The EFFORTS, Journal of Education and Research <p>The EFFORTS, Journal of Education and Research (EJER) is a peer-reviewed open access research journal published by the Research Management Cell (RMC), Nilkantha Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. EJER publishes research articles, research reports and book reviews annually (in June) and serves as a platform for researchers, scholars, academic professionals, universities, and research organizations.</p> Research Management Cell (RMC), Nilkantha Multiple Campus en-US The EFFORTS, Journal of Education and Research 2467-9445 <p>All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic means, including information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission from the publisher.</p> Workplace Environment and Its Impact on Employee’s Performance in Nepalese Commercial Banks <p>The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of workplace environment on employees’ performance of Nepalese commercial banks. A well-structured questionnaire was developed to collect data from 240 respondents using purposive sampling technique. Data analysis was done using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to generate mean, standard deviation, correlation, and regression analysis, and to diagnose the collected data. The results revealed that there is a significant influence of Job Aids (JA), Team Effort (TE), Physical Environment (PE) and Supervisor Support (SS) on Employee’s Performance (EP) in Nepalese commercial banks. Furthermore, JA and PE have strong impact on Employee’s Performance and TE and SS have the least influence. The practical implications are transparent for the managers and employers in Nepalese commercial banks since the workplace environment helps to improve the performance of the employees. The originality lies in the article claiming to enhance the performance of the employees, the implementation of good workplace environment must be complemented.</p> Joginder Goet Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 1 10 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44167 Perception of Teachers and Students towards Shadow Education <p>This paper explored perception of teachers and students on the practices and trends of shadow education. It is a qualitative study adopting narrative inquiry. Eight students studying Bachelor in Education (B. Ed.) and Bachelor in Business Studies (BBS) and five teachers teaching in different schools were purposively selected as informants. Semi-structured interviews were made to gather perception of the participants. The findings were illustrated in narrative and descriptive ways. The findings indicated that students and teachers perceived shadow education as the part of schooling that has prevailed in schools and colleges. The learners preferred private tutoring to formal regular classes as they found private tutoring more interactive and student centric than the formal classes. Additionally, this study indicated that the learners, teachers and authorities readily involve in shadow education. The implication of the present study is important for administrators, teachers, and students to make formal schooling more effective.</p> Devi Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 11 23 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44169 Factors Influencing Dropout Rate in Bachelor's Degree at Nilkantha Multiple Campus <p>This paper primarily aimed to investigate the factors influencing dropout rate in bachelor's degree and explore the reasons behind students' dropout. A survey research design had been taken to describe the dropout rate and 30 dropout students of bachelor's degree were selected as the respondents through judgmental sampling under non-random sampling procedure. Telephone interviewing was used as the tool for collecting the required information. This study based on the theoretical tenets of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Motivation and Engagement, and Cognitive Load Theory. This study found that student-related indicators, campus-related indicators and family-related indicators play significant role in determining dropout rate. The main reasons of dropout explored from student-related indicators were their low academic achievement in examination and irregularity in class; campus-related indicators were lack of academic support, feedback, motivation and encouragement from teachers, and problem of institutional information system; and lastly, family-related indicators were lack of financial support from home and, different family problems. The implication of this study is to solve the problem of dropout in the development of higher education programs in Nepal.</p> Yuba Raj Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 24 38 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44170 Paradoxes Experienced in Embracing Inclusiveness among Students: Stories from Progressive Schools of Kathmandu Valley <p>The discourse of inclusion in education is getting a great emphasis both in international and national arena these days. Talking especially about Nepal, with the rising voice for paradigmatic shift in education, the number of progressive schools is increasing which are in rigor of preparing a more democratic learning environment for teaching learning. However, since the discourse of inclusion in education demands addressing different needs of learners, inclusion meant to one might not be so for another. Hence, this paper aims at unraveling paradoxes the school leaders have experienced in course of practising inclusion among students. In this course, two school leaders from two different institutional progressive schools were selected purposively as research participants while Kathmandu valley was selected as research site. The