Cognition <p>Cognition is a peer-reviewed, transdisciplinary journal published by the National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus Unit, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. The aim of the Journal is to publish multi-disciplinary articles that cover the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences, Management, Education, Environment Science and General Sciences.</p> en-US (Prof. Rajan Prasad Pokharel, PhD) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 14 Jun 2023 08:35:26 +0000 OJS 60 Discrimination and Exploitation of Labour in Mulk Raj Anand’s Coolie <p>This paper discusses about a story of the sufferers in Indian society of Mulk Raj Anand’s novel coolie. It describes the class distinction between the wealthy and the needy person. The upper- class people abused to lower class people humiliated them for minor faults and sometimes without any reason. It also explains the significant condition, bitter and miserable life of Munoo, a young boy of the village Bilaspur. The novel portrays the Indian society where social interactions of accomplishment and scarcity determine the life of Munoo, key person of the story. He is like the hero of John Galsworthy, English novelist and is the universal figure who represents the discomfort and measurable life of the poor and down-trodden. There is a human tragedy in the novel caused by the scarcity, exploitation, hunger, selfishness and torture. His life as a labourer in Bombay at the British-owned White cotton mills are described in fourth chapter. Munoo is exhibited as a servant and rickshaw coolie in the employ to Mrs. Mainwaring house, in Simla. A most vivid panorama of life in India of that period can be felt during the period of job searching from his native hills to the cities. It is not the destiny who is responsible for the disaster of Munoo but it is the society in which he is brought-up. He is a victim of social interactions in his life. Coolie represents very sensitive issue in the society where child work is the worst kind of social abuse. Mulk Raj Anand focuses crisis of these innocents in a very sensitive way critically. This article focuses on discrimination and exploitation faced by labour.</p> Bina Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Applicability of Visual Arts in the Age of Globalization <p>This research article focuses on the relevance of visual art in the age of globalization. It also depicts the visual culture as an inevitable genre to enhance the humanities through arts. The digitization of arts through technology in terms of painting, photography, film, dance and sculpture is knocking the door of globalization in order to flourish the significance of arts in the modern world. The article varies the arts and other humanities on the basis of their contribution in revealing and reflecting the social norms and values. Similarly, the research moves around the matter of interconnectedness between arts and other humanities since commercialization of arts has created an immediate and superficial satisfaction. It focuses on the ethics of visual culture and the must values it should carry on to reveal in the global world as arts belong to all particular geography or locality equally. The influence of media technology has been a milestone to internalize the visual arts under the umbrella of visual culture. The article explores the significance of the visual culture in the age of globalization whether it serves the humanity through its aesthetic value or not.</p> Bipin Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Critical Micelle Concentration of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate in Distilled Water at 298.15K by Surface Tension Measurements <p>Surfactants are chemicals that adsorb to the interface between a solution and another phase (gases or solids) and self-assemble molecular clusters known as micelles in a solution (water or oil phase). Measurements of the surface tension of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in distilled water at 298.15K are reported. The increase of concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in distilled water then decreased in surface tension at 298.15K. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreased with a decrease in surface tension. The graphs of surface tension versus concentration were made to determine the CMC of the solution. </p> Chandradip Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Corrosion Inhibition of Elettarai cardamom Bark Extract on Mild Steel in 1M H2SO4 <p><em>Elettaria cardamom</em> (Alaichi) is a spice available in Nepal, from the bark of which alkaloid can be extracted to use as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of methanolic extract of <em>Elettaria cardamom</em> (EC) for mild steel (MS) in 1M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> was studied using the weight loss method. The effect of time of immersion and concentration of EC extract on corrosion inhibition was investigated. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the time of immersion and concentration of the EC extract. The maximum inhibition efficiency of 1000 ppm EC extract was 93.36% for 3 hours of immersion in 1M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>solution. FTIR spectroscopic analysis showed the presence of functional groups containing oxygen and nitrogen in the extract, which is responsible for the adsorption of the extract onto mild steel and reduces the corrosion rate.