Bouddhik Abhiyan (बौद्धिक अभियान) <p>Bouddhik Abhiyan (बौद्धिक अभियान) is published by Nepal Progressive Professor Association, Dhankuta, Province- 1, Nepal. It is a multi-disciplinary peer reviewed journal that contains empirical research articles, and conference/seminar papers of the scholars from different disciplines and fields such as Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Management, Health, Law, and Science and technology. </p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Arjun Kumar Baral) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 13 Sep 2022 09:31:09 +0000 OJS 60 Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on COVID-19 in a Government Hospital, Biratnagar <p>World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic on 11<sup>th</sup> March 2020 due to rapid transmission and severity of illness of this fatal virus from the country of origin. This study was conducted to assess the health care workers’ knowledge, attitude and practice on COVID -19 in a government hospital at Biratnagar. A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used. Census method was adopted for sampling, structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 115 healthcare workers over a period of two months. More than three fourth (78.3%) scored good knowledge, almost all possessed a positive attitude and more than half (62.6%) had good infection prevention practice on COVID-19. However, 52.2% reported that COVID-19 is contagious and only 13.9% identified as a zoonotic disease. Also, it revealed that only 35.7% practiced correct steps of donning PPE, only 27.8% reported proper sequence of doffing PPE and 40.0% followed standard duration for hand washing as per the WHO, CDC guideline. The study highlighted the gap in some specific aspects of knowledge and practice of the healthcare workers that need immediate concern. Adequate provision of periodically updated educational training programmes on COVID-19 and infection prevention practices focusing on PPE might help bridging the gap.</p> Anjana Katuwal, Menuka Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Part-Time Worker Students at the Postgraduate Level <p>This paper attempts to analyze a study of part-time worker students at the postgraduate level in economics education in Kathmandu valley. The students who continue their postgraduate studies and jobs are known as part-time working students. This paper is based on a qualitative research design. Data were collected from in-depth personal interviews. For this purpose, four students were purposively selected covering gender from the first and second semesters. This paper has two-fold findings: most students engage in part-time work to gain thirst and survival and develop future working experience in the second. However, both types of students reported that part-time jobs support a lower survival level, which has disrupted their study. Furthermore, both types of students involved in part-time work do not seem satisfied with their job and study.</p> Basudeb Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 School Level Teacher Management System in Nepal: Prospects and Challenges <p>This paper highlights teacher management in terms of prospects and challenges in the Nepalese school system. The paper argues that the existing teacher management model adopted by the government is both an administrative model and a grassroots model. The paper aims to explore the existing teacher management system of the government and its prospects and challenges from the quality perspective. To achieve a critical reflection on the teacher management system, the paper utilizes qualitative content analysis as a method of generating empirical evidence. The Teacher Service Commission (TSC) functions as a centralized agency for selecting and recommending teachers for permanent appointment, and the SMC at the local level is working with a grassroots model of teacher management as a decentralized agency. As a result, the quality of school education is deteriorating because of this contradictory policy provision for teacher management. The devolution of power to the local level to hire teachers with different names opened a gate for under-qualified and less competent teachers to enter school education through an indirect path. The paper explores that the contradictory policy provision, unclear roles, and responsibilities between local and centers, extreme politicization, teachers’ hierarchies, and categories all are the challenges for and problems with teacher management in school.