study embraced narrative inquiry as research methodology whereas interview was used as method of data collection. Focusing basically on the areas of integrating cultural diversity and learning abilities of students, data were collected from the participants in the form of narratives for which open ended questions were used. From the study, it was revealed that inclusion tended to create in one way might result in exclusion in the other way. The basic paradoxes the school leaders narrated were regarding how to preserve and celebrate cultural sensitivity of each group in class and how to address students with different learning abilities without making them feel segregated in any way. Moreover, it even provided me an insight that inclusion in education has to be understood in contextual manner rather than generalizing it based on what the state says or how state defines.</p> Ramila Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 39 51 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44171 Trade Liberalization Process and Its Impact on Agriculture Sector in Nepal <p>This study examines the process of Nepal's trade liberalization and its impact on Nepalese agriculture sector. It explains and analyzes the various economic policy reforms undertaken in Nepal including trade, fiscal, industrial, and financial reforms; and explains how these reforms supplemented one another to promote trade liberalization. It is descriptive and analytical study. Simple descriptive statistical tools were used to analyze the impact of trade liberalization on agriculture sector in Nepal. The study finds that trade liberalization has not caused any significant changes in the position of Nepalese agriculture sector. It means a condition of Nepalese agriculture has not been improved and it is being deteriorated. Similarly, export/import ratio has been further decreased continuously after trade liberalization implying that power of export of agro product to purchase import of agro product is continuously diminishing. Similarly, there is continuous trade deficit in food item and live animal after trade liberalization. Role of agriculture in the economy has been decreased. It has increased the dependency on foreign agricultural products.</p> Pradip Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 52 80 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44172 Students’ Perception on the Effectiveness of Online Classes During Pandemic <p>The present study aimed at finding out students' perception on the effectiveness of online classes conducted during the pandemic situation of COVID -19. It attempted to find the students' perceptions for effective classes. I applied cross sectional survey design. For this, survey questionnaires were prepared in google form. Those students who were taking online classes at Nilkantha Multiple Campus in bachelor and master levels and education, arts and commerce faculties were selected as respondents for my research through convenience sampling procedure. Students were requested to reply the questions posted in their Facebook group of each classes. The data were collected, analyzed and interpreted by the help pie-charts and diagrams and descriptions. The result of this study indicated that respondents were not satisfied with their online classes due to low participation, lack of enough interaction, unattractive content delivery and the problems of poor internet and frequent power cut. Even though online classes were reported to be convenient in term of saving time, still the students perceived it to be less effective.</p> Deependra Rijal Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 81 101 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44173 The Impact of Capital Structure and Firm Size on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Nepal <p>This paper aimed to examine the impact of capital structure and firm size on financial performance of Nepalese commercial banks. The study used a sample of 14 commercial banks covering government owned, joint venture and private banks over the period 2013/2014– 2018/2019 with secondary sources of data. Regression analysis was used in the estimation of functions relating the Return on Assets (ROA) and Earnings per Share (EPS) with measures of capital structure and firm size (total assets). The results revealed a negative relation of ROA and EPS with capital structure (Debt/Equity). However, it showed a positive relationship of ROA and EPS with size (total assets). The findings provided the evidence in support of high-level equity capital employed in the capital structure of Nepalese commercial banks.</p> Dhan Raj Chalise Naba Raj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 102 111 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44175 Factors Affecting Vehicle Purchase in Major Cities <p>Nowadays, personal vehicles have become synonymous with the modern city market. The development and splendor of the city can also portray by the use of such vehicles. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors affecting vehicle buying in major cities. This research used descriptive and causal research design. Primary data were collected. Survey research was administered and 2000 responses were collected. A PLS-SEM tool was used to test validity, reliability and path of advance modeling. This research confirmed expected features, price, dealer/showroom influence has significant influence on car buying. After sales service has no effect on car buying. Marketers should identify target group who showed interest on cars and marketing programs should be directed to them.</p> Sajeeb Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Nilkantha Multiple Campus 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 4 1 112 121 10.3126/ejer.v4i1.44176