower elevation fruiting earlier. However, defoliation timing was different and was not influenced by elevation.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry First Photographic Evidence of Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from Sarlahi district, Nepal 2021-12-26T09:34:42+00:00 Prashant Rokka Santosh Bajagain Aavas Pradhan <p>This paper presents the first photographic record of the Short-eared Owl <em>Asio flammeus</em>, one of the least studied species of Nepal during opportunistic survey. The new record for Bagmati River stretch on 26 November 2020 were five pairs of <em>Asio flammeus</em> in a grassland dominated area adjacent to agricultural land in Sarlahi district. With this record, conservation efforts in the area should include the regular monitoring and controlled human activities. Moreover, it is crucial to develop conservation awareness on the importance of owls in the ecosystem. It is also necessary to change the perception and attitude of people towards owl which are perceived as sign of evil.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Checklist of floral species at the Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara, Nepal 2021-12-26T09:53:12+00:00 Mahamad Sayab Miya Deepak Gautam <p>Plants are a component of biodiversity and support life system on earth. Exploration of plant species is important to aquire knowledge on plant biodiversity and their distribution. This study documents floral species in the Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Nepal. The Campus is one of the academic institutions for producing forestry graduates. The plant species were listed from 2020 to the first half of the year 2021 by walking along the accessible routes inside the Campus. A total of 331 species of plants from 276 genera and 99 families were recorded. Fabaceae family represented the maximum number of plant species (n=26) followed by Asteraceae (n=25) and Poaceae (n=21). 43% of the total species recorded were herbs. 31% of the total species were trees. 16 species were invasive alien plant species (IAPS) and four species are listed under Appendix-II of CITES.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry