DMC Research Journal <p>The DMC Research Journal is published by the Research Centre of the Doti Multiple Campus, Silgadhi, Doti, Nepal. The focus and the scope of journal are grounded on the creative, critical and research orientated areas of studies. It publishes research articles based on teaching, learning, evaluation and society issues of various streams required in academic institutions.</p> en-US (Lok Raj Bhat) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 17 Apr 2022 09:02:35 +0000 OJS 60 A Glance on Human-Wildlife Conflict: Basanta Community Forest of Kailali District <p>This study focuses on various aspects of Human-wildlife conflict in Basanta community forest of Kailali district. The human wildlife conflict is at increasing trend and has become one of the challenging problem for the ruralcommunities. The main objective of this study was to explore over all the human-wildlife conflict events in the study area. Focus group discussion, Key informant survey and questionnaire survey were carried out during data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis such as percentage, mean, frequency etc. and were presented in figures, bar diagrams and charts. This study showed that the crop damage, property damage, livestock damage were common and the wild animals like elephant, wild boar, blue bull, tiger, deer were more responsible for the conflict in the recent years.</p> <p>Socio-economic indicators such as gender status, educational level, religion, land tenureship, income source, and ethnicity were calculated. The major crops grown in the area were rice, wheat, maize, masuro, sugarcane etc. According the respondents, rice, wheat, maize had been damaged mostly during the previous year. Except elephant, blue bull and wild boar was the most problematic animal during the season.Managed compensation schemes, Environmental awareness programs and public participation are the major aspects that should be considered to mitigate the human wildlife conflict in the area.</p> Dilanand Joshi Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Code-Switching in the Classroom of Doti <p>This article entitled 'code-switching in the classroom of Doti' is an attempt to identify the types of code-switching and reasons behind those code-switching which take place in the Nepali or Doteli language in English medium classes. The data of the study were collected through both primary and secondary sources. The sample population consists of 10 teachers teaching in secondary level English teachers of Silgadhi, Doti.The researcher used questionnaire as a tool for data collection. The study shows that teachers switch Nepali and Doteli code in English medium classes. Code- switching in the English medium classes occur in all the levels of language. Teachers' lack of competency in the target language and existence of multiplicity of language and cultures are the main reasons of code-switching. Sometimes, they switch Doteli code to break monotony and create fun in English medium classes.</p> Padam Prasad Neupane Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Economic Status of Migrants and their Household in Ranagaun <p>This study deals with socio-economic status of migrants and their households in Ranagaun representing varied socio-economic status. This study is based on primary data which are derived from field survey through questionnaires survey, field observation, in-depth interview and focus group discussion. For questionnaires survey 10 households are taken from migrant family in each ward with help of disproportionate stratified random sampling. Ranagaun VDC is one of poor VDC in Nepal. Labor migration is a major livelihood option in this area. It is one of the livelihood strategies of people. Most of the migrant workers from this area migrate to India, and the greater part of the remittances to this area is from India. However, the younger generation is increasingly migrating to countries in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and the West. Remittances have a major impact on the welfare of recipient households, although the reliance on remittances varied among people depending on their wealth. Remittances are the main source of income for most people in the study area.</p> Tilak Raj Panday Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Transgender Identity: Perception and Representation <p>In accordance with Transgender Theory, my study reveals living experiences of TGs like: self perception of TGs, behaviours and activities, consciousness of difference, exposure of identity, involvement process in BDS, challenges and management after "Coming Out", behaviours of societies, etc. In the similar respect, the theory of stigmatized Individual and Process of identity also has been applied in order to expose the identity of TGs in the society basing on the same sex attraction. In addition with these, The theory of Symbolic Interactionism has been implemented so as to show that the TGs are identifying them through the action-interaction with the other non-TGs of the societies as they are participating different programmes with cross-dressing and so on. To some extent, the open society at present, political change, institution like BDS, majority of Hindus are some of the reasons for TGs' attempts to come out nowadays. To understand gender only biological sex is not adequate, so, along with it gender should be understood based on the mental feelings. If the knowledge about TGs were included in the course study of schools/ colleges, the TGs would get TG-friendly environment, which would allow them to have their study smoothly. The non-TGs would not dominate TGs and "We" feeling could be installed in the society. It can be said that the TGs are boosted with their involvement in BDS. The TGs were repressed in the society before but nowadays they are aware about the domination and are able to protest against the injustice done upon them. Nowadays, some of the TGs are able to live in their desired roles to some extent but many are still living lives with dual identity.</p> Shanta Hamal Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Scope of Bachelor of Computer Application (BCA) program <p>The main focus of this study is to posit many opportunities on IT sector and it aims to direct students in building their self-confidence to work on various fields of IT sector such as software companies, IT offices, Media print houses, school/college etc. Students will be able to identify, evaluate &amp; solve the technical issues and get knowledge on various tools and techniques of software development. In the same vein, students will be owner of their own company and will be capable to create job opportunities for others.</p> Lalit Pant Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Upanishadic Vision in T. S. Eliot's Poems and Plays <p>The objective of this paper is to explore how T. S. Eliot's writings reflect the vision of the Upanishads. This paper examines the extent to which his writings are similar to the philosophy of the Upanishads. His major poems and plays recall the ideas of the non-dualistic or monistic Vedic vision of the Upanishads. So far as one has a dualistic- bent of mind, he cannot be free from the cycle of death and rebirth, or pain and pleasure. Peace and bliss comes from the meditation of the Self within the heart. This article traces Eliot's personal quest for understanding the meaning of human existence and the spiritual essence of life.</p> Damaru Chandra Bhatta Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Cosmopolitanism: Ideal of a Borderless World <p>All human beings belong to a single community based on a shared morality. Cosmopolitanism may demand a type of world government. It means much inclusive to moral, economic, and political relationships between nations or individuals of different nations. The concept of cosmopolitanism is that all human beings, regardless of their citizenship, religion, political affiliation and other forms of boundaries, belong to a single community. Cosmopolitanism as a theory considers the individual human being as the basic unit. The ideal of cosmopolitanism does not believe in any kind of border, rather it erases/transcends the borders created to narrow down and divide humans giving various names like nationality, culture, and religion.</p> Pradeep Kumar Giri Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Situation of Gender Based Violence against Women and girls in Nepal <p>Various forms of violence against women and girls were found to be prevalent throughout the life-cycle of women as a global phenomenon. Worldwide one third women experience physical or sexual abuse in their lifetime. The terms gender based violence and violence against women are used interchangeably. Women and girls are experiencing violence in their lifetime regardless of their age, religion, caste, marital status and pregnancy as well. They are facing violence at home, work place, public transport, public places.</p> Radha Devi Dhakal Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Norman Fairclough's Views on Language and Globalization <p>This article is based on Fairclough's views on language and globalization. There are eight subtopics in it. In subtopic 1, there is given a short introduction about the author. In subtopic 2, globalization is discussed in general. In subtopic 3, views on discourse as a facet of globalization in the academic literature are summarized dealing with an approach based upon a version of critical discourse analysis and cultural political economy. In subtopic 4, different strategies of globalization (and regionalization) emanating from governmental and non-governmental agencies, and the different discourses which constitute elements of these strategies are discussed. In subtopic 5, the idea of re-scaling is discussed. Moreover, the national scale in its relation to the global scale and the scale of international regions is presented. In subtopic 6, the media and mediation are dealt for discussion. In subtopic 7, people's ordinary experience of globalization, and its implications for and effects upon their lives is discussed. Finally, subtopic 8 has focused war and terrorism. This article has emphasized some concepts related to globalization such as modernization, democracy, markets, free trade, flexibility, liberalization, security, terrorism, cosmopolitanism and so forth.</p> Man Bahadur Jora Copyright (c) 2018 Research Center, Doti Multiple Campus Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 हुड्केलीको परिचय, परम्परा र बिषय {Hudkeli's Introduction, Tradition and Subject} <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा नेपाली लोकवार्ताको महत्वपूर्ण पक्ष हुड्केली अर्थात् भारतको सैद्घान्तिक अध्ययन प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यस क्रममा हुड्केलीको परिचय, नामाकरण र विभिन्न विद्वानहरुले हुड् केलीलाई लोकनाटक, लोकगाथा र लोककाव्य भनी अध्ययन गरेकाले उपर्युक्त विधाहरुबारे सैद्घान्तिक परिचय दिई हुड्केलीलाई लोककाव्यका रुपमा चिनाउने प्रयत्न गरिएको छ । त्यसैगरी हुडकेलीको परम्परा र विषयका सम्बन्धमा यथेष्ठ प्रकाश पारी निष्कर्ष दिइएको छ l</p> <p>{In this presented research article, important aspect of Nepali folklore, Hudkeli, i.e. theoretical study of India has been presented. In this process, Hudkeli's introduction, naming and various scholars have studied Hood Kelly as folk drama, folklore and folk poetry. In the same way, sufficient light has been shed on the traditions and themes of Hudkeli}</p> बद्री शर्मा Badri Sharma बिनाडी Binadee Copyright (c) 2018 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 शैलेश्वरी शक्तिपीठको प्राचिनता तथा पूजापरम्परा {Antiquity and worship Tradition of Shaileshwari Shakti Peeth} <p>हिन्दु धर्ममा जतिपनि शक्तिपीठको पूजनसँग सम्बन्धित कार्यहरु छन् तिनमा कुनै न कुनै वैज्ञानिक आधारहरु रहेकापाइन्छन् । मानव विकासको सुरुवाती चरणभन्द ापनि पहिले उत्पत्ति भएको मानिएका यस्ता शक्तिपीठहरु पछिकापुस्ताका लागि केवल आस्था र विश्वासका विषयवस्तुमा मात्र सीमित रहे पनि यिनीहरुमा पूर्व पाषाणकालीन९एबभियष्तिजष्अ ब्नभ० मानवसंस्कृति निर्माण र उपकरणहरुको प्रारम्भिक आधारशिलासमेत लुकेर रहेको पाइन्छ । त्यसैलेयस्ता धार्मिकस्थलहरुको पुरातात्विक उत्खनन र वैज्ञानिकरुपमा ऐतिहासिक अध्ययन परीक्षण गर्ने हो भने नेपालमा विभिन्न भागमा पूर्व पाषाणकालीन मानवले प्रयोग गरेका ढुङ्गेऔजारहरु भेटिन सक्ने संभावना समेत रहेकोले यस लेखमा माता शैलेश्वरीको प्राचीनतालाई मानव उत्पत्तिको इतिहाससँग जोडेर हेर्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{In Hinduism, whatever the activities related to the worship of Shakti Peetha, there are some scientific bases in them. Although such Shakti Peeths, believed to have originated earlier than the early stages of human development, were confined to the subjects of faith and belief for later generations, they also contained the earliest cornerstones of pre-Paleolithic civilization and tools. So Archaeological excavations and scientific studies of such religious sites are to be conducted in Nepal This is because of the possibility of finding stone tools used by pre-Paleolithic humans in various parts The article attempts to link the antiquity of Mother Shaileshwari with the history of human origin.}</p> अर्जुनबहादुर Arjunbahadur देउबा Deuba Copyright (c) 2018 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 डोटी जिल्लाको जनसांख्यिक अवस्था {Demographic Condition of Doti District} <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा डोटी जिल्लाको जनसांख्यिक अवस्थाको वारेमा विभिन्न जनसाख्यिक सूचकहरूको व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा डोटी जिल्लाको भौगोलिक अवस्था, जनसंख्याको आकार, वृद्धिदर, संरचना, &nbsp;बनोट, वितरण र जनघनत्व सम्बन्धी तथ्यांकहरू संग्रह गरेर जनसंख्याको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । संघीय संरचना अनुसार डोटी जिल्लाको स्थानीय निकायहरूका आधारमा जनसंख्याको आकार, संरचना, वितरण र जनघनत्व सम्बन्धी तथ्यांकीय विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसका साथै यसलेखमा डोटी जिल्लाको वैवाहिक अवस्था, आश्रित जनसंख्या, अशक्त जनसंख्याको प्रकार, आर्थिक हिसावले सक्रिय जनसंख्या, व्यक्तिगत घटना दर्ता प्रणाली र बसाइसराइको अवस्था सम्बन्धी उपलब्ध तथ्यांकको आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । डोटी जिल्लाको जनसंख्याको आकार, वृद्धिदर, संरचना, बनोट, वितरण जनघनत्व सम्बन्धी तथ्यांकीय विश्लेषण गरी समग्र डोटी जिल्लाको जनसंख्याको अवस्थावारे जानकारी गराई जिल्लाको आर्थिक, सामाजिक, राजनीतिक, शैक्षिक र लैङ्गिकता सम्बन्धी विभिन्न योजना तर्जुमा, नीतिनिमार्ण गर्ने कार्यमा आंशिक रुपमा भएपनि सहयोग पु¥याउनु प्रस्तुत लेखको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यो लेख तथ्यांकको द्वितीय स्रोतमा आधारित रहेको छ । यस लेखमा विभिन्न तालिकाहरू, क्रस तालिका, वृत्तचित्र,स्तम्भचित्र, रेखाचित्रहरू प्रयोग गरी तथ्यांकहरूको व्याख्या विश्लेषण गर्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{The present article analyzes the interpretation of various demographic indicators regarding the demographic situation of Doti district. This article analyzes the population of Doti district by collecting data related to geographical conditions, population size, growth rate, structure, composition, distribution and population density. According to the federal structure, statistical analysis of population size, structure, distribution and population density has been done on the basis of local bodies of Doti district. In addition, this article analyzes the available data on the marital status of Doti district, dependent population, type of disabled population, economically active population, individual incident registration system and the status of migration. Statistical analysis of population size, growth rate, structure, composition, distribution population density of Doti district and providing information about the overall population condition of Doti district. This article is based on a second source of data. This article attempts to analyze the interpretation of facts using various tables, cross tables, documentaries, columns, diagrams.}</p> दान बहादुर Dan Bahadur बिष्ट Bishta Copyright (c) 2018 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 हरि साई कृष्न साईको भारत <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा हरि साई कृस्न साईको भारतको सङ्कलन गरी अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यस क्रममा सङ्कलन<br>स्थल, प्रमुख बाचक र सहभागीहरूको परिचय दिई भारतको परिचय, पाठ, सन्दर्भ र आशय अर्थात् निष्कर्ष दिइएको<br>छ । प्रत्येक पृष्ठको अन्त्यमा उक्त पृष्ठमा प्रयुक्त स्थानीय कठिन शब्दहरूको नेपाली भाषामा अर्थ खुलाइएको छ ।</p> टीकाराम Tikaram फुलारा Fulara Copyright (c) 2018 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमः विद्यालय र समुदाय बिचको अन्तरसम्बन्ध {School Health Programme: Interrelationship between Schools And Community} <p>आजको एक्काइसौँ शताब्दीमा विश्वमा ज्ञान, विज्ञान, सूचना र प्रविधिको विकासमा नयाँ चरणमा प्रवेश गरेको छ । यसले शिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य, विज्ञान, प्रविधि, सञ्चार, खेलकुद, शैक्षिक प्र्रशासन लगायतका विविध क्षेत्रमा सकारात्मक उर्जा प्रदान गरेको पाइन्छ । विद्यालय परिवारका सम्पूर्ण सदस्यहरुको स्वास्थ्य संरक्षण, संबद्र्धन प्रबद्र्धन गर्नको लागि विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमका (School Health Programme) धेरै महत्व रहेको छ । सबैको लागि स्वास्थ्य र शिक्षा भन्ने लक्ष्य प्राप्तिका लागि विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमको ठूलो भूमिका रहेको छ । त्यसैले अहिले विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमलाई स्वास्थ्य प्रवद्र्धनात्मक विद्यालय तथा बालमैत्री विद्यालय जस्ता नयाँ अवधारणा मार्फत सञ्चालनको थालनी गरिएको छ । आज आएर विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमलाई आठवटा क्षेत्रमा विभाजन गरिएको छ । जस अन्तर्गत विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य सेवा, स्वास्थ्य शिक्षण, स्वस्थपूर्ण विद्यालय बसाइ, विद्यालय समुदाय सहयोग, विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य पोषण कार्यक्रम, मानसिक स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रम र परामर्श, &nbsp;विद्यालयका स्टाफको लागि स्वास्थ्य प्रबद्र्धन र शारीरिक शिक्षा तथा अतिरिक्त क्रियाकलाप पर्दछन । वास्तवमा विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमका आँठवटा क्षेत्रलाईृ सही ढंगले प्रभावकारी रुपमा उपयुक्त व्यवस्थापन गर्न विद्यालय परिवार र समाजको अहम भूमिका र उत्तरदायित्व रहेको हुन्छ । तसर्थ विद्यालय र समुदायको आपसी सहयोग, सम्बन्ध र सहकार्य विना विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमको उपयुक्त प्रवद्र्धन र व्यवस्थापन हुनसक्ने कुरामा दुईमत छैन । सामान्यतया विद्यालयमा अध्ययनरत बालबालिकाहरु, कार्यरत शिक्षक तथा कर्मचारीहरुको स्वास्थ्य संरक्षण, संवद्र्धन र प्रवद्र्धन गर्नाका लागी विद्यालयभित्र, सम्पूर्ण कार्यक्रमहरुलाई विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रम भनिन्छ । विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रम सफल ढंगले कार्यान्वयन अपेक्षित उपलब्धि हाँसिल गर्न विद्यालय र समुदाय बिचको सम्बन्ध नङ र मासु जस्तै रहेको छ । यी दुवैले एकअर्काको समृद्धि र प्रगतिको लागि सदैव हातेमालो सहकार्य गर्नुपर्दछ तबमात्र एकअर्काको समस्या हल भई विद्यालय स्वास्थ्य कार्यक्रमको गुरुयोजना सफल ढंगले कार्यान्वयन हुन्छ । बालबालिकाको लागि विद्यालय दोस्रो घर हो । त्यसैले विद्यालयलाई समुदायको सानो समाज (Mini Society) &nbsp;भनेर भनिन्छ । विद्यालयले समुदायको प्रतिनिधित्व गरी असल व्यक्तिको विकास गर्नेगर्दछ भने समुदायको सहयोग र समर्थनमा मात्र विद्यालयले शैक्षिक प्रगति हाँसिल गरी उत्कृष्ट विद्यालयको रुपमा स्थापित रसमुदायका सम्पूर्ण बालबालिकाको स्वास्थ्य संरक्षण, संबद्र्धन र प्रबद्र्धन गर्न सामथ्र्यवान हुन्छ । त्यसैले विद्यालय र समुदाय एकअर्काका परिपूरक, अन्तरसम्बन्धित र आत्मनिर्भर पक्ष हुन् ।</p> भरतबहादुर Bharatbahadur खडका Khadka Copyright (c) 2018 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 मानव इतिहास र लैंगिकता निर्माण {Building human history and sexuality} <p>शारीरिक असमानताकै आधारमा समाजले लैंगिकता निर्माण गरी महिला र पुरुषलाई फरक फरकदायित्व सुम्पिन्छ । पुरुषलाई परिवारका निम्ति दानापानी जुटाउने र सुरक्षाको प्रत्याभूत गराउने कार्य सुम्पन्छ भने महिलालाई घरभित्रको व्यवस्थापन । यस कार्यले समाजमा सार्वजनिक र निजी परिधि खडा हुन्छ । जसले पुरुषलाईसाहसी र सर्वशक्तिमान बनाउँछ तर महिलालाई हीनताबोधका साथै शक्तिविहीनताको अवस्था सृजना गराउँछ । परिणामस्वरुप समाजमा असमानता विभेद तथा अन्यायकोे जन्म हुन्छ । सरल अवस्थाका सरल नियमहरु क्रमिक रुपमा जटिलतातर्फ उन्मुख हुन्छन् । स्त्रीपुरुषबिचका विभेद तथा अन्याय चरम सीमामा पुग्छन् । असमान शक्तिसम्बन्ध स्थापित हुन्छ । त्यसका विरुद्ध महिलाहरु हक, अधिकार प्राप्तिका निम्ति संघर्षमा उत्रन्छन् । केही मात्रामा सफलता प्राप्त हुन्छ । तर सदियौंदेखि जरा गाडेर रहेको परम्परा र रुढिवादिताले प्राप्त अधिकारको कार्यान्वयनमा बाधा पुर्याइरहन्छन् । त्यसबाट छुटकारा प्राप्त गर्न महिला पुरुष दुवैको मनोविज्ञानमा पितृसत्तात्मक सोचमा सकारात्मक परिवर्तन आवश्यक छ ।</p> <p>{On the basis of physical inequality, society constructs sexuality and assigns different responsibilities to men and women. Men are entrusted with the task of raising funds for the family and guaranteeing security, while women are entrusted with the management of the house. This action creates a public and private circle in the society. Which makes men brave and omnipotent but makes women feel inferior as well as powerless. As a result, inequality, discrimination and injustice are born in the society. The simple rules of simple conditions gradually lead to complexity. Discrimination and injustice between men and women reach extremes. Unequal power relations are established. Against that, women are fighting for their rights. Success is achieved to some extent. But centuries-old traditions and conservatism continue to hamper the exercise of rights. To get rid of that, a positive change in the patriarchal thinking in the psychology of both men and women is necessary.}</p> शान्ति पोख्रेल Shanti Pokhrel भूषाल Bhusal Copyright (c) 2018 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000