</p> Dipak Kumar Gupta, Anuja Acharya, Brahamdeo Yadav, Amar Prasad Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Spiritual Anguish in John Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi <p>This paper attempts to explore the fusion between the mundane world and the world of spirituality and religiosity in the paly- <em>The Duchess of Malfi</em>. It shows how two worlds are inseparable and how their integrity is inevitable in human life. Whatever mundane and material life people live, they ultimately seek the blessings from the supreme divine to attain the peace and bliss. Since death is the ultimate destination life, ultimately people idealize it as the gate to enter into the world of eternity. This study attempts to answer the questions: why and how do people of the mundane world surrender to the supreme divinity ultimately? and what circumstances lead people to utter the name of heavenly abode? This paper conceptualizes the theoretical frameworks of spiritualism to invigorate the study in the play. The contrast and the fusion between Materialism and Spiritualism are remarkable aspects of this study. The life of the duchess of Malfi and her tragic end with her spiritual anguish echo the value of the amalgamation between the spiritual life and the material visions. It is difficult for human beings to escape from spiritual outpourings at the time of sufferings, hardships and even the tragic end i.e. death. Therefore, human life becomes complete, meaningful and worth living only through the combination of both notions. Life lived in isolation form spiritual notions does not become saucy and juicy. The supremacy of the spiritual over the physical, of the soul over the body is asserted in this study to make people conscious of his spiritual superiority in life.</p> Dipesh Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 After all, in reality nature cannot create itself! (Once again about the true mechanisms of evolution) <p>How much long the human civilization exists on Earth, so much time there are practically continuous disputes between supporters of creationism and evolutionism. At that in corresponding arguments, the former usually emphasize the astonishing complexity of live systems what's deliberately thereby associated with a pretty far-fetched chance of their self-emergence. While the latter flaunt about own totally unbiased reasoning which doesn’t require introduction of additional entities.</p> <p>Insofar as, to a certain extent, both of them prove to be right, so having analyzed all the scientific information at our disposal, we decided that it would be correct to try anyway to combine these, at first gaze, opposite ideas into a single whole. Thus, if to resume here the most important cornerstone points on which the author relies, justifying his view over organismic evolution, then one should indicate as follows.</p> <ul> <li>Conceptually quite valid possibility of significant outwardly visible changes at the level of an individual – along with a strict karyotypic constancy in all its foreseeable ancestors.</li> <li>The dominant role of the factors of internal self-development and selection as the main driving arms of progress.</li> <li>The complete autonomy of the above evolutionary postulates from blind mutational entropy, i.e. the obvious independence of these routes from each other.</li> </ul> <p>In this way, the bold original theory presented in given article is based, by and large, just on those "three pillars".</p> Emir E. Ashursky Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Financial Performance of Nepalese Commercial Banks using CAMEL Approach <p>Bank and financial institutions require a method for assessing performance, considering some crucial financial statistics, and identifying strengths and weaknesses. The "CAMEL" model is a effective tool for assessing the performance of bank and financial institution. This model studied Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management quality, Earnings capacity, and Liquidity condition of sample banks. The study has made a modest attempt to use the CAMEL technique to examine the performance of three commercial banks in Nepal from 2011/12 to 2020/21. Rastriya Banijya Bank, a wholly government-owned, Nepal SBI Bank Limited (NSBIL) joint venture, and Prime Commercial Bank Limited (PCBL), privately owned, were considered as a sample banks for the analysis. The result explained that PCBL and NSBIL could keep their risk-weighted assets at more excellent Tier I and II capital levels, demonstrating their financial soundness. This also revealed that NSBIL could support a higher percentage of well-performing loans. RBBL, NSBIL, and PCBL, all BFIs maintained average returns on shareholder equity and returns on assets. It also found PCBL was first in terms of the ratio of liquid assets to total deposits, followed by NSBIL banks and RBBL. In light of this, this research will be tremendously instructive to academics, researchers, and bank management. They can utilize it to create a financial plan for the effectiveness of the bank performance as a whole.</p> Gunja Kumari Sah, Shiva Prasad Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Conceptualizing Central Tendency and Dispersion in Applied Statistics <p>In any research to summarize the huge collected data for describing its characteristics, frequency distribution or histogram are used to reduce the heap of data. Thus, the collected data can be summarized as a single index or value representing the entire data that facilitate data comparison. Statisticians use a variety of numerical measures or indices in order to summarize data in a concise yet informative manner. The other way of representing the bunch of data is the tabular, diagrammatic and graphical approaches that visually illustrate the unorganized data. However, these techniques can not be enough to explain the quantitative data. Thus, statistical analysis is required to determine the various numerical measures that describe the inherent characteristic of frequency distribution. There are many methods of describing the characteristics of the collected data. The averages are the measures that condense a huge unwieldy set of numerical data into single numerical values which are representative of the entire distribution. Measures of dispersion show the information about the amount of variability or deviation or scatteredness or variation of the data from the average or central value. Thus both measures are used to interpret or analyze the data in academic and quantitative research.</p> Indra Mali Malakar Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Intersection of Blues and Gospel in Langston Hughes's Poetry <p>This article delves into Langston Hughes's use of blues and gospel music in his poetry. It explores how his poetry has helped challenge traditional views of African-American art. Hughes promotes African-American identity and culture, and advocates for principles such as freedom, democracy, and brotherhood. Hughes's poetry celebrates both spirituals and the blues, recognizing their power to evoke emotions and capture the essence of the human spirit. Despite the differences between the two genres, Hughes sees a greater bond that unifies them as part of the broader African-American culture. Hughes believes that his poetry should be performed and recited with musical accompaniment to enhance and strengthen communication. In this sense, music serves as a strong and unifying force that can inspire participation, dialogue, and engagement with African-American culture. This article examines how Hughes's poetry reflects the blues and gospel traditions and how his art is not isolating but ultimately unifying. By analyzing specific poems, such as "The Weary Blues" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers," this article demonstrates how Hughes's use of blues and gospel music speaks to a broader cultural context and how it is an integral part of African-American identity. Furthermore, the article highlights how Hughes's work has been influential in promoting African-American culture and identity. Through his poetry, Hughes seeks to challenge traditional views of art and African-Americans by asserting that African-American culture is worthy of artistic representation. His use of music in his poetry helps to underscore the importance of music as a part of African-American culture, and to foster a sense of community and unity among African-Americans. This article illustrates how Hughes's poetry is not only a reflection of the blues and gospel traditions but also a representation of African-American identity and culture. Hughes's use of music in his poetry helps to break down cultural barriers and promote unity and engagement within the African-American community.</p> Khagendra Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring the Satisfaction of Student Tourists in Pokhara: An Analysis of Travel Life Domains <p>Tourism is a significant global economic industry that is expanding rapidly. It is an important sector for development and reducing poverty in developing nations like Nepal. The aim of this paper is to assess the satisfaction of student tourists in Pokhara. 286 students were randomly selected from the 1000 students who visited Pokhara in the last week of December 2022 to participate in the survey. The data was collected by administering the five-point Likert scale questionnaires. Descriptive and analytical methods were used to examine the satisfaction of student tourists in Pokhara. Students who want to travel for experiences that will improve their academic and personal life have made student tourism an important niche in the tourism business. Younger tourists generally have more positive travel experiences compared to older tourists. The study finds that the majority of tourists were female and had a bachelor's degree. The respondents with a master's degree tend to rate their travel experiences more positively compared to those with a high school or bachelor's degree. This implies that education may influence tourists' perceptions and expectations, and that offering high-quality educational opportunities for tourists could lead to increased satisfaction. Therefore, it may be necessary for the tourism industry in Pokhara to adapt to the changing preferences and expectations of younger tourists to attract more visitors in the future.</p> Laxmi Kanta Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Writing Better Research Articles for Publication <p><strong>Background:</strong> Many research articles have been rejected by journals although authors provide the original subjects or ideas. Scholars and experts comment that the research papers are not well-written, but they do not provide the concrete guidelines for writing good research papers.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This article aims to provide generic structure, practical guidelines and advice for writing each section of a research paper.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study used descriptive qualitative method and observation and notetaking tools to collect the data/information. Key terms/phrases like ‘how to write research articles’, ‘structuring research papers’ were used to collect the materials. The author observed the structure of research articles and synthesized some review articles about writing each section of a research paper; then the generic guidelines and practical advice were prepared for writing a research article.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The IMRaD structure (introduction, methods, result and discussion) in a research paper has high impact. The introduction briefly informs what the research was done why and how. Method section explains in detail what method was utilized why and how. Results presents what the data found without explanation. Discussion section carries the meanings of the results concerning with present contexts and previous research. Conclusion and limitation sections are prepared with the supports of the results. For other sections of an article, the author guidelines should be followed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Author guidelines, generic structure of a research article, practical guidelines and advice prevent the most common errors and help the author produce a good research article for publishing. This article gives teachers, students, authors, editors, peer-reviewers and readers a helping hand in writing/reading a research paper.</p> Mahendra Kumar Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge on Prevention of Myocardial Infarction among Hypertensive Patients in a Hospital of Biratnagar, Nepal <p>Myocardial Infarction is an emergent situation characterized by an acute onset of myocardial ischemia that results in myocardial death in lack of prompt definitive interventions. Myocardial Infarction is one of the major complications of hypertension and although it is life-threatening yet it can be prevented. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge on the prevention of Myocardial Infarction among hypertensive patients in a hospital in Biratnagar. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among hypertensive patients in Neuro Cardio and Multispecialty Hospital of Biratnagar. Non-probability purposive sampling method was used to select the sample. Data was collected among 101 hypertensive patients through an interview technique using self - developed, semi-structured interview schedule. Data analysis was done on SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics i.e. frequency, mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics i.e. chi - square test was used to find the association between dependent and independent variable.</p> <p>The mean age of the respondents in this study was 56.93 while 62.4% of respondents were male whereas 36.6% of respondents were from Brahmin/Chhetri ethnic group and 67.3% followed Hinduism. Likewise, 49.5% of respondents had completed secondary level education. Similarly, 95% of the respondents identified eating low-fat diet as preventive measures moreover, the findings of this study revealed that 47.5% of respondents had moderate knowledge on the prevention of Myocardial Infarction whereas 46.5% had adequate knowledge while 6.0% of respondents had inadequate knowledge. This study showed that the association between the level of knowledge on the prevention of Myocardial Infarction and sex, education, and occupation was statistically significant. This study concluded that in majority of knowledge on the prevention of myocardial infarction was found to be moderate.</p> Puja Panta, Saraswati Basnet Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Cooperatives in Women Empowerment in the Nepalese Context <p>Cooperatives are important income-generating organizations. They help rural women in many ways. This study aims to identify the contribution of cooperatives to economic, socio-cultural, and political aspects of women empowerment. When women are empowered, they can uplift the economic condition of their families. The objectives of the study is to find out the role of cooperatives in women empowerment. The study is based on descriptive and analytical method. The secondary data are collected from different national and international research articles.&nbsp; This study has found that there is a significant difference in the economic, socio-cultural, and political empowerment of women. Women members are found empowered in their economic activities, maintain social relationships, reduce gender disparity, involve in social programs, conduct cultural programs and participate in political programs. The cooperatives can uplift the socio-economic condition of rural and urban women through access to financial services. They can provide other development services and alleviate poverty through women's empowerment. &nbsp;They have expanded their network of relationships through saving and credit programs. The study shows the need for expansion programs in hard-to-reach areas to empower economically, socially, culturally, and politically disadvantaged groups.</p> Rati Khatri Basnet Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Dynamics of Immigration: Displacement & Identity Crisis in Donald R. Gallo’s From Crossing: Stories about Teen Immigrants <p>The paper examines the displaced position of immigrants portrayed in the selected stories of Donald R. Gallo’s From Crossing: Stories about Teen Immigrants and explores the variables that affect the lives of the immigrants in a multicultural setting. The article analyzes psychological and physical repercussions of displacement of teenage characters in the stories with the focus on teens’ psychological status during the transition period. Teenagers undergo complexity of internal and social identities in which they face psychological complexity. They experience identity crisis in the destination country. Because of their belonging to different backgrounds, they undergo varied levels of domination and marginalization. They are not accepted and their identities are not tolerated because of being outsiders. Their movement from the homeland to the destination countries becomes a cause for being unaccepted. Their experience in the intolerant society leads them to alienation. The article has employed Stuart Hall’s perspective of identity and cultural diversity to scrutinize the displacement and identity crisis of the teenagers depicted as immigrants in the selected stories. The American society imposes established notions on the immigrants who are teenagers whose psyche is complex because of their displacement. They experience mental displacements as well in a new social setting as Lacan focuses on the teenage problem of identity when they shift from one teenage state to maturity. Moreover, it problematizes when people are culturally displaced in another culture where they have to adopt different cultures.</p> Saleem Dhobi Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fundamentals of Historical Materialism <p>This article explores the basic tenets of historical materialism. It is relevant to identifying the general trends of historical materialistic critique of the evolution of human society. The article addresses the research problems concerning the conception of history, the relationship between base and superstructure, the significance of the mode of production, and the class struggle in the development of human history. The article deals with the problems through the review-based analysis of the historical materialistic critique of the rise of human society. The article reveals that the materialist interpretation of history is the key to historical materialism. The materialist conception of history interprets the basis of every social order according to production and the relation of production. It regards class struggle as the reflection of the conflict between the forces of production and the relation of production. The materialist conception of history views the mode of production or the economic base as the determining element in history but in many cases, the different forms of superstructure also react upon the base and play their role in changing the course of history.</p> Tilak Bahadur Khatri Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 प्रसाईका उपन्यासमा पितृसत्ताप्रतिको प्रतिरोधी नारीचेतना <p>सत्तामा रहनेका निर्णय, शासन र शक्तिका आधारमा राज्यसञ्चालन हुने गर्दछ । तसर्थ पुरुषकै हालीमुहाली र वर्चस्वले पितृसत्तामा स्थान पाउँछ । सृष्टिमा समान रूपमा विकसित भएका नारी र पुरुषको आफ्नै महत्त्व र भूमिका हुँदाहुँदै दुईका भिन्न लिङ्गलाई आधार बनाएर विभेदका मानक स्थापित गर्दै अघि बढेको पुरुषकेन्द्रित पितृसत्तात्मक व्यवस्था पुरुषकै हितबाट अभिप्रेरित छ । पुरुषले नारीलाई जैविक आधारमा कमजोर साबित गर्दै पारिवारिक, सामाजिक, कानुनी, आर्थिक आदि भूमिकामाथि गरेको विभेद तथा दमनलाई पितृसत्ताले समर्थन गरेको छ । यसर्थ पुरुषको श्रेष्ठता, शक्तिशाली एवम् आधिपत्य भूमिकाका विपरीत महिलालाई कमजोर, निरीह तथा शक्तिहीन ठानी उत्पीडन र दमनको सिकार बनाइरहने एकलौटी र पुरुषकेन्द्री संस्था नै पितृसत्ता हो । नेपालमा पनि पितृसत्तात्मक व्यवस्था र त्यसको प्रभाव कायमै छ । देशको राजनीतिक, सामाजिक तथा सांस्कृतिक पक्षलाई कलात्मक रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरिने साहित्यिक कृतिमा समेत पितृसत्तात्मक प्रभाव र वर्तमानमा त्यसप्रति सचेत नारीका चेतना मुखरित भएका हुन्छन् । प्रसाईका उपन्यासमा पनि पितृसत्ताले नारीमाथि गर्ने शासन, दमन र विभेदका विरुद्धमा नारीले गरेका विद्रोह, सङ्घर्ष तथा त्यसप्रतिको प्रतिरोधी चेतनालाई केकसरी प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ भन्ने मूल जिज्ञासामा केन्द्रित भएर सोही प्रश्नको प्राज्ञिक उत्तर खोज्ने उद्देश्य यस लेखको रहेको छ । यसका लागि सिमोन द बुभाले अघि सारेका पितृसत्ताप्रतिको प्रतिरोधी चेतनासम्बन्धी नारीवादी सिद्धान्तलाई कृतिविश्लेषणको सैद्धान्तिक आधार मानी निगमनात्मक विधिबाट तथ्यको विश्लेषण गरी समस्याको निरूपण गरिएको छ । प्रसाईका हालसम्म प्रकाशित चारवटै उपन्यासको विश्लेषणबाट उनका उपन्यासमा नारीहरूमाथि पितृसत्तात्मक व्यवस्था र सोचका कारण गरिने फरक व्यवहार, दोस्रो दर्जाका रूपमा नारीलाई हेरिने परिपाटी र पितृसत्ताले निर्माण गरेका नीतिनियम र व्यवहारमा हुने लैङ्गिक विभेद एवम् शोषणप्रति सचेत नारीको बुलन्द आवाजले पितृसत्ताप्रतिको प्रतिरोधी नारीचेतनालाई प्रस्ट पारेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । यसले साहित्यमा समाजको यथार्थलाई प्रस्तुत गर्ने मात्र नभएर वर्तमान समाजको दिशा बदल्ने वा समाजलाई मार्गनिर्देश गर्ने शक्ति हुने तथ्यलाई प्रस्ट पारेको छ । पितृसत्ताले गाँजेको नेपाली समाजमा यसप्रतिको नारीचेतना आवश्यक रहेको र समतामूलक समाज निर्माणका लागि सचेत व्यक्तिले लिङ्गकै आधारमा बनेका कृत्रिम मानक तथा सोचलाई बदल्न सक्नुपर्ने विचार सम्प्रेषण गरी समाजपरिवर्तनका लागि मार्गनिर्देश गर्नमा प्रसाईका उपन्यास सबल रहेको तथ्यलाई समेत यस लेखले उजागर गरेको छ ।</p> अम्बिका अर्याल Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘लिखे टोकेनी’ लोककथाको मनोविश्लेषणात्मक अध्ययन <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययन मनोविश्लेषणात्मक अध्ययन पद्धतिमा केन्द्रित छ । यस अध्ययनमा सिग्मण्ड फ्रायडद्वारा प्रतिपादित मनोविश्लेषणको सिद्धान्तका आधारमा आख्यानमा प्रयुक्त पात्रहरूले गर्ने क्रियाकलाप, उनीहरूको चिन्तन र त्यसबाट पात्रको सूक्ष्म मनोजगतमा घटित हुने अन्तरद्वन्द्व पात्रको व्यवहारमा पार्ने असर विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । मनोविश्लेषणात्मक सिद्धान्तले बाह्य यथार्थभन्दा आन्तरिक यथार्थलाई विश्लेषण गर्दछ। यस अध्ययनमा सङ्कलन गरिएको ‘लिखे टोकेनी’ लोककथा सामाजिक विषयवस्तुमा आधारित लोककथा हो । कथामा समाजभित्रका, परिवारका सदस्यहरूका मनमा घटित घटनाक्रमलाई सिग्मण्ड फ्रायडको मनको सिद्धान्तका दुृई पक्ष प्रकारात्मक र गत्यामक पक्षका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कथामा मानिसमा पर्ने मानसिक प्रभावले त्रास, निराश, हीनता, उच्चता लगायतका पक्षहरूको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस कथामा आमाको माया ममताको अभावले बालबालिकालाई कस्तो असर पर्छ र परिवार भित्र आमाको भूमिका कति महत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ भन्ने कुराको चित्रण गरिएको छ । अचेतन मनभित्रका पीडाले पनि जीवनमा असर पारेको हुन्छ भन्ने कुरालाई सिग्मण्ड फ्रायडको मनको सिद्धान्तका आधारमा ‘लिखे टोकेनी’ कथाका पात्रहरूको मनोगत अवस्थाको यस अध्ययनबाट पुष्टि गरिएको छ ।