Cognition 2022-07-24T06:55:14+00:00 Prof. Rajan Prasad Pokharel, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>Cognition is a peer-reviewed, transdisciplinary journal published by the National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus Unit, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. The aim of the Journal is to publish multi-disciplinary articles that cover the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences, Management, Education, Environment Science and General Sciences.</p> Swayambhu Buddhacharya's relationship with Bungadya: 2022-07-05T12:09:24+00:00 Bajramuni Bajracharya <p>Swayambhu is located in ward 15 of Kathmandu Municipality and Bungamati is situated in ward 22 of Lalitpur Municipality. Bungadya: is the common deity of Nepalmandal whose image is kept six months in Bungamati and six months at Tahbahal of Lalitpur. Its chariot festival starts in the month of Baisakha. The main aim of the study is to explore Swayambhu Buddhacharya's relation with Bungam Lokesvara. What and how cultural activities are performed during the chariot festival by Budhacharyas. I spent 15 days in Swayambhu for data collection in 2016 Baisakha month. I selected some renowned priests of Swayambhu. I have applied the ethnographic method. During the course of data collection, I have interviewed with priests and observed animal sacrifice four days before starting the festival and involved in the preliminary procession of worship to Bungadya: at Pulchok. Books and articles have been used for description. This study is mostly completed based on the field research. Buddhacharya collects Pooja goods (objects) from each houses of Swayambhu then go to Hanuman Dhoka. The representative Buddhacharya first of all worship to Bungadya: in Pulchok before pulling chariot. Then, other devotees worship Bungadya:. On the way of returning home they deliver Prasad to the certain people. Instead of that, Prasad receiver gives Dakshina. Buddhacharya celebrate Jhwaglapagla Bhoy in Swayambhu. Four days before Panju sacrifice animal at Vayupur in Swayambhu at night and take away Swayambhu as Asana (seat) of Bungadya:. They have strong relation with Bungadya and Pānju of Bungamati. They do not keep marital relation with Bunga as well as Bunga do not marry with Swayambhu.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Ecological Risk Assessment using Satellite Derived NDVI, HFP and Rainfall Erosivity in Nepal 2022-07-05T12:19:39+00:00 Binod Baniya Jaya Ram Karki <p>Understanding vegetation dynamics is becoming increasingly crucial to maintain ecosystem in the Himalaya region. An assessment of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and human footprint pressure indicates the ecological risk scenario of Nepal. The original NOAA NDVI product available from 1981-2015 were used. Similarly, Human footprint pressure data for 1993 and 2009 were used. The study purpose was to develop ecological risk map based on NDVI dynamics and human pressure to natural resources. The result showed that the intensity of vegetation dynamics was 0.065 yr-1 with large positive and negative intensities observed in 2006 and 1984, respectively. Both of the intensity of vegetation changes and variance of NDVI showed increased ecological fragility in the Tran-Himalayan region. However, negative correlation between NDVI and rainfall erosivity showed reduced soil erosion and ecological risk in the region. The human footprint pressure has increased up to 43 which together with increasing annual population growth trend (1.35 yr-1) has exerted pressure on the natural system and created ecological risk. The results have important implications for a better understanding of the vegetation dynamics in response to ongoing climatic variability and associated ecological risks in Nepal.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Racial and Cultural Tension in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun 2022-07-05T12:26:00+00:00 Dipesh Neupane <p>The culture in which we are brought up shapes our traits and identity. When people move from one place to another, they get acquainted with new cultures. Then, they vacillate on the conflicting modes of dilemma – whether to follow the new culture or not. Cultural conflict arises when people cannot discard the original culture they carry from their birth. This paper explores how an African-American family confronts racial discrimination and culture clash in America, and how they react against the racial injustice. The voices that African-America people raise against racial discrimination and segregation are overtly or covertly represented in the African-American literature, as in the play- “A Raisin in the Sun”. This study explores the conflict between American culture and African culture in the play conceptualizing the theoretical frame work of cultural studies developed by Geert Hofstede and Edward Hall. This study answers the question: how does the African-American family (Younger family) confront the culture clash, and combat against racial discrimination in the play? The conflict between the Younger family and the white representative indicates the racial and culture clash between the African and the America culture as dramatized in the play.