</p> Devi Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COVID -19 Crisis and Alternative Learning: School Stakeholders' Perceptions <p>This paper reports on an analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions of online learning for school students in Nepal. It utilised online semi-structured interview with 13 stakeholders from a municipality, two schools, and a community campus to gather qualitative data. The content analysis of various archived documents provided a ground for data analysis. This research paper reports of perceived value of online learning in the COVID-19 pandemic, opportunities for transforming the conventional physical classroom to the online mode of learning and challenges to switch to online learning in rural Nepal. It further reports on how teachers in rural areas explored community-based mobile teaching as an alternative mode of learning where there was lack of ICT infrastructures. Teachers’ lack of e-based teaching experience, limited ICT knowledge and skills, and lack of digital devices feared them to adopt the online mode of learning. Had the government and rural schools developed minimum ICT infrastructure, trained teachers to use ICT facilities and provided necessary support to students, rural students would have been able to access online education in the crisis.</p> Gadhi Raj Magar, Karna Rana Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Social Media Content and Credibility (Situation analysis of news shared on Facebook by Journalists from Nepal) <p>The qualitative research is conducted using status exploration and structured interviews of civil society members and has studied the credibility of messages posted on Facebook by journalists. Survey has observed 749 Facebook statuses for February, March, and July of 2020 posted by various Journalists working from Sunsari District. The journalists are selected using a systematic random sampling method. Posts are observed on the basis of Fact, Attribution of authentic sources, Balance in coverage, clarity in message etc. The content analysis shows Journalists are conscious of their responsibility towards society and do post factual information on social media however they sometimes make mix-ups of news and opinion. Some journalists post sensational information to increase their viewership but that has decreased their credibility. Civil society members and information users’ perspectives pointed out that people follow the Facebook posts of journalists for news updates, however, they verify it with other credible journalists and or trusted mainstream media. Journalists share information using Facebook however fact-checking and balance seem lacking. To understand social media content media literacy is necessary.</p> Ganesh K. Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Uses and Limitations of Quantitative Research in English Language Education <p>This paper is an attempt to provide insights on quantitative research in general and the uses and limitations of quantitative research in the field of English language education in particular. The paper aims to present and discuss the uses and limitations of quantitative research in the area of English language education. Building upon the literature related to the topic, the paper begins with the background of research in general. Then, it introduces the quantitative research as an important research approach in social sciences. More importantly, it presents and discusses the major areas of uses and limitations of quantitative research in the field of English education. Finally, the paper is concluded with the idea that quantitative research approach is significantly used to address the issues of English language education along with other research approaches in terms of nature and contexts of the research phenomena.</p> Krishna Kumar Khatri, Debraj Karki Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Mundhum Myth: A Semiological Perspective <p>This article aims to observe the Limbu Mundhum myth <em>Yapmi Pongma Mundhum </em>'The Creation of Man' from the semiological perspective setting it in the second order tridimensional pattern developed by French semiotician, Roland Barthes. The objective of the study is to find out the process of interpreting myth through Barthean model of semiotic system. Basically, the analysis is based on linguistic theory of literary criticism. The theory proposed by Barthes is modeled upon Ferdinand de Saussure's linguistic 'sign' under the semiological system. In the process of analysis, the study has revealed that though Barthes' semiotic pattern follows Saussure's model of sign system, there are certain distinct features in the interpretation of myth than that of Saussuren linguistic sign, signifier and signified pattern. Especially, the component 'signifier' is differently perceived in Barthes' triple dimensional pattern. Likewise, the connection between 'signifier' and 'signified' is not the same in simple linguistic and mythical semiotic system. The article can be useful to create a way for interested individuals to deepen their understanding of language, literature and society.</p> Mohan Kumar Tumbahang Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Parents’ View on Online Education during Covid-19 Pandemic in Nepal: Narrative Analysis <p>Nearly 77 million children, has taken away their classrooms for the past 18 months in the pandemic. School children worldwide have lost 1.8 trillion hours and counting of in-person learning due to COVID-19 lockdowns. At least 1 in 3 school children had no access to remote learning during school closures. Narrative review of Analysis was prepared by using secondary data of the all international and national published journal, report and articles. The narrative review analysis was done only on; a) English language b) involved sample of at least 10 subjects and diverse research design were eligible. Main finding of analysis is to parents as key partners of the efficiency of remote learning during COVID-19. Parent’s participation has played an equalizing role explanatory some of the limitations of remote learning. Difficulties in completing distance learning tasks at home, with major difficulties being children’s lack of learning interests and home environment related limitations. Many parents perceived that the pandemic as an opportunity for family relations, and more research possibilities related to the personal interests of their child as well as focused on the development of their child’s technological skills. Parents found themselves in the place of teachers’ shoes with the arrival of COVID-19 due to shutting down of school. Parents and caregivers face significant gaps in the knowledge and resources needed to help their children with school. They faced challenges of limited access to reliable electricity, affordable internet, and internet-capable devices were major barriers in helping their children continue education remotely.</p> Saraswati Basnet, Hom Bahadur Basnet, Dilip Kumar Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Use of Chemical Fertilizer Technology in Eastern Hills of Nepal: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">The use of new technologies issue in agricultural sector is the global concern of the current days. This paper attempts to assess about the knowledge, attitude and practice of farmers related to the use of chemical fertilizers in their agricultural works in the case of eastern hills of Nepal. The study applied household questionnaire survey, key informant survey, focus group discussion and field observation to collect relevant information. The study conducted in 30 percent (180hss) in total (601hhs) of three altitude belts such as upper, middle and lower, ranging from 300 to 2,250 masl along the Koshi-highway. It has a wide range of climates, ranging from sub-tropical to alpine with monsoon precipitation in the summer three and half months. Secondary data were gathered from previous research journals, dissertations and official records. </span></p> <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">This paper has showed that chemical fertilizer technology is well known technology for the protection and promotion of fruits, crops and vegetable in the study area. Around 79 percent (142hhs) farmers have used this as an useful and profitable technique. Despite various problems, the practice of this technology is gradually increasing in this area and the maximum practice is concentrated with vegetable farming. Although it was introduced through the inspiration of local research centers at first time, the role of neighbours, friends/ relatives and television programs seems to be significant respectively in its development and expansion in the study area. This technology is the choice of the farmers and also they have positive attitude towards it but the amount of adoption is declined through the negative impact of unscientific practice in the actual field.</span></p> Shyam Prasad Wagle Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Attitude of Menstruation before Menarche among Early Adolescent Girls in Nepal <p>Every girl experiences menarche in the early adolescent stage of their life. Menarche is the first menstrual period as well as a biological process that is seen with physiological, psychological and emotional change. The knowledge and attitude regarding menstruation and menarche among girls not only determine their reproductive life but are also directly related to the quality of their life. The aim of the research was to assess knowledge about menstruation before menarche and find out restriction’s attitudes during menarche and the menstrual period. In the research, I have selected five secondary schools from Itahari sub-metropolitan city by using convenient sampling and have asked structured questionnaires to 32 early adolescent girls belonging to the Brahmin-Chhetri community to collect primary data. This research finds that 43.75 percent of respondents have low, 41.94 percent have medium and 16.13 percent have high knowledge regarding menstruation before menarche. They receive their first knowledge about menstruation from their mothers. Most respondents think their mothers can give adequate knowledge before experiencing menarche. Likewise, 65-75 percent of respondents are negative towards different kinds of restrictions during menstruation and menarche. The majority 90 percent of respondents agree with the tradition of ‘should not go to the temple and worshipping Gods’ but the practice of restrictions was just opposite from the attitude except worshipping the God and going to the temple. Similarly, the study showed that 56 percent of adolescent girls followed restriction regarding menstruation in order to respect senior members of the family and followed in-home and another 44 percent girls followed it due to the fear of sin. On the basis of the above findings, it is clearly shown that a significant number of mothers of today’s mother generation are not aware of menstruation. They do not give adequate information as knowledge to their daughters and still follow restrictions regarding menstruation as sin, curse, and dirty things.</p> Srijana Timsina Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Intrapersonal Communication on Human Development of Direct and Indirect Conflict Participants in Nepal <p>Human development of conflict participant during Nepal’s armed conflict started from 2052 BS has been studied in this research paper. Role of intrapersonal communication in difficult life condition (conflict) in human development of both direct and indirect conflict participant has been researched using qualitative research methodology taking human’s inward development factor as physiological, psychological, emotional, cognitive, and intellectual aspect as well as outward support system as social, economic, political, cultural, religious, technological and global system are taken as the variables.</p> <p>For this hermeneutic phenomenological qualitative study in-depth interview of 4 participants from direct and indirect conflict participant in Nepal is taken being based on interpretive research philosophy in a cross-sectional time frame adopting inductive approach.</p> <p>Major finding of this study is that healthy positive intrapersonal communication should be initiated by individual with active functionality of support system for individual’s growth to its fullest human potential for which constant communication with self is significant.</p> Trishna Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Obstacles of Using ICT in ELT in Secondary Schools of Bhojpur Municipality: A Quantitative Study <p>This study intended to investigate obstacles of using ICTs in ELT. Census method was adopted to obtain the objectives. Likert-scale survey questionnaire, non-participation observation and unstructured interview were adopted as the tools of data collection. The results of the study exhibits that majority of English teachers have been facing the obstacles such as insufficient infrastructure, expensive cost, lack of experts, unsteady of electric power and internet of using ICTs in ELT.