</p> अनिता पंगेनी Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 आधुनिक नेपाली गीतमा प्रगतिवादी चेतना <p>भाव वा विचारको तीव्र आवेगसहित प्रकट हुने आख्यानरहित सङ्क्षिप्त र गेय अभिव्यक्तिलाई गीत भनिन्छ । आधुनिक नेपाली गीतकै अन्तर्वस्तुका रूपमा अभिव्यञ्जित प्रगतिवादी चेतनाको मूल स्वरूप र त्यसलाई आस्वाद्य बनाउने गीतिकौशलको वस्तुनिष्ठ विश्लेषणमा प्रस्तुत अध्ययन केन्द्रित छ । कविताको उपविधाका रूपमा फुटकर नेपाली कविताकै अत्यन्त निकट देखिएर नेपाली साहित्यमा स्वच्छन्दतावादी कविताधारासँगै २००० को दशकदेखि विधागत अस्तित्व ग्रहण गर्दै विकसित र विस्तारित हुँदै आएको आधुनिक नेपाली गीतमा २०१० को दशकदेखि नै मूलतः स्वच्छन्दतावादी गीतिधारा र प्रगतिवादी गीतिधारा देखिएका छन् । प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक आलेखमा प्रगतिवादी गीतिधाराका भूपि शेरचन, गोकुलप्रसाद जोशी, केवलपुरे किसान र मोदनाथ प्रश्रितका गीतबाट साक्ष्य र तथ्य सङ्कलन गरी तिनै गीतिरचनाको अन्तर्वस्तुका रूपमा अभिव्यञ्जित प्रगतिवादी चेतना र त्यसलाई आस्वाद्य बनाउने रूप पक्षको व्यवस्थित विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । नेपाली साहित्यका सुन्दर गीतहरूले जनतामा के कस्तो प्रगतिवादी चेतना विस्तार गरेका छन् भन्ने प्राज्ञिक जिज्ञासा हालसम्म अनुत्तरित नै रहेको देखिन्छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययन यही अभावपूर्तिका लागि गरिएको हो । वैदेशिक थिचोमिचो, अन्याय, असमानता, सामन्ती उत्पीडन र शासकीय निरङ्कुशताविरुद्ध जनाधिकार प्राप्तिमा नेपाली जनतालाई प्रेरित र सजग गराउने कार्यमा प्रगतिवादी स्रष्टाका सुन्दर गीतले सरल र सरस शैलीमा राजनीतिक चेतना पैmलाउँदै सामाजिक परिवर्तनमा महत्वपूर्ण योगदान पुर्याएका छन् भन्ने निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत अध्ययनबाट प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> ढुण्डिराज पहाडी Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 विद्यालयमा दिवा खाजा कार्यक्रमको व्यवस्थापन <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययनको मुख्य उद्देश्य विद्यालयमा दिवा खाजा कार्यक्रमको व्यवस्थापनकीय पक्षको खोजी गर्नु रहेको छ । यो अध्ययन दाङ जिल्लाको घोराही उपमहानगरपालिका अन्तर्गत रहेका २ वटा विद्यालयमा आधारित छ । यस अध्ययनमा गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचा प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यसमा प्राथमिक सूचनाहरू प्रश्नावली, प्रत्यक्ष अवलोकन, अन्र्तवार्ता जस्ता विधि र साधनहरूको प्रयोग गरी सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ भने द्वितीय सूचनाहरू लेख, रचना, शोधपत्र तथा विभिन्न अध्ययन प्रतिवेदनहरूबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । प्राप्त सूचनाहरूलाई अर्थ र बुझाइको आधारमा अध्ययनकर्ताको प्रतिबिम्ब सहित निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । दिवा खाजा कार्यक्रमको कार्यान्वयनमा आन्तरिक व्यवस्थापकीय पक्ष फितलो रहेको पाइयो । नेपाल सरकार र विश्व खाद्य कार्यक्रमको सम्झौताअनुसार निर्धारित नीति, नियम र निर्देशनको आंशिक कार्यान्वयन भएको र यो कार्यक्रम बालबालिकाको सिकाइ सीपसँग जोडिन नसकेको देखियो । विद्यालयहरूको कमजोर भौतिक संरचनाका कारण दिवा खाजा कार्यक्रमलाई व्यवस्थित, प्रभावकारी र बालमैत्री बनाउने अवधारणा लागु हुन नसकेको पाइयो । विद्यालयमा दिवा खाजा कार्यक्रममा पूरा गर्नुपर्ने न्यूनतम् मापदण्ड पूरा नगरी कार्यान्वयन गरिएकाले यसको प्रभावकारिता देखिएन । विद्यालय नियमिततामा हुने बानी विकासमा कार्यक्रमले सकारात्मक प्रभाव पारेको देखिन्छ । तर शिक्षाको मूलधारमा सवै बालबालिकालाई ल्याउने उद्देश्य हासिल गर्न भने सकेको पाइएन । यस कार्यक्रममा ढुवानी, भण्डारण र वितरण प्रणालीमा समस्या रहेको, खाद्यको गुणस्तरीयता, साझेदार निकायहरूबीच निरन्तर सञ्चार, समन्वय, सहकार्य, नियमित अनुगमन र सुपरिवेक्षणको अभाव जस्ता पक्षहरू समस्याको रूपमा देखिएका छन् । यस अध्ययनबाट प्राप्त निचोडहरुले सम्बन्धित विद्यालय तथा सरोकारवाला निकायलाई दिवा खाजा कार्यक्रमको प्रभावकारी व्यवस्थापन गरी समयानुकल बनाउन सहयोग गर्छ ।</p> नारायण प्रसाद अधिकारी Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘सिमली छायामा बसी’ गीतमा लयविधान <p>‘सिमली छायामा बसी’ गीतकार जीवन शर्मा (२०१६) द्वारा लिखित गीत हो । यस गीतमा उनले मानवीय मूल्यको ह्रास, विकृति, अन्याय, शोषण, आतङ्क, हत्याजस्ता कुराको विरोध, प्रगतिवादी विचार, क्रान्तिकारी स्वर, निम्नवर्गप्रति सहानुभूति जस्ता विषयवस्तु प्रस्तुत गरेका छन् । गरीब भरियाको सामाजिक यर्थाथ प्रस्तुत गरिएको यस गीत मानव जीवनमा भोग्नु परेको वास्तविक पक्षसँग मेल खान्छ । गीत भित्रको सुललित अन्तरगुन्जन अथवा साङ्गीतिक अन्तरप्रवाह नै गीतको लय हो र यो भाषाका माध्यमबाट प्रस्तुत हुन्छ । लयविधानलाई कविताको सबैभन्दा प्रमुख विधागत अभिलक्षण र साहित्यका अन्य विधासँगको विभेदक अभिलक्षण मानिन्छ । शास्त्रीय नियमअनुसार लेखिएका कवितामा पाउ, श्लोक र छन्दका माध्यमबाट लय सिर्जना भएको हुन्छ भने गद्यकवितामा वार्णिक तथा शाब्दिक पुनरावृत्ति, अनुप्रास, विचलन, समानान्तरता, पङ्क्तिविन्यास आदिका माध्यमबाट विशिष्ट लयको सिर्जना हुन्छ । लयले कवितालाई श्रुतिमधुर र गेयात्मक बनाउने भएकाले प्रस्तुत परिच्छेदमा काव्यिक लयको स्वरूप, छन्द र लयको सम्बन्ध, काव्यिक लयको वर्गीकरण तथा गद्यकवितामा लयविधानको चर्चा गरिन्छ । यस लेखमा यिनै कोणबाट गीतकार जीवन शर्माको ‘सिमली छायामा बसी’ गीतको लयविधानको व्याख्या गरिएको छ । यो गीत रक्तिमका गीतहरू (२०५७) गीतिसङ्ग्रहमा समेटिएको छ । प्रस्तुत गीत १६० शब्द, २६ पङ्क्ति र ९ अनुच्छेदमा संरचित छ । यस गीतको लयविधानको अध्ययनका लागि लयविधानको विभिन्न सैद्घान्तिक आधारहरू पङ्क्तिविन्यास, समानान्तरता, विचलन, विपरितता, खण्डीकरण, सम्बोधन र लेख्यचिह्नहरूलाई आधार लिएर गीतको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ ।<br />‘</p> निलुफर बञ्जरा Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘बुढा र बुढी’ लोककथाको संरचनात्मक अध्ययन <p>प्रस्तुत आलेख ‘बुढा र बुढी’ लोककथाको संरचनात्मक विश्लेषणसँग सम्बन्धित छ । यहाँ बुढा र बुढी लोककथाको कथानक, सहभागी, परिवेश, उद्देश्य र भाषाशैलीय कोणबाट विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । संरचनात्मक घटकहरुको पारस्परिक सम्बन्धबाट बन्ने पूर्ण कृति हो । यसमा पूर्णता, परिवर्तनशीलता र स्वनिष्ठताजस्ता गुण हुन्छ । कृतिको आकृति नै संरचना हो । प्रस्तुत लोककथाको कथानकविन्यास क्रमिक ढाँचामा संरचित छ । कथानकको आदि, मध्य र अन्त्यको शृङ्खला मिलेको छ । लोककथामा उपस्थित सहभागीहरूका कार्यव्यापारले लोककथालाई जीवन्त र मौलिक बनाएका छन् । यहाँ प्रस्तुत लोककथाले ग्रामीण पूर्वेली नेपाली समाजको परिवेशलाई देखाएका छन् । यस लोककथाको भाषाशैली सरल, सहज छ । ग्रामीण जीवनका आरोहअवरोह, उनीहरूको यथार्थतालाई सामाजिक लोककथाले देखाएका छन् । यस लोककथाले सत्मार्गमा हिँड्ने, सत्कर्म गर्ने, अरूको कुभलो नचिताउने, चोरेर, ठगेर कमाएको सम्पत्तिले नपुग्ने नैतिक सन्देश दिएको छ ।</p> सन्तोष कार्की Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘मोटरसाइकलको बिहे’ बालनाटकमा सामाजिक यथार्थवाद <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा छायादत्त न्यौपाने ‘बगर’द्वारा लेखिएको मोटरसाइकलको बिहे (२०६७) नाटकसङ्ग्रहअन्तर्गत रहेको ‘मोरसाइकलको बिहे’ बालनाटकको विश्लेषण सामाजिक यथार्थवादी दृष्टिकोण, माक्र्सवादी सांस्कृतिक रूपान्तरण र विद्रोहात्मक चेतको परिप्रेक्षका आधारमा गरिएको छ । व्यक्तिवादको विपरीत भाव समाजवाद हो । समाजवादी यथार्थवादले सबै खाले उत्पीडनलाई अन्त्य गर्ने अनि समाजमा विद्यमान शोषण, दमन, विभेद, कुरीति, कुसंस्कार, वर्गीय विभेद अन्त्य गरी शोषणरहीत रूपमा स्वतन्त्र हुने कुरालाई माक्सवादी चिन्तनले आत्मसाथ गरेको छ । यो नै सामाजिक यथार्थवादको आधार हो । यसै मान्यताका आधारमा यहाँ छायादत्त न्यौपानेद्वारा लेखिएको ‘मोरसाइकलको बिहे’ बालनाटकको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस नाटकमा एकातिर समाजको सामाजिक संस्कार र संस्कृतिको यथार्थ अवस्थालाई चित्रण गरेको छ भने अर्कोतिर हाम्रो समाजमा रहेको संस्कार र संस्कृतिका रूपमा रहेको विवाहको समयमा हुने दाइजोको विकराल अवस्था अनि बाध्यात्मक अवस्थामा परेर गर्नुपर्ने सामाजिक संस्कारको विद्रोह गरी मोटरसाइकलसँग माला लगाएर स्वयंवर गर्न लगाएर विद्रोह गरिएको छ । अन्त्यमा दुलही पक्षका मानिस असल संस्कार निर्माण गर्नका लागि दाइजोविना विवाह सम्पन्न गराएर दुलही अन्माइएको छ । यस अवस्थाले समाजको वास्तविकताको जानकारी गराउनुका साथै समाजमा जरा गाडेको दाइजो प्रवृत्तिको विद्रोह भएकाले माक्सवादी चिन्तनमा आधारित वर्गीय विभेद तथा समाजमा रहेको कुसंस्कृतिका विरुद्ध विद्रोह गरी असल संस्कारको निर्माण गर्ने कुरा प्रष्ट रूपमा राखिएको छ ।</p> शेखर अर्याल Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 दिनबन्धु शर्माका कथामा विनिर्माण <p>प्रस्तुत शोध ‘दिनबन्धु शर्माका कथामा विनिर्माण शीर्षकमा केन्द्रित रहेर अध्ययन गरिएको छ । शर्माका भत्किँदै किल्लाहरू कथासङ्ग्रहका एक्काइस कथामध्ये ‘रामलीला’, ‘उर्मिला’,‘शूपर्णखा’ गरी तिन कथामा सीमाङ्कित गरी फ्रान्सेली दार्शनिक डेरिडाको विनिर्माणवादी चिन्तनलाई प्रमुख आधार बनाएर अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यस लेखको अध्ययनका लागि वर्णनात्मक तथा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको अवलम्बन गरिएको छ । ‘रामलीला’ कथामा पैसा कमाउन विदेशिएर स्वदेश फर्केकी सीतालाई लोग्नेले स्वास्थ्य परीक्षणका लागि दबाब दिएको विषयलाई रामायणको अग्नि परीक्षासँग तुलना गरी विनिर्माण गरिएको छ । यसमा आधुनिक युगकी सीताद्वारा अग्निपरीक्षा नारीको मात्र होइन, पुरुषको पनि हुनुपर्दछ भन्दै आत्महत्या अस्वीकार गरी नारी अस्तित्वको खोजी गरिएको छ । ‘उर्मिला’ कथामा रामायणकी पौराणिक पात्र उर्मिला र फिलिपिनी महिला अरेबिल्लाको पति वियोगको पीडासँग तुलना गरी कथाको विनिर्माण गरिएको छ । यस कथामा चौध वर्षसम्म पति वियोगको व्यथा खपेर पनि लक्ष्मणकै नाम जपेर बसेकी तर इतिहासमा अत्यन्त ओझेलमा परेकी उर्मिलाको अस्तित्वको खोजी गरिएको छ । ‘शूपर्णखा’ कथामा रामायणमा प्रतिकूल पात्रका रूपमा चर्चित शूपर्णखालाई अनुकूल पात्रका रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरी कथालाई विनिर्माण गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत कथामा विधवा शूपर्णखाको यौनाधिकारको वकालत गरिनुका साथै आदर्श पुरुषका रूपमा प्रतिष्ठित भएका श्रीराम र लक्ष्मणको आदर्शलाई भत्काएर एक अभिमानी र दम्भी पुरुषका रूपमा उभ्याउने काम गरिएको छ । यसमा डेरिडाले भनेजस्तै सारा जीवन र जगत् भ्रम हो । हामीले जीवनमा जे गर्यौ ती पनि सबै लीला, मिथ्या, भ्रम र व्यर्थ हुन् । भन्ने शून्यवादी दार्शनिक चिन्तनको प्रयोग भएको देखिन्छ । यी तिन वटै कथाहरूको विनिर्माण गर्दा नारी अस्तित्व र अधिकारको खोजी गरिनु राम्रो कुरा हो, तर विनिर्माण , विधामिश्रण र टुक्रे आख्यानहरूको प्रयोगले गर्दा रामायण कथामा प्रस्तुत मूल भाव र कथाको संरचना पूर्णरूपले भत्किएर ,अर्थमा भिन्नता, विधागत र अर्थगत अनिश्चितताका कारण पाठकहरूमा विश्व प्रशिद्ध रामायण कथाको परम्परित आदर्शप्रति नकारात्मक सन्देश प्रवाह भएको छ । एक केन्द्र भत्किएर बहुकेन्द्रको स्थापना, भई विधागत अस्तित्व नै समाप्त भएको छ ।</p> शोभाकुमारी ढुङ्गाना Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली हाइकुको संरचनात्मक स्वरूप <p>विश्वकै लघुतम काव्यविधाका रूपमा चिनिँदै आएको हाइकु नेपाली साहित्यमा पनि काव्यको लघुतम उपविधाका रूपमा चिनिन्छ । जापानी साहित्यबाट नेपाली साहित्यमा भित्रिएको हाइकुको आफ्नै रचना विधान छ । सत्र अक्षरमा पूरा गरिने एउटा हाइकुमा पाँच सात पाँचको संरचना हुन्छ । यस अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा नेपाली हाइकुको रचना विधान केकस्तो छ र नेपाली साहित्यमा कस्तो स्वरूपमा हाइकु रचना गरिन्छ र यसको रचना पक्षलाई कुन ढङ्गले आत्मसात गरी नेपाली हाइकुकारले हाइकु रचना गरिरहेका छन् भन्ने पक्षमा चर्चा गरिएको छ । अनुसन्धानको गुणात्मक ढाँचा अनुसरण गरी तयार पारिएको यस शोध लेखमा नेपाली हाइकुको संरचना पक्षलाई शोध समस्याका रूपमा लिई मूलतः पुस्तकालय कार्यबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ र हाइकु लेखनका सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणालाई उल्लेख गरी हाइकुको आन्तरिक तथा बाह्य संरचनाबारे विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । हाइकुको