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Status of Nepalese Orphan through Parental Death in Foreign Labour Migration 2022-07-05T12:31:03+00:00 Govinda Prasad Adhikari Thuma Kumari Paudel <p>Migration is one of the components of the demographic Process. Parental migration has both positive and negative impacts on child development. Trends of death and injury in foreign labour migration are increasing. The death rate of male migrants is higher than female migrants in foreign employment. Parental deaths were observed higher for province one. The absence of the parents will impact the health and education of children. This study aims to analyse the impact on Nepalese orphans through parental death in foreign labour migration. This study has used quantitative information through secondary sources to achieve the research objectives. The major secondary sources are national and international publications, reports and journals. Information on school students, the injured or death status of the parents and scholarship status of children has been collected from the foreign employment promotion board of Nepal. All provinces are purposively selected as most foreign labour migrant provinces. Finally, data were presented in tabular and graphic form. Data were analysed in a descriptive method. The death of foreign labour migrants is increasing in Nepal. The absence of parents due to foreign labour migration in the family has increased negative effects on child health and education. The major causes of parental death are disease, accident, natural cause and investigation pending. The major death occurrence countries are Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Qatar. The government’s major social programs to support orphan and their families are injury benefit compensation and student scholarship programs, medicine support, rescue, and transportation of the dead body, orientation and training and other support</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Double Consciousness in Anita Desai’s The Village by the Sea 2022-07-05T12:49:23+00:00 Khagendra Neupane <p>In the novel <em>The Village by the Sea</em>, the researcher explores the influence of double consciousness (hybridity) over Hari, the protagonist, who suspends between rural and urban culture. He is enslaved by the illusion of financial prosperity in his dreamland, Bombay. His illusion results from cultural hybridity—a by-product of postcolonial society. Hari and his poverty-hit family are the inhabitants of Thul—a village on the western coast of India. His family comprises of an alcoholic father, a sick mother (suffering from TB) and their four children, including his sister Lila. Hari and Lila are compelled to bear responsibility of earning bread and butter for their two younger sisters and mother whilst their father does not take their care. The study uses particularly Edward Said's Orientalism as theoretical modality as it argues that the colonial discourse defines the urban as being superior and the rural being inferior. Hari, the protagonist moves to the metropolitan city, Bombay as he thinks his economic prosperity is not viable in the countryside.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Impacts of Parental Migration on Children Left Behind 2022-07-05T12:55:51+00:00 Laxman Singh Kunwar <p>Globally, migration has been a common phenomenon. Migration has impacts on global, regional, national, local and household’s level. Migration has both positive and negative effectives, and it depends upon government policies, culture of community and household’s behavior. This article aims to describe the impacts of parental migration on children left behind and it is based on secondary sources of information. Remittances has contributed to improve education and health status of children left behind but at the same time loneliness, and physiological problems are being common negative impacts to children left behind of migrant family. Both positive and negative impacts to children left behind are briefly discussed based on available literature.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Role of Cooperatives in Women Empowerment: A Case of Surkhet District, Nepal 2022-07-05T13:11:07+00:00 Laxmi Kanta Sharma Mohan Bahadur Shahi <p>This study aims to identify the contribution of Mangalgadhi Multipurpose Cooperative Limited (MMCL) on economic, socio-cultural and political aspects of women empowerment who were involved in MMCL. The study was conducted in Birendranagar Municipality of Surkhet district among the 120 women beneficiaries of MMCL. Out of 441 women members of MMCL only 120 members with five years of experience on cooperative activities were randomly selected for data collection. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire, focus-group discussions and key informant interviews. Paired samples t-test was applied in three different domains of women empowerment; economic, socio-cultural and political dimensions. The result specifies that all the indicators were found significant impact on women’s empowerment. This study found that there was significant difference in economic, socio-cultural and political empowerment of women after involvement in MMCL programs. Women members were found empowered in their economic activities, maintain social relationship, reduce the gender disparity, involve in social program, conduct the cultural program and participate in political program through MMCL activities. They have expanded their network of relationship through saving and credit program. The study shows the need of expansion of MMCL program in hard-to-reach areas also to empower the economically, socially, culturally and politically disadvantaged groups.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Politics of Placemaking and Positions of the Musahars at Jamdaha-Golbazar 2022-07-05T15:11:26+00:00 Madhu Giri Ganga KC <p>A certain unity of place and people have been long assumed in the anthropological concept of culture. The association between a particular geographical territory and a cultural group has been studied by classical anthropologists. The taken-for-granted logic was that the Madhesi live in Madhes, 'the Nuer live in Nuerland', 'the Andamanese' are the indigenous peoples of the 'Andaman Islands, and the Musahar live in Musahari. The places are named behind the name of the first settler. The clearest illustrations of these kinds of thinking are the classic 'ethnographic map' that purported to display the spatial distribution of peoples, tribes, and cultures. Place itself becomes a neutral grid on which cultural differences, political identity, historical memories, and societal organizations are inscribed. This assumed isomorphism of place and culture results in some significant problems. The place is not natural, rather it is cultural construction of peoples and it has no singular narratives. This article represents a modest attempt to deal with the issues of interrelation between people and place, displacement and crisis of place-based identity at Golbazar-Jamdaha in Siraha. The Musahar, the first settler of the Jamdaha, are not only marginalized from socioeconomic positions but also displaced from the placemaking process. The history of the Musahar and their places have been refigured in favor of the dominant community. The fundamental question is on the anthropological practices of captivating the association of a culturally singular group and its territorial location as natural. For me, places with cartography are always imagined in the context of political-economic privileges that have a logic of their own.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Exploring the Representations of Caste and Ethnic Relations in Nepali Short Stories 2022-07-05T15:19:37+00:00 Mahendra Kumar Budhathoki <p>Hindu society has different castes although the exact date of the origin of caste system is not known. Literary writers depict characters of different castes representing a Hindu society. This paper explored the representations of castes and ethnic relations in Hindu society presented in Nepali short stories. The writers have not prioritized more on the themes of castes, but depicted the interactions and interdependence of various castes to expose the other themes. To explore the representations of castes in Nepali short stories, a few representative short stories translated into English are randomly selected; the qualitative descriptive method was exploited to discuss the stories. The findings of the study are that the interactions and interdependence of characters from different castes produce the distinctive themes of the stories. The writers gave good names like Deviraman, Sitaram Pandit, Padmanidhi Lamichhane to upper caste characters, but exotic names like Chame, Juthe, Lukhure, etc. to so-called lower. Upper caste the Dware exploits a lower caste person Lukhure. The upper caste characters dominate the lower castes. Thus different castes are portrayed in the stories to squeeze the themes. Understanding the representations of castes in literature aids to analyse the condition of castes in the Hindu society.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Cultural Performances and Practices in Kirtipur: A Mythic Perspective on Lakhe Dance, Arts and Literature of Newars 2022-07-05T15:24:49+00:00 Mani Bhadra Gautam <p>Kirtipur is a historical place of Nepal that is important for its geographical location, arts and cultural performances. Majority of the people living in Kirtipur are Newars and they perform special Newar Dance, Lakhe Dance, Satgaunle Jatra, Ghatemangal etc. The performances help to study the Newars arts, culture and literature which are quite interesting while studying from mythical perspective. Myth centers on transformation of consciousness, the hero journey, human feelings, understanding, observation, actions, experiences and, life and death rituals. This study undergoes on cultural performances and spiritual growth of the time derived themes and ideas from a long standing, scenarios/socio-historical context. Primitive mental images inherited from the earliest human ancestors are reflected in Lakhe Dance performances of Kirtipur as they perform in different forms. Objective of this study is to capture the mythical images and present events in field based method relating with human feelings and thoughts in social-survey for views collection. It also subjectivizes on human cruelty, socio-cultural violence and dis-harmony representing the past reality and present excitement for socio-cultural changes in a different way. This article presents a brief sketch of a new perspective on cultural orientation to mythical world as Lakhe Dance reflects practices of the past and creates the meanings to the present. Lakhe Dance is one of the tools to excavate Kirtipur’s history through Cultural Studies in this research that helps to carry out the expected result. I have tried to study and examine the performances and analyze the narratives in Newar literature from mythical perspectives.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Women Entrepreneurship in Nepalese Context: A Critical Study of its Problems and Suggestions 2022-07-05T15:30:43+00:00 Rati Khatri <p>Women entrepreneurship is the most Important factor in economic and social development of the country. They are financially supported by the banks and cooperatives companies. Women entrepreneurs are given encouragement by their family members in their business activities. Nepal has framed a policy to develop entrepreneurial skills to women. The country has managed different vocational education and training to women to climb the ladder of development and empowerment from their family spheres to public spheres. Series of training programs have lunched to gradually widened the horizon for economic empowerment of women. It is found that numerous women becoming successful in entrepreneurship both in social and economic fields in our country. It is to be kept in mind that providing skill training on entrepreneurship is not the only responsibility of Government, but also other stakeholders need to pitch in. There are so many problems facing by women entrepreneurs in our society. This paper analyses the problems of women entrepreneurs as financial constraints, marketing problems, and lack of human resources, lack of raw materials, Stiff competition, and High cost of production, Limited managerial ability, Absence of Entrepreneurial Attitude, patriarchal Society, and Family Conflicts etc. To help women entrepreneurs from stumbling blocks, The article explains different suggestions to overcome them.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Divided Consciousness in The Bluest Eye 2022-07-06T09:12:38+00:00 Ravi Kumar Shrestha <p>Toni Morrison’s novel <em>The Bluest Eye</em> uncovers the identity conflicts between the African- Americans and the whites due to the notions of Eurocentrism, America-centrism, racism, and dominance of the west over the east. This paper explores an African-American girl Pecola’s divided identity because of the reasons such as Dominance of West over the East, Being Black Immigrant, Lack of Recognition from Home and Society, Racism, and Poverty and Lack of Social security. The tragic part of their getting victimized is that due to the white standard of beauty even blacks regard themselves ugly and inferior, which gets analyzed by the use of W. E. B. Du Bois’ theory of double consciousness. Though the novel shows both reasons and consequences of an African-American girl Pecola’s divided identity, my paper mainly focuses on the reasons for Pecola’s divided identity.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Intercultural Communication in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist 2022-07-06T09:18:46+00:00 Saleem Dhobi <p>This paper analyzes Mohsin Hamid’s <em>The Reluctant Fundamentalist</em> that demonstrates Changez's intercultural relations with non-Muslim characters such as Erica, her father, his co-workers at Underwood Samson. The non-Muslim employees at Underwood Samson suspect Changez because of his beard as the American society has a mindset of beard. Erica‒Changez's beloved, and her father stereotype Changez based on his dress and beard. The beard reminds Americans of the 9/11 perpetrators. Their suspicion leads to detachment between Changez and non-Muslim characters in the aftermath. I employ John W. Berry's models of acculturation‒assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization‒to analyze the intercultural communication. Integration as the most appropriate model of acculturation is the finding as the approach allows minorities to adapt to the dominant culture by retaining their native culture. The article refutes assimilation as a model of acculturation since it seeks the minority groups to adapt to mainstream culture by forgetting their culture of origin. Although Muslim protagonists struggle to integrate, they fail because of racial supremacy and religious extremism. The intercultural communication can be eased through reconciliation and coming together between minority Muslims and mainstream Americans.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Astronomy for Precise Positioning and Stellarium 2022-07-06T09:57:15+00:00 Sher Bahadur Gurung Satish Musyaju <p>Astronomy studies the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is the science that studies the origin and evolution of the Universe and everything in it. The present study discussed on the application of astronomy in general and explored its application on precise positioning specifically. Calendars, computers, communication satellites, navigation systems, mathematics, trigonometry, solar panels, wireless internet, culture and religions, and many other technological applications development such as aerospace, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) or precise positioning, solar and nuclear energy, medicine, and many other technological applications development are all examples of astronomy. The study is conducted based on secondary information and astronomical observation using virtual application software. This paper also introduced the astronomical application software stellarium. The study shows that the astronomical knowledge and techniques are very useful for precise positioning.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Employee Views Towards Retirement Scheme in Development Bank of Nepal 2022-07-06T10:04:38+00:00 Shiva Prasad Pokharel Rohit Kumar Shrestha <p>The main objective of the study is to assess the employee view toward the Employee Provident Fund (EPF) scheme, as a retirement scheme, with various factors that influence the attitude in development banks of Nepal. The study is based on a descriptive and explanatory research design. A quantitative research design was applied. Out of 18 development banks in Nepal, Jyoti Bikas Bank, Shangrila Development Bank, Muktinath Bikas Bank, and Garima Bikas was selected as sample unit for the study. The study is based on the primary data collected from Employees or contributors as respondents. Pearson’s multiple correlations and linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. Correlation analysis shows a significant linear, positive, and moderate relationship between independent variables namely, saving and investment, benefits scheme, and work environment, and dependent variable namely, employee view toward EPF scheme. The regression analysis reveals that there is a positive view of employees toward EPF in terms of saving and investment. Also, there is a positive view of employees toward EPF in terms of the working environment. However, there is a negative view of employees toward EPF in respect of the benefits scheme.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Multifaceted Criticisms of the Bhagavad Gītā 2022-07-06T10:10:42+00:00 Tilak Bahadur Khatri <p>This research article deals with the multi-dimensional commentaries of the <em>Bhagavad Gītā</em> given by some of the major commentators in the nineteenth century India. The study has its relevance to understand the text through multi-dimensional lens. The article addresses on the research problem concerning to the variant criticisms of the same text the <em>Gītā</em>. The research approach (methodology) adopted for this study is the review-based analysis of the text's commentaries of some of the well-known nineteenth century Indian commentators. The study has included the commentaries of Vivekananda, Gandhi, Desai, Aurobindo and Vinoba. The study reveals that the above commentators of the <em>Gītā</em> give the multilayered criticisms of the text, which are found to be queer and controversial.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit Carbohydrates-A Brief Deliberation with Bio-aspect 2022-07-06T10:21:44+00:00 Yagya Rath Khadka <p>Carbohydrate is an organic molecule having carbon, hydrogen and oxygen as chief elements. It is mostly sugary in taste and categorized in three different types according to the presence of carbon numbers in the molecule. It bears two different functional groups i.e. aldehyde (-CHO) and ketone (&gt;CO) with different spatial configuration, resulting different isomers. Amongst many of the roles, one of the most important is the formation of structural formation of RNA and DNA. Metabolic activities like glycolysis (pathway to convert glucose to pyruvate), citric acid cycle (final oxidative pathway for carbohydrate, fats and amino acids), gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors), glycogenesis (synthesis of glycogen from glucose in presence of ATP) and glycogenolysis (degradation of stored glycogen) are the major functions. Carbohydrate undergoes various mechanism by which necessary product are formed, as a result human body easily function and synthesize many compounds within the human body. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia are some disease condition arose due to high level of carbohydrate concentration in the body.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National University Teachers' Association, Patan Multiple Campus unit बेँसीतिर’ कथामा अनुभूतिको संरचना {The Structure of Experience in the story 'Bensitira'} 2022-07-18T05:08:06+00:00 इन्दिरा Indira दाहाल Dahal <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा उत्तमकृष्ण मजगैयाँद्वारा लिखित ‘बेँसीतिर’ कथामा अनुभूतिको संरचना खोजी गरिएको छ । साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय चिन्तनका विविध दृष्टिकोणमध्ये बेलायती समाजशास्त्री रेमन्ड विलियम्सले विकास गरेको अनुभूतिको संरचना साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय अवधारणामा प्रसिद्ध अवधारणा हो । यस अवधारणाले कृृतिभित्र समाजका तीन पिँढीका बिच अन्तर्सम्बन्ध र क्रिया प्रतिक्रिया हुन्छ भन्ने<br />मान्यता राख्छ । त्यस प्रक्रियामा समुदायले गर्ने विशिष्ट दवाब र तनाबजन्य अनुभूतिको अभिव्यक्ति कलाकृतिमा हुन्छ भन्ने मत अघि सार्छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा अनुभूतिको संरचनाका आधारमा<br />‘बेँसीतिर’ कथामा प्रतिबिम्बित पिँढीगत अनुभूति र प्रभुत्वको परिवेश तथा दबाव र तनावको परिप्रेक्ष्यमा अनुभूतिको संरचनाको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यी विविध कोणबाट कथाको विश्लेषण गर्दा समाजका प्रभुत्वशाली पिँढी, अधीनस्थ पिँढी र वैकल्पिक पिँढीबिच अन्तर्सम्बन्ध र क्रिया प्रतिक्रिया भएको पाइएको छ । सामाजिक दृष्टिले प्रभुत्वशाली पिँढीले अधीनस्थ पिँढीलाई दबावमा राख्ने र विपन्न वर्ग जहिल्यै शोषणमा पर्ने यथार्थतालाई यस कथाले प्रस्तुत गरेको छ । तीन पिँढीबिच भएको दबाव र तनावको समाधानस्वरूप वैकल्पिक संस्कृतिको निर्माण हुन थालेको भए पनि स्थापित हुन भने सकेको छैन र विपन्न वर्ग विस्थापित भएको देखिएको छ । </p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 कुरुवाः दह {Kuruwa Daha} 2022-07-18T05:23:12+00:00 कृष्ण Krishna महर्जन Maharjan <p>बौद्ध धर्मालम्बी तथा बुँगद्यो/आर्यावलोकित्तेश्वर, लोकनाथ, पदमपाणी, करुणामय सम्बन्धी आस्था, <br />चासो, जानकारी र अध्ययन गर्नेहरुको लागि ‘कुरूवाः दह’ अति महत्वपूर्ण स्थान मानिन्छ । करूणमयलाई<br />नेपालमा आमन्त्रणा गर्ने क्रममा योजनावद्घ रूपमा सफल भएका थिए । कामरूका यक्षहरूका आक्रोशले<br />जवरजस्ती फिर्ता लान पटक पटक सफल पनि भएका थिए । जसरी पनि करूणामयलाई नेपालमा<br />प्रस्थापना गराउनु नै थिए । त्यसैले सबैको सामूहिक अथक परिश्रम र प्रयत्न जारी गर्दा गर्दै विभिन्न<br />पीठमा बसेर पूजा, पाठ, तन्त्र विद्या साध्ने क्रममा आखिर कुरूवाः दहमा आई पुगे । यस स्थानमा<br />रहेको एउटा गुफामा बसेर गुह्य रूपमा आठ दिशा क्षेत्रमा आठ बन्धन शील गरी गुह्य विधि अनुसार<br />योगाम्वर योगद्वारा करूणामयलाई सुवर्ण कलशमा प्रवेश गराउन आठ दिनसम्म योग ध्यान साधना गरी<br />करूणामयलाई नेपाल भित्र्याउनमा सफल रहे । यस स्थानमा स्थापना गरिएको पाःल्हाः (हत्केला)<br />आकारको मूर्तिसँग काठमाडौँ सँकटा टोलको सँकटा देवतासँग निकत सम्बन्ध रहेको देखिन्छ । यस<br />स्थानको वास्तविक नाम ‘कुरूवा दह’ को गलतफहमी भई अहिले ‘कटुवाल दह’ भन्न थालेका छन् ।<br />यस लेखको पद्घतिको क्रममा विभिन्न वँशावली, किम्वदन्ती, ऐतिहासिक पृष्ठभूमि, नेवारको धर्म र<br />सँरचना सम्बन्धी ग्रन्थ, साम्प्रदायिक भावना र प्रचलन, अध्ययन र भनाईहरुको ब्याख्यालाई उपकरणको<br />रूपमा प्रस्तृत छ । वास्तविक रूपमा सही कुरालाई सही दृष्टिकोणले हेर्दा अझ प्रष्ट हुने देखिन्छ ।1</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ‘सिकोफाइभ’ कथामा प्रजाति, परिवेश र क्षण {Subnationalities, Surroundings and Circumstances in the Story 'Sikofive'} 2022-07-18T07:02:41+00:00 गौरीसरा Gaurisara गुरुङ Gurung <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययन साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रसँग सम्बन्धित छ । प्रजाति, परिवेश र क्षण साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय चिन्तन परम्परामा हिप्पोलाइट तेनद्वारा प्रतिपादित समाजशास्त्रीय अवधारणा हो । यसले समाजको भौगोलिक, आर्थिक, राजनीतिक र सामाजिक परिवेशले कृतिमा कसरी प्रभाव पार्छ भन्ने कुराको अध्ययन गर्दछ । बिना थिङद्वारा लिखित ‘सिकोफाइभ’ कथा २०७७ सालमा प्रकाशित याम्बुनेर कथासङ्ग्रहमा सङ्गृहीत छ । यस कथामा मङ्गोल प्रजातिकी महिलाले पितृसत्तात्मक समाजमा आफ्नो अस्तित्व रक्षाका लागि गरेको कठिन सङ्घर्षको दर्दनाक यथार्थ चित्रण गरिएको छ । कलकत्ताको वेश्यालयमा बेचिएकी नेपाली चेलीले आफ्नो जन्मभूमि नेपालफर्केपछि पितृसत्तात्मक समाजमापुनःस्थापित भएर बाँच्न र आफ्नो अस्तित्व रक्षा गर्नका लागि गरेको सामाजिक, आर्थिक, राजनैतिक, सांस्कृतिक अवस्थाको सन्दर्भलाई क्षणको रूपमा, हेटौँडा, पशुपतिनगरको समाजमा सङ्घर्षपूर्ण जीवन बाँचिरहेकी महिलालाई मङ्गोल प्रजातिकी महिलाका रूपमा प्रस्तुत गर्दै साहित्यिक कृतिमा समाजको भौगोलिक, आर्थिक, राजनीतिक, सामाजिक परिवेशको प्रभाव पर्ने कुरालाई कथामा चित्रण गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{The presented study is related to the sociology of literature. Species, milieu and moment are sociological concepts propounded by Hippolytus Ten in the sociological thinking tradition of literature. It studies how the geographical, economic, political and social environment of the society affects the work. The story 'Cyco Five' written by Bina Thing is collected in Yambuner Katha Sangrah published in 2077. In this story, the painful reality of Mongolian women's struggle to protect their existence in the patriarchal society is depicted. The reference to the social, economic, political, and cultural conditions of a Nepali girl who was sold in a brothel in Calcutta after returning to her native land of Nepal to survive and protect her existence in a patriarchal society, as a moment, presenting a woman living a struggling life in the society of Hetauda, ​​Pashupatinagar as a woman of the Mongol race, in a literary work, the geography of society, The story depicts the effects of economic, political and social environment.}</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 यादहरूको सङ्ग्रहालयभित्र श्रमको सौन्दर्य {The Aesthetic of labor in museum of memories} 2022-07-18T07:35:48+00:00 तेजविलास Tejbilas अधिकारी Adhikari <p>केवल बिनाबी प्रतिरोधी चेत भएका स्रष्टा हुन् । दलन र दमनको विषय उठानसहित कविता विधामा उपस्थित उनको ‘आफर’ र ‘यादहरूको सङ्ग्रहालय’ कविता सङ्ग्रहले नेपाली समाजमा गढेर बसेको जातीय छुवाछुत र वर्गीय विभेदलाई अत्यन्तै गम्भीर ढङ्गले उठाइदिएको छ । नेपाली समाजको मात्र नभएर समग्र दक्षिण एसियाको मानव विकास सूचकाङ्कलाई प्रभाव पार्ने छुवाछुत जस्तो मानवद्वेषीसामाजिक व्यवस्थामा केन्द्रित भएर उनका कविताहरूले समानता निमित्त सशक्त आवाज उठाएको देखिन्छ । उस्तै रगत बग्ने शरीर एउटा चोखो र अर्को बिटुलो हुने सामाजिक विभेदका विरुद्ध उनका रचना चुपचाप बस्न सक्दैन । मानिसले मानिसलाई गर्ने व्यवहार नसच्चिएसम्म धार्मिक रूपमा पुज्ने देवताको पनि कुनै श्रद्धा छैन । यी र यस्तै विशेषतालाई ध्यान दिएर प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा कवि केवल बिनाबीको कविताको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कवि केवल बिनाबीको काव्य चिन्तनलाई प्रगतिवादकोआधारमा यसभित्रका पक्षहरूमा केन्द्रित रही निष्कर्ष निकाल्ने कार्य भएको छ । ‘यादहरूको सङ्ग्रहालय’कविता सङ्ग्रहले मूलतः नेपाली समाजमा प्रचलित निन्दनीय सामाकि अपराध हटाएर सामाजिक चेतनाअभिवृद्धि गर्नुभन्दा अर्को विकल्प छैन भन्ने मूल निष्कर्ष यस लेखमा निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Only Binabi is a conscious creator who resists. His poetry collection 'Offer' and 'Memory Museum', which deals with oppression and oppression, has brought up the caste untouchability and class discrimination in Nepali society in a very serious manner. Focusing on the misanthropic social system like untouchability that affects not only the Nepali society but the human development index of South Asia as a whole, it seems that his poems raised a strong voice for equality. . His works cannot remain silent against the social distinctions of the same body that bleeds, one is sharp and the other is sharp. Even the deity worshiped religiously has no respect until man treats man. Considering these and similar characteristics, the poetry of poet Kewalbinabi has been analyzed in the present study. Poet Kewal Binabi's poetic thinking is based on progressivism, focusing on its aspects and drawing conclusions. The main conclusion of this article is that there is no other option but to raise social awareness by eliminating the reprehensible slanderous crime prevalent in Nepali society with the collection of poetry 'Memories of Memories'.}</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ‘याम्बुनेर’ कथामा अनुभूतिको संरचना {The Structure of Experience in the Story 'yambuner'} 2022-07-18T09:09:10+00:00 दामोदर Damodar सापकोटा Sapkota <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा बिना थिङद्वारा रचित याम्बुनेर (२०७७) कथाको समाजशास्त्रीय अध्ययन गरिएको छ । समाजशास्त्रीय अध्ययनका विभिन्न आयाम मध्ये रेमन्ड विलियम्सद्वारा प्रस्तावित अनुभूतिको संरचनालाई विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । यो अध्ययन याम्बुनेर कथामा के कस्ता पिँढीआएका छन् र ती पिँढीहरूले प्रभुत्वशाली पिँढीका परिप्रेक्षमा के कस्तो दबाब र तनावको अनुभूति गरेका छन् भन्ने समस्यामा आधारित छ । यही समस्यामा केन्द्रित रहेर ‘याम्बुनेर’ कथाको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनका निम्ति सामग्रीको सङ्कलन पुस्तकालय विधिबाट गरिएको छ भने ती प्राप्तसामग्रीको विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । अध्ययनका अन्त्यमा प्रभूत्वशाली पिँढीका रूपमा रहेको शासकीय सत्ता र त्यसको दबाबमा दोस्रो पिँढीले गरेको विशिष्ट अनुभूतिलाई देखाइएको छ । प्रभूत्वशाली पिँढीले काँठका तामाङ समुदायमाथि गरेको दमन र शोषणबाट त्यो समुदायका मानिसले दबाब र तनावजन्य अनुभूति गरेका छन् । यसमा उदीयमान पिँढीका रूपमा सोममाया आएकी छ । उसले दबाबजन्य अनुभूतिबाट विद्रोहको जन्म दिएकी छ । यहाँ पिँढी र समुदायबीचको दबाब र तनावको समाधान स्वरूप वैकल्पिक संस्कृतिको निर्माण नभएपनि त्यसको सुरुवातको छनक भने सोममायाका कार्यबाट देख्न सकिन्छ । यसर्थ यसमा उदीयमान पिँढीले नयाँ संस्कृतिको निर्माण गर्ने प्रयास गरेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । राजधानीको नजिक रहेर पनि सँधै सत्ताभन्दा टाढा रहेको अनुभूति गर्नेकाँठका तामाङ समुदायको जीवनानुभूतिलार्ई यस कथामा निकै कलात्मक र मार्मिक ढङ्गले प्रस्तुत गर्नसक्नु लेखकको वैशिष्ठ्य हो र यो नै यसको प्राप्ति पनि हो ।</p> <p>{In the presented article, a sociological study of Yambuner (2077) story written by Bina Thing has been done. Among the different dimensions of sociological studies, the structure of cognition proposed by Raymond Williams has been made the basis of analysis. This study is based on the problem of what kind of generations have come in the Yambuner story and what kind of pressure and stress have those generations felt from the perspective of the dominant generation. The story of 'Yambuner' has been analyzed focusing on this problem.&nbsp; In the presented article, a sociological study of Yambuner (2077) story written by Bina Thing has been done. Among the different dimensions of sociological studies, the structure of cognition proposed by Raymond Williams has been made the basis of analysis. This study is based on the problem of what kind of generations have come in the Yambuner story and what kind of pressure and stress have those generations felt from the perspective of the dominant generation. The story of 'Yambuner' has been analyzed focusing on this problem. Although there is no creation of an alternative culture as a solution to the pressure and tension between generations and communities, the beginning of it can be seen from the work of Sommayaka. Therefore, it has been concluded that the emerging generation is trying to build a new culture. Being close to the capital, but always feeling far from power, the life experience of the Tamang community in Kanth is presented in this story in a very artistic and poignant way, and this is also its achievement.}</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 रक्तक्रान्तिका गीतहरूमा जनयुद्धको अभिव्यक्ति {Reflection of People's War in The songs of Blood Revolution} 2022-07-18T10:03:57+00:00 निलुफर Niluphar बञ्जरा Banjara <p>खुशीराम पाख्रिनको रक्तक्रान्तिका गीतहरू गीतिसङ्ग्रहका गीतहरू जनयुद्धसँग सम्बद्ध गीतहरू हुन् । उनका गीतहरूमा नेपाली जनताले भोग्नु परेका जटिलता र त्यसबाट मुक्तिसँग सम्बन्धित छन् । वस्तुनिष्ठ र प्राज्ञिक अध्ययनका लागि&nbsp; माक्र्सवादी सौन्दर्यशास्त्रका विषयलाई मुख्य&nbsp; सैद्धान्तिक आधार बनाएर उनका गीतलाई विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । वि.स.२०५२ फागुन १ गतेबाट नेकपा माओवादीद्वारा राजनीतिक उद्देश्यका साथ जनयुद्धको थालनी गरिएको हो । जनयुद्ध सर्वहारा वर्गीय सशस्त्र राजनीतिकआन्दोलन&nbsp; हो । यो माक्र्सवाद, लेनिनवाद र माओवादलाई निर्देशक सिद्धान्त मानी सञ्चालन गरिएको सशस्त्र सङ्घर्ष हो । नेपाली समाजमा भएका वर्ग सङ्घर्षका अनेकौँ रूपहरू मध्ये एक महत्त्वपूर्ण रूपजनयुद्ध हो । सर्वहारा वर्गको राज्यसत्ता प्राप्तिका लागि भनेर गरिएको माओवादी जनयुद्धले नेपालीसमाजका हरेक पक्षमा प्रभाव पार्यो । नेपाली जनताको जीवनसँग गाँसिएको, चेतनासँग गाँसिएको,आदर्शसँग गाँसिएको वर्गयुद्ध नै जनयुद्ध हो जसले समाज, संस्कृति लगायत जीवनका सबै पक्षलाईजबर्जस्त प्रभावित&nbsp; तुल्यायो । समाजका अरु क्षेत्रमाभै कला साहित्यका क्षेत्रमा पनि जनयुद्धको प्रभाव पर्यो । जनयुद्धको सौन्दर्यशास्त्रका बारेमा पनि बहस र छलफल प्रारम्भ भए । यसरी कलासाहित्यमा जनयुद्धले प्रभाव जसरी पारेरै छाड्यो । गीत सङ्गीतका क्षेत्रमा पनि जनयुद्धको गहिरो प्रभाव पर्यो । यिनै विषयलाई आधार मान्दै खुशीराम पाख्रिनको रक्तक्रन्तिका गीतहरू गीतसङ्ग्रहमा सङ्गृहीत गीतहरूको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ ।</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 तीन घुम्ती उपन्यासमा लैङ्गिक शक्तिसम्बन्ध {Gender Power Relations in the Novel Tin Ghumti} 2022-07-19T06:31:39+00:00 रन्जुकुमारी Ranjukumari देव Dev <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययन लैङ्गिक शक्तिसम्बन्धसँग सम्बन्धित रहेको छ । यसका लागि विश्वेश्वरप्रसादको तीन घुम्ती उपन्यासलाई लिइएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा महिला तथा पुरुषहरूको कार्य तथा भूमिकाकाआधारमा लैङ्गिक शक्तिसम्बन्धको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसका साथै यस अध्ययनमा लैङ्गिक भूमिका र व्यवहारका कारण समाजमा देखिएको लैङ्गिक विभेद, शोषण, दमन, हिंसा जस्ता पक्षहरूके कारणले उत्पन्न भएको हो, त्यसको समेत अध्ययन गरिएको छ । समाजमा पितृसत्तात्मक सोचकाकारण महिला तथा पुरुषको भूमिका फरक रहेको देखिन्छ जसले गर्दा तिनीहरूको कार्य र व्यवहारपनि फरक रहेको छ । फरकफरक भूमिकाकै कारण समाजमा महिला र पुरुषको समाजिक, आर्थिक,शैक्षिक, राजनीतिक जस्ता क्षेत्रमा समान पहुँच छैन । उत्पादनका स्रोत साधनमा असमान पहुँचकै कारण महिलाहरू पुरुषका तुलनामा शक्तिविहीन बनेका छन् भने पुरुषहरू आफ्नो वर्चस्व तथा पहुँचका कारण घरपरिवार तथा समाजमा शक्तिशाली बनेका छन् । त्यस्तै पुरुषवादी सोचकै कारण कतिपय महिलाहरू स्वयम् पीडित हुनुका साथै पुरुषको अधीनमा बस्न बाध्य छन् । यस उपन्यासमा पनि पुरुषवादी सोचकैकारण इन्द्रमायाकी आमा अधीनस्थ अवस्था बस्न बाध्य भएको र इन्द्रमायाले पितृसत्तात्मक समाजका विरूद्ध प्रतिरोधका माध्यमबाट शक्ति निमार्ण गरेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 स्थानीय विकासमा भौगोलिक सुचना प्रणालीको महत्व {Significance of Geographical Information System in Local Development} 2022-07-19T07:25:50+00:00 लाल बहादुर Lal Bahadur ओली Oli <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा भौगोलिक सुचना प्रणालीको परिभाषा तथा विकास, भौगोलिक सुचना प्रणाली (Geographic Information System) का मुख्य कार्यहरु र स्थानीय विकासमा भौगोलिक सूचना प्रणालीको महत्वबारे द्धितिय स्रोतहरुबाट प्राप्त तथ्याङ्क र सुचनाको उपयोग गरि वर्णनात्मकविधिबाट व्याख्या र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । भौगोलिक सुचना प्रणाली कम्प्युटरमा आधारित प्रणाली हो जसमा एउटै थलोवाट कुनै क्षेत्रको भौगोलिक, सामाजिक, आर्थिक तथा वातावरणीय अवस्था र विकासका पूर्वाधारको अवस्था आदि पक्षहरुवारे छिटो छरितो रुपमा भरपर्दो सूचना उपलव्ध गराउन सकिन्छ । यसर्थ GIS&nbsp; भौगोलिक सूचनाहरुको विश्लेषण गरी सहि नतिजा प्राप्त गर्ने भरपर्दो साधन मानिन्छ । सन् १९६० पछि विकास भएको GIS प्रविधि परिमार्जिन र विकास हुदै व्यापक प्रयोगमा आएको छ र शुरुवातमा भौगोलिक अवधारणासंग जोडिएर आए पनि वर्तमान समयमा GIS अन्तरविषयक विधाको रुपमा स्थापित भैसकेको छ । GIS प्रविधीले भौगोलिक सूचनाहरुको भण्डारण,एकिकरण गरी विश्लेषण गर्ने र सहि नतिजा प्राप्त गरी त्यसलार्ई प्रभावकारी रुपमा प्रस्तुत गर्ने कार्य गर्दछ । भौगोलिक सुचना प्रणालीबाट उपलव्ध सुचनाहरुलाई स्थानीय क्षेत्रका आर्थिक, सामाजिक, वातावरणीय र सेवा व्यवस्थापनका समस्याहरु समाधान गर्न तथा छिटोछरितो रुपमा सेवा उपलब्ध गराउन उपयोग गर्न सकिन्छ । मुख्यतःस्थानीय स्तरमा स्रोतनक्सांकन, सेवाव्यवस्थापन (सडक सञ्जाल, खानेपानी, विजुली, कृषि तथा पशुबजार, पर्यटन सेवा सञ्चार आदि), विद्यालय तथा स्वास्थ्यचौकी नक्सांकन School and Health post Mapping &nbsp;बन तथा प्रकोप व्यवस्थापन Forestry and Disaster Management आदि मानव जीवनका विविध क्षेत्रमा GIS प्रविधीको उपयोग गर्न सकिन्छ । भौगोलिक सुचना प्रणालीले उपलव्ध गराउने डाटावेशवाट स्थानीय आवश्यकता अनुसार नतिजा प्राप्त गरी त्यसलार्ई उपयुक्त विकास योजना निर्माण र छनौटमा प्रयोग गर्न तथा सही निर्णय लिनपनि मद्दत पुर्याउँछ । यसवाट स्थानीय विकासको गतिलार्ई तिव्र वनाई सामाजिक आर्थिक विकासका लक्ष्यहरु हासिल गर्न मद्दत पुग्दछ ।</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ‘ऋतु फेरिँदै जान्छ’ कथाको समाजशास्त्रीय विश्लेषण {Sociological Analysis of the Story 'ritu Fherindai Jancha'} 2022-07-19T09:21:36+00:00 संजिव Sanjeev कार्की Karki <p>प्रस्तुत आलेख इन्द्रकुमार श्रेष्ठ ‘सरित्’ द्वारा लेखिएको ‘ऋतु फेरिंदै जान्छ’ कथामा व्याप्त शोषण, दमन,छल र जातीय छुवाछुत जस्तो सामाजिक विषयवस्तुमा आधारित छ । ‘ऋतु फेरिंदै जान्छ’ कथामा अभिजात वर्ग र शोषित पीडित दलितको आ–आफ्नो वर्गीय दृष्टिकोण कसरी अभिव्यक्त भएको छ । प्रभुत्वशाली वर्गसँग श्रमिक र सीमान्तकृत दलितको प्रतिरोधी चेतनाको विकास र प्रतिरोधको स्थिति देखाउने प्रयासमा केन्द्रित छ । यसका लागि लुसिएँ गोल्डमानको विश्वदृष्टि सम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई कथा विश्लेषणको मुख्य आधार बनाएको छ । शोषक सामन्तको प्रतिनिधि पात्र पण्डित हरिशङ्कर छन् । गरिबमारा, सामन्तवादी र यथास्थितिवादी विश्वदृष्टि पण्डितको रहेको छ । गरिब, दलित र श्रमिकको प्रतिनिधि पात्र जुठे दमाई हो; उसको प्रतिरोधी चेतना रूपान्तरणको प्रयत्नभित्र समता र मर्यादाको लागि लड्ने क्रान्तिकारी विश्वदृष्टि छ । शोषक र श्रमिक कथित अछुत र अभिजात्य वर्गको दुई विपरीत विचारधारात्मक सङ्घर्षको सेरोफेरोमा कथा बुनिएको छ । दुई फरक समुदायको विश्वदृष्टिकोण मासंरचनाको समान धर्मितासमेत कायम गरेको पाइन्छ । यो कथाको शीर्षक नै बिम्बात्मक रूपमा समय परिवर्तनशील रहेको सन्देश प्रवाह गर्न सफल छ ।