</p> Uttam Sing Rai Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Progressive Professor Association Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 "नैकापे सर्किनी’’ कथामा सबाल्टर्र्न (सिमान्तीयता) {The Subaltern (Marginality) in the Story of "Naikape Sarkini"} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख पारिजातको ‘नैकापे सर्किनी’ कथामा सबाल्टर्न अध्ययन विश्लेषणसँग सम्बन्धित छ । एन्टोनिओ ग्राम्सीले उत्तर औपनिवेशिक उपभोक्तावादी संस्कृतिको सन्दर्भमा सबाल्टर्न शब्दलाई शासित वर्गको वकालत गर्ने क्रममा हैकम वा प्रभुत्वको नवीन अर्थसँग पनि जोडेर प्रयोग गरेपछि यसले साहित्यको क्षेत्रमा प्रवेश पाएको हो । ग्राम्सीका शब्दमा सबाल्टर्न भन्नाले गैरशासकीय र अहैकमवादी वर्गलाई जनाउँछ, जो सधैँ अधीनस्थ, पराधीन हुन्छन् । सबाल्टर्न सांस्कृतिक र साहित्यसँग सम्बन्धित अन्तर्विषयक अध्ययन हो । सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनभित्र विविध पक्षहरू समेटिन्छन् । तीमध्ये सबाल्टर्न अध्ययन महत्वपूर्ण पक्ष हो । सबाल्टर्न शब्दले समाजमा विभिन्न अवसरबाट पछाडि पारिएको वर्ग, तह, लिङ्ग, जात तथा समूहलाई जनाउँछ । सबाल्टर्न अध्ययनलाई कथाको सामाजिक संरचना, सीमान्तीकृत वर्ग, प्रभुत्वशाली समूह र विचार धारासँग जोडेर हेर्नु सान्दर्भिक मानिन्छ । प्रस्तुत कथामा सामन्ती तथा पितृसतात्मक समाजमा निम्नवर्गका महिलाहरू माथि हुने शोषण, लैङ्गिक विभेदका मुद्दालाई यथार्थ रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यहाँ सोही सिद्धान्तलाई आधार मानेर पारिजातको ‘नैकापे सर्किनी’ कथामा सबाल्टर्न विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेख तयार पार्नका लागि प्राथमिक तथा द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीहरू पुस्तकालयबाट अध्ययन गरी सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । सङ्कलित सामग्रीहरूलाई विश्लेषण गर्ने आधार सबाल्टर्न सम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई लिइएको छ । यसमा निगमनात्मक तथा पाठविश्लेषण विश्लेषण विधिको उपयोग गरी साक्ष्यहरुका आधारमा कथामास बाल्र्टनको वर्गीय, जातीय, लैङ्गिक अवस्था, सबाल्र्टनको प्रतिरोधी चतना तथा लेखकीय दृष्टिकोणको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसमा सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरूको प्रयोगमा ए.पि. ए. पद्धति अपनाइएको छ ।</p> लतादेवी Latadevi पौड्याल Poudyal Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 शैक्षणिक दृष्टिले नेपाली उखानमा पाइने विभेद तथा कमजोरी {Differences and weaknesses found in Nepali proverbs from an educational point of view} <p>परम्परागत तथा सामाजिक रूपले उपयुक्त हुँदाहुँदै पनि कुनै पनि भाषाभित्रका कतिपय कुराहरू औपचारिक रूपमा पठनपाठन गर्नु गराउनु उपयुक्त नहुने खालका हुन्छन् । नेपाली भाषाका सन्दर्भमा तिनै कुरामध्येको एउटा हो–लोकजीवनमा प्रचलित अनुभवपूर्ण चुट्किला वा उखान । सतही रूपमा हेर्दा यी सामाजिक रूपले उपयुक्त वा सत्यजस्ता लागे पनि कतिपय उखानभित्रको विभेद हेर्दा तिनलाई औपचारिक रूपमा शिक्षण गर्नु उपयुक्त नहुने देखिन्छन् । यिनको प्रयोगले भाषामा उक्तिवैचित्र्य सिर्जना भई प्रभावकारी बोध र अभिव्यक्ति हुन सक्छ त्यसैले यिनको धेरथोर प्रयोग उपयोग उक्त भाषाका प्रयोक्ताहरूले गर्नु आवश्यक हुन्छ । यसका लागि अनौपचारिक सामाजिक प्रयोग अभ्यासका अतिरिक्त औपचारिक शिक्षण सिकाइ पनि अनिवार्य हुन्छ । शिक्षणसिकाइमा प्रयोग गर्ने सन्दर्भमा भने यिनको भाषिक तथा सामाजिक संवेदनशीलतालाई विशेष ख्याल गर्नु पर्दछ । प्रस्तुत लेखको मूल उद्देश्य विद्यालय तथा महाविद्यालयका विभिन्न तह र कक्षा वर्षमा औपचारिक रूपमा पठनपाठन हुने नेपाली उखानहरूमा पाइने सामाजिक विभेद तथा कमजोरीको अध्ययन गर्नु हो । यस लेखमा उखानहरू सङ्कलित विभिन्न कृतिलाई प्राथमिक र तिनको थप व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएका कृतिहरूलाई द्वितीयक स्रोत मानी पुस्तकालयबाट अध्ययन गरी सामग्री सङ्कलन गरेर विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सङ्ख्यात्मक रूपमा बढीबाट घटीमा क्रमशः अश्लीलता, जातीय, लिङ्गगत, अपाङ्गता, उमेर, जेष्ठता, पेसा/व्यवसाय, वर्ग र स्थानसँग सम्बन्धित विभेद रहेको तथ्याङ्कसहित विद्यालय/महाविद्यालय कहीँ पनि यस्ता विभेदकारी र अश्लील उखानहरू शिक्षण गर्न नहुने र गरिएमा समतामूलक समाज निर्माणमा बाधा पुग्न सक्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> मदनराज Madanraj बराल Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ‘बहुला काजीको सपना’ नाटकमा प्रगतिशील चेतना {Progressive consciousness in the play 'Bahula Kaziko Sapna'} <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा विजय मल्लको ‘बहुला काजीको सपना’ नाटकका विभिन्न प्रगतिशील पक्षहरूको विश्लेषण र मूल्याङ्कन