आन्तरिक संरचनाअन्तर्गत यसमा प्रयोग भएको किगो, होसोमीमाथि प्रकाश पारिएको छ भने बाह्य संरचनाअन्तर्गत हाइकुमा प्रत्येक पङ्क्तिमा प्रयोग हुने अक्षरहरूको गणना, तीन पङ्क्तिको संरचना, क्रियापद प्रयोग, विम्ब तथा अलङ्कार प्रयोग, उखान प्रयोग, शब्दसंयोजन, अनुप्रास, ऋतुबोधक शब्द प्रयोग, लयात्मकता आदिका बारेमा चर्चा गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> यज्ञेश्वर निरौला Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 पद स्वाय्‌गु व फाय्‌गु <p>हरेक भाषाय् थःथःगु ब्याकरण दै । भाषा ल्हाइगुयात अनुसन्धान यानाः अप्वयां अप्वः मनूतय्‌सव न्वंवानाच्वंगु भाषाया आधारय् ब्याकरण दय्‌का तै । सामान्यतया मनूतय्सं गथे न्वंवानाच्वंगु खः अथेहे च्वय्गु नं याइ । नेपालभाषा च्वय्गुली छगू हे रुप जुयाच्वंगु मदु । नामपद, विशेषणपद, क्रियापद व क्रियाविशेषणपदय् गुज्वःगु पद ल्वाकाः च्वय्गु, गुज्वःगु पदब्यागलं च्वय्गु धैगुली एकरुपता जुयाच्वंगु मदु । विशेषयानाः क्रियापदय् सहायक क्रिया दैगु इलय् स्वानाच्वय्गु न्ह्यथनागु दु । बचनय् वैगु चिं, विभक्तिया चिं, समस्तखँग्वः थें जाःगु पद स्वानाः च्वयाच्वंगु दु । क्रियां कनीगु अर्थ मेगु जुइबलय् नामपदनाप स्वानाः च्वय्गु न्ह्यथनातःगु दु । क्रिया क्रिया जुइबलय् निगू ज्या क्यनीगु इलय् छगू पूर्वकालिक क्रिया ब्यागलं च्वय्गु न्ह्यथनातःगु दु । दथुया आखः तनाः वनीबलय् स्वानाः च्वय्गु न्ह्यथनागु दु । अथेखःसां मेमेगु पद गुज्वःगु स्वाय्गु व ब्यागलं च्वय्गु धैगुली छगू हे जुयाच्वंगु मदु । च्वय्गुली छगू हे रुप हय्गु थुगु च्वसुया उद्देश्य खः । थुकिया लागि द्वितीयक स्रोतयात बःकयाः स्तरीय प्रयोगात्मक भाषा विज्ञानया सिद्धान्तयात नालाः ब्याख्या याय्गु जुइ । च्वय्बले गथे च्वःसा ब्यावहारिक जुइ धैगु न्ह्यब्वय्गु जूगु दु । थुकिया लागि न्हापायापिन्सं न्ह्यथनातःगु नियमय् छुं तनेगु जूगु दु । नामया खँय् विभक्ति, समास दक्व स्वानाः च्वय्गु । नापनापं प्यगू नाम खँग्वः जूसा निगू निगू स्वाय्गु ब्यावहारिक जुइ । स्वगूतकया नाम खँग्वः स्वानाः च्वय्गु ब्यावहारिक जुइ । नाम नाम स्वाय्बलय् यदि छगू थें जुइक क्यनेबले स्वाय्गु व निगू ब्यागलं क्यनेत फाय्गु ब्यावहारिक जुइ । अज्ञातभूत, संभावना, अब्यय खँग्वः स्वानाः च्वय्गु पाय्छि जुइ ।</p> वज्रमुनि वज्राचार्य Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 कारक व विभक्ति <p>वाक्यय् संज्ञा, सर्वनाम व विशेषण खँग्वःया क्रियानापया सम्बन्ध हे कारक खः । कारकया विशेष अर्थ लुइकीगु चिं विभक्ति खः । उकिं कारक व विभक्ति अन्तरसम्बन्धित खः । पूर्वीय तथा संस्कृत व्याकरणय् कारकयात पाणिनी “क्रियान्वयित्व कारकत्वम्” सिद्धान्तकथं न्ह्यथनादीगु दु । वय्कःया अष्टाध्याय सफुती कारकनाप स्वापू तइगु नामपद व पदावलीयात कारककथं व्याख्या यानातःगु दु । अथे हे पश्चिमी व्याकरणय् अमेरिकी भाषाविद्पिं नोम चम्सकीया मानक सिद्धान्तलिसें चाल्र्स जे.फिलमोरं कारकयात व्याकरणया छगू महत्वपूर्ण पक्षकथं व्याख्या यानादीगु दु । कारक व विभक्तिया छ्यलाबुला पूर्वीय व पश्चिमी निगुलिं व्याकरणय् महत्व उत्तिकं दु । नेपालभाषा व्याकरणय्नं कारक व विभक्तिया विशेष थाय् दु । नेपालभाषाय् कारकयात विभक्ति चिं छ्यलाया आधारय् च्याथिकय् व्बथलातःगु दु । कर्ता, कर्म, करण, सम्प्रदान, अपादान, सम्बन्ध, अधिकरण व सम्बोधन कारक । सम्बन्ध कारक व सम्बोधन कारकया क्रियानापया सम्बन्ध मजुइगु निंतिं विद्धानतय्सं कारक मानेयानातःगु मदु । लिङ्ग, संख्या, प्राणिवाचक व अप्राणिवाचकया लिधंसाय् नेपालभाषाय् कारकया अध्ययन जुइ । थ्व अध्ययनया मू उद्देश्य धैगु नेपालभाषा व्याकरणय् कारक व विभक्तिया थाय् स्पष्ट याय्गु नापं सम्बोधनयात कारककथं काय्गु पाय्छि जू मजू धैगु खः । पुस्तकालय स्रोतया आधारय् थ्व अध्ययन जूगु दु ।</p> दिपा महर्जन Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालभाषाय् ल्याः ग्वः (अंक) <p>नेपालभाषायात थीथीकथं म्हसीकेगु याः । नेपालभाषा छगू क्यातुगु भाय्, एकाक्षर प्रवृत्तिया भाय्, ह्स्वमय भाय् व क्लासिफायर ल्वाङ्ग्वेज आदि अनेककथं थ्व भाषा परिचित जू । संसारय् प्रत्येक भाषाया थःथःगु विशेषता दइ । नेपालभाषाया नं थःगु बिस्कं विशेषता दु । नेपालभाषाया थीथी विशेषता मध्ये ल्याःखँग्वःया नं अलग विशेषता दु । हिमाली पुचःया भाषा दुने थ्व भाषा लाःगुलिं थ्व पुचलय् लाःगु मेमेगु भाषा ल्याःखाय् थें थ्व भाषाया पद्धति उकथं हे वनाच्वंगु दु । नेपालभाषाया च्वज्याय् ल्याःग्वः स्पष्ट याय्गु, ताजिग्वःया बारे स्पष्ट याय्गु वा गुकथं छ्यलाच्वंगु दु , छुं नं वस्तुयात ल्याः खाय्बलय् पूवंक जक मखु उकिया अंश नं गुकथं ल्याः खाइ धइगु दुवालेगु हे थुकिया उद्देश्य खः । सामाजिक भाषा बैज्ञानिक सिद्धान्तया अवधारणाकथं प्रस्तुत जूगु दु । मीतव्ययीता व सरलीकरण थुकिया मूल सिद्धान्त खः । थन नेपालभाषाय् ल्याःखाय्बलय् सरल संख्यावाचक, संयुक्त संख्यावाचक, श्रेणीवाचक ल्याःलिसें ताजिग्वः दुने संज्ञा ताजिग्वः, क्रिया ताजिग्वःया विवेचना जूगु दु । थुगु लेख द्वितीय स्रोतविधिया आधारय् तयार जूगु दु । थुकिया लिच्वःकथं सरलसंख्या ल्याःवलधाःसा आखलं (छि, नसि, स्व........) च्वय्गु । संयुक्तसंख्या ल्याः वलधाःसा अंक (११म्ह, १२पुं........) च्वय्गु व २०, २१, ३०, ४०..........यात नी, नीछि, स्वी, पी यानाः न्ह्यनेया वर्ण दीर्घ याय्माःगु खनेदु ।</p> लसता सिं Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 संस्कृत काव्यशास्त्रय् काव्य–गुण व दोष <p>संस्कृत काव्यशास्त्रय् दकले न्हापांगु शास्त्रीय सफू नाट्शशास्त्र खः । भरतमुनि (अ. ईपू १ शदी)पाखें रचना जूगु नाट्यशास्त्रय् दकले न्हापां काव्य–गुण व दोषबारे चर्चा जुल । भरतं काव्य–गुणयात दोषया विपर्यय धकाः परिभाषित यात । भरतधुंकाः फुक्क हे धैथें काव्यशास्त्रीतय्सं काव्य–गुण व दोषया बारे चर्चा यात । काव्य–गुण व दोषबारे भाववादी शास्त्रीतसिबें देहबादी शास्त्रीत भतिचा कठोर जू । उत्कृष्ट काव्यसिर्जनाय् काव्यगुणया जक ज्ञान दःसां गाः धैगु विचाः दुपिं गुलिखे काव्यशास्त्रीतय्सं काव्यदोषबारे चर्चा तकं मयाः । इमिगु विचाःकथं गन दोषमुक्त जुइ, अन काव्यगुण जुइ । काव्य गुण हे काव्य दोषया विपर्यय (विपरित) खः धैगु इमिगु मत खः । काब्यशास्त्रीतय्सं काव्य गुण व दोषया बारे चर्चा परिचर्चा याःसां परिभाषा व भेदय् एकरुपता मदु । काव्य गुण व दोषया बारे काव्यशास्त्रीपिन्सं न्ह्यथनावंगु विचाःया आधारय् काव्य–गुण व दोषया परिभाषा व भेदया बारे निर्णय याय्गु हे थुगु च्वसुया उद्देश्य खः । थुकिया लागि द्वितीयक स्रोतयात बःकयाः स्तरीय काव्यसिद्धान्तयात नालाः ब्याख्या याय्गु जुइ ।</p> राजितवहादुर श्रेष्ठ Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000