</p> <p>{The presented article is based on social themes such as exploitation, oppression, deception and caste untouchability prevalent in the story "Ritu Ferindai Jaya" written by Indra Kumar Shrestha 'Sarit'. In the story 'Ritu Ferindai Jaya', how are the respective class views of the elite class and the oppressed victim Dalit expressed. It focuses on the development of the resistance consciousness of workers and marginalized Dalits against the dominant class and efforts to show the position of resistance. For this, the worldview of Lucien Goldman has been made the main basis of narrative analysis. Pandit Harishankar is the representative character of the exploitative feudal lord. Pandit has a poor, feudalistic and status quo worldview. The representative character of the poor, Dalits and workers is Juthe Damai; He has a revolutionary worldview of fighting for equality and dignity within the effort to transform the resistant consciousness. The story is woven in Serofero of the two opposite ideological struggles of the exploiters and laborers, the so-called untouchables and elites. The world view of two different communities has been maintained in the same structure. The title of this story is successful in conveying the message that time is changing in a symbolic way.}</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ‘मधेसतिर’ कथामा चार्वाक दर्शन {Charvak Philosophy in the story 'Madhestira'} 2022-07-20T04:03:14+00:00 सरोज Saroj धिताल Dhital <p>मधेसतिर कथामा चार्वाक दर्शन शीर्षकको यस आलेख पूर्वीय दर्शनअन्तर्गत चार्वाक दर्शनमा आधारितभई तयार गरिएको छ । विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइरालाद्वारा लिखित मधेसतिर कथामा आएका विभिन्नपात्र सुखको खोजीमा मधेसतिर झरेको प्रसङ्ग कथामा प्रस्तुत छ । पूर्वीय दर्शनअन्तर्गत वैदिक रअवैदिक गरी दुई भेद रहेका छन् । पूर्वीय अवैदिक दर्शनमा बौद्ध, जैन र चार्वाक दर्शन पर्दछन् ।चार्वाक दर्शनसम्बन्धी विद्वानहरूका परिभाषा, मान्यता र विशेषतालाई यस अध्ययनमा समेटिएको छ ।चार्वाक दर्शनले वैदिक षड्दर्शनले राख्ने ईश्वर, आत्मा, पूर्वजन्म, पुनर्जन्म जस्ता मान्यतालाई अस्वीकार गर्दछ । भौतिकवादी दर्शनका रूपमा चिनिने यो दर्शनले राख्ने विभिन्न मान्यताहरूको निरूपण गर्दै मधेसतिर कथाका घटनाक्रम र त्यहाँ उपस्थित भएका विधवा, बूढो, भोटे, गोरे र धनेजस्ता पात्रका कार्यव्यापारहरूलाई चार्वाक मतका दृष्टिकोणबाट विश्लेषण गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{This article titled Charvak Darshan in Madhestir Katha has been prepared based on Charvak Darshan under Eastern philosophy. Written by Vishweshwar Prasad Koirala, the story of various characters who came to Madhes in search of happiness is presented in the story. There are two distinctions in Eastern philosophy, Vedic and Non-Vedic. Eastern non-Vedic philosophy includes Buddhist, Jain and Charvaka philosophy. The definitions, beliefs and characteristics of scholars related to Charvaka philosophy are included in this study. Charvaka philosophy rejects the beliefs of God, soul, pre-birth, reincarnation held by Vedic philosophy. Depicting the various beliefs held by this philosophy known as materialist philosophy, the events of the Madhestir story and the actions of the characters present there such as widows, old men, bhotes, whites and riches have been analyzed from the point of view of Charvak Mat.}</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 कक्षा दशको नेपाली भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तक २०५५ को विश्लेषण {Analysis of Nepali language Textbook 2055 for Class Ten} 2022-07-20T04:24:06+00:00 शोभाकुमारी Shobhakumari फुयाल Phuyal <p>प्रस्तुत लेख भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तकको अध्ययन विश्लेषणमा आधारित रहेको छ । यस लेखमा कक्षा दशको २०५५ को नेपाली भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तकको विशेषताको अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरी सबल र दुर्बल पक्ष पत्ता लगाइ सुझाव दिनु मूलभूत उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यो अध्ययन मूलतः वर्णनात्मक अनुसन्धान विधिमा आधारित रहेको छ । यस अध्ययनमा सामग्री सङ्कलनका क्रममा प्राथमिक र द्वितीय स्रोतविधि अपनाइएको छ । यस लेखमा प्रयोग भएका मुख्य विधिहरूमा पाठ्यक्रम अनुरुपता र पुस्तकालय अध्ययन विधि रहेका छन् । यस क्रममा मुख्यतः विभिन्न पत्रपत्रिकामा प्रकाशित लेख, रचना तथा पाठ्यपुस्तकबाट अनुसन्धान विषयसँग सम्बद्ध पूर्वकार्यहरू, सन्दर्भ पुस्तक लेख प्रतिवेदन आदिमा प्रकाशित लगायतका सामग्री उपयोग गरिएको छ । यस भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तकमा सम्बन्धित उद्देश्यलाई आधार मानेर तयार पारिएको भए तापनि लेखाइ सिपलाई बढी जोड दिइएको पाइन्छ । पाठ्यपुस्तक निर्माण गर्दा छनोट र स्तरणको नियमलाई ध्यान दिनुपर्ने देखिन्छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनले भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तकको अध्ययन विश्लेषण गर्न चाहने भाषाविज्ञ, भाषाका विद्यार्थी, भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तक निर्माण गर्ने संस्थालाई समेत उपयोगी हुने विश्वास लिइएको छ ।</p> <p>{The presented article is based on the study and analysis of language textbooks. In this article, the main objective is to study and analyze the characteristics of the Nepali language textbook of class 10, 2055, and find out the strengths and weaknesses and make suggestions. This study is basically based on descriptive research method. In this study, primary and secondary source methods have been adopted during the collection of material. The main methods used in this article are curriculum adaptation and library study methods. In this process, mainly articles published in various newspapers, compositions and previous works related to the research topic from textbooks, reference books, articles published in reports etc. have been used. Although this language textbook has been prepared based on the related objectives, more emphasis is placed on writing skills. It seems that the rules of selection and leveling should be taken into consideration while making textbooks. It is believed that the presented study will be useful for linguists, language students, language textbook makers who want to analyze the study of language textbooks.}</p> 2022-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022