गरेर उक्त नाटकमा रहेको प्रगतिशील चेतनाको निक्र्योल गरिएको छ । यस नाटकमा रहेका प्रगतिशील विचार र चेतनाहरूको निरुपण गर्नु नै यस अध्ययनको मुख्य उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यसमा पुस्तकालयीय विधिबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको तथ्याङ्लाई विश्लेषणात्मक एवं वर्णनात्मक पद्धतिको प्रयोग गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । राणा कालीन परिस्थितिमा तत्कालीन नेपाली समाजको राजनैतिक र सामाजिक अवस्थासँग नेपाली जनतालाई परिचित गराई राजनैतिक क्रान्तिको आह्वान गर्ने मुख्य उद्देश्य राखेर यो नाटक लेखिएको हो । यस नाटकमा सामाजिक असमानता, अशिक्षा, आर्थिक अभाव, गरिबहरूमाथिको थिचोमिचो, शोषण, दमन, अन्याय र अत्याचारको चित्रण गर्दै मानवताको शत्रु मानिएको धनी र गरिब वर्गका बिचमा देखापरेको असमानतालाई हटाई मानवतावादी समतामूलक समाजको स्थापनामा जोड दिनुपर्छ भन्ने प्रगतिशील विचार प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यहाँ भरियाका रुपमा कष्टकर जीवन बिताइरहेका गरिबहरूको जीवनको कहाली लाग्दो यथार्थलाई प्रस्तुत गर्दै तिनीहरूले इमानदारीकासाथ अथक परिश्रम गरे तापनि आत्मसम्मानका साथ बाँच्न नपाएको अवस्थालाई देखाइएको छ । यस नाटकमा माक्र्सवादी सौन्दर्यशास्त्रका रुपमा स्थापित साहित्य सिद्धान्त प्रगतिवादको पूर्ण रुपमा परिपालना भएको देखिन्न तर यथेष्ट मात्रामा प्रगतिशील चेतनाको सिर्जनात्मक प्रयोग भएको पाइन्छ ।</p> प्रदीपप्रसाद Pradipprasad ज्ञवाली Gyawali Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ‘उज्यालाका थेग्लाहरूभित्र’ एकांकीको विधातात्विक अध्ययन {A philosophical study of the genre of 'Ujyalaka Theglaharu' in Ekanki} <p>उज्यालोका थेग्लाहरूभित्र (२०६१) एकाङ्कीको अध्ययनका क्रममा समाजमा घट्नसक्ने विकृति र विसङ्गतिको टड्कारो चित्रण यस एकाङ्कीले गरेको छ । सुन, चरेस, गाँजा जस्ता मादक पदार्थ अन्य राष्ट्रमा व्यापार गरेर कालो धनकमाउने सपना बोकेका नेपालीहरूलाई सचेत गराउने कार्य भँडारीले यसै एकाङ्कीबाट गरेका छन् । उनले समाजमा मादक पदार्थ सेवन गर्ने, व्यक्तिलाई सजायका भागीदार बनाउने र त्यस्ता कार्यबाट अलग रहने सुझाव गरेका छन् । त्यसैले उनलाई समाजमा रहेका विद्यमान विकृति र विसङ्गतिलाई प्रस्तुत गर्ने नाटककार भनिन्छ । यिनै नाटकहरू र एकाङ्कीको माध्यमबाट माधव भँडारी नेपाली साहित्यको इतिहासमा प्रसिद्ध भएको पाइन्छ । यस लेखमा यस एकाङ्कीको तत्वगत आधारमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । कथावस्तुको परिचय चरित्रका विविध पक्षको परिचय, वातावरण, सम्बाद, उद्देश्य, भाषाशैली द्वन्द्व मञ्चनीयता जस्ता तत्वहरूको संक्षिप्त रूपमा वर्णन गरिएको छ । यस एकाङ्कीको अध्ययनबाट समाजमा रहेका विद्यमान विकृति र विसङ्गतिलाई औँल्याई समाजलाई सचेत गराउने काम भएको छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । यस एकाङ्कीमा ८ पुरुष र २ महिला पात्र छन् । सबै पात्रहरू निम्न मध्यमवर्गका छन् । बोलचालको उत्कृष्ट गद्य भाषाको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । यस एकाङ्कीको वातावरणका सम्बन्धमा एउटा शहरदेखी परको राजमार्गको उल्लेख गरिएको छ । जुन राजमार्गको दुवै तर्फ रुख रहेका छन् । विधा तात्विक अध्ययन गर्नु नै यस लेखको उद्धेश्य रहेको छ । समग्र अध्ययनबाट समाजमा रहेका विकृति र विसङ्गतिलाई समाप्त गरी तत्कालीन समाजका युवायुवतीलाई सचेत गराउने सन्देश दिएको छ ।</p> रामप्रसाद Ramprasad गुरागाँई Guragain Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 वाङ्मयका विविध शाखासँग मिथकको सम्बन्ध {Relation of myth to various branches of literature} <p>मिथकलाई सृष्टिको उत्पत्तिदेखि लिएर विभिन्न ज्ञानविज्ञानको विकास, प्रकृतिका रहस्य, मानवीय र अमानवीय क्रियाकलाप, मानवीय अनुभव अनुभूतिको सँगालो, लोकविश्वास, सामूहिक मनको अभिव्यक्ति, प्रकृतिका रहस्यमय क्रियाकलाप, धर्म, दर्शन, कला, साहित्य, देवीदेवता आदिसँग सम्बन्धित प्रसङ्गलाई लिन सकिन्छ । स्वरैकल्पनात्मक, अतिमानवीय घटनाको प्राधान्य रहेको, धार्मिक तथा आध्यात्मिक चेतना भएको, मानवीय जीवनका सामूहिक अनुभवको अभिव्यक्ति भएको, प्रकृति सृष्टिका अनेकन रहस्यको वर्णन भएको आख्यान जुन परम्परित रूपमा साहित्यमा प्रयोग हुँदै आइरहेको छ र जसले प्राचीनताका माध्यमबाट समकालीन सन्दर्भलाई व्यक्त गर्दछ, &nbsp;त्यही नै मिथक हो । यसप्रकार प्राचीन कालमा आदिम मानवका अनुभूति, आस्थाको अभिव्यक्तिका रूपमा रहेको मिथक अहिले आएर व्यापक विषयका रूपमा स्थापित हुन पुगेको छ भने मिथकलाई ज्ञान विज्ञानका विभिन्न कोणबाट अध्ययन गर्ने परम्परा पनि स्थापित भएको छ । मिथक प्राचीनतम विषय भए पनि यसको अध्ययन गर्ने सन्दर्भमा नवीनतम दृष्टिकोणहरू देखापरेका छन् । मिथकलाई साहित्य, लोकसाहित्य, मनोविज्ञान, समाज, इतिहास, संस्कृतिआदिसँग जोडेर अध्ययन गर्ने परम्पराको विकाससँगै मिथकको महत्त्व बढ्दै गएको छ । यस लेखमा वाङ्मयका यिनै विविध शाखासँग मिथकको सम्बन्धका बारेमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।</p> शालिकराम Shalikram पौड्याल Poudyal Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000