Baneshwor Campus Journal of Academia <p>Baneshwor Campus Journal of Academia, is an annual, peer review journal, published from Research Management Committee, Baneshwor Multiple Campus, Shantinagar, Kathmandu. This journal publishes academic research articles received from scholars of various disciplines.</p> RMC, Baneshwor Multiple Campus en-US Baneshwor Campus Journal of Academia 2705-4586 <p><strong><a href="">CC BY-NC</a></strong>: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for non-commercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </p> Exploring Physical Activity Awareness Among BMC Education Students, Kathmandu <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Physical activity is influenced by one’s knowledge of the benefits of physical activities as well as positive attitudes towards participation in such activities. Several studies have pointed out a decline in physical activity among adolescent and youths upon enrolling to university life with such decline being on a rising trend. Enhancing university youths’ knowledge on physical activities and fostering positive attitudes towards physical activities is crucial to promote healthy lifestyles, enhance their wellbeing and possibly also influence their study positively.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding physical activity among Bachelor of Education students of Baneshwor Multiple Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire collecting primary data from 142 1<sup>st</sup> to 4<sup>th</sup> year bachelor of education students. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used in data analysis. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean age of study participants was 20.37 years (SD <strong>±</strong> 2.36) with higher representation of females (68.31%) than that of males (31.69%). Over 90% students answered yes to five out of seven knowledge statements. The proportion of students responding yes to the remaining two statements was 89.44% and 78.17% respectively. Likewise, over 80% students agreed on six out of seven attitude statements. However, as many as 61% of students still believed that physical activity is injurious while 28.17% remained neutral and only 10.56% disagreed on it. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study showed that the majority of BEd students possessed fairly good knowledge and attitude towards physical activity. Yet, this study revealed some gaps in both knowledge and attitudes regarding physical activities warranting campus management to take necessary measures for improvement in future.</p> Labanya Devi Ghimire Shamila Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 1 12 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65459 Current Status of Birth Registration Practice in Nepal <p>Birth registration is an essential element of civil registration and vital statistics which provide a legal identity and recognize the rights of an individual. In Nepal, birth registration has a long history starting from the Village Panchayat Act 1962 which was the first act with a provision for a birth certificate. Despite the over half-century experience of birth registration efforts, challenges to universal birth certificate coverage remain present, especially among the rural population. This research will investigate the current practices of birth registration in Nepal based on the findings of the National Population and Housing Census 2021. The analysis will show respective rates of birth certificate issuance across the regions, provinces, and development districts. Some areas show remarkable success in birth registration, while others struggle to reach significant coverage levels. The experience shows the critical role of government responsiveness to the development of birth registration which is especially important for rural areas and districts with significant rural populations. In this light, targeted efforts and outreach campaigns are necessary to eliminate barriers, thus guaranteeing equal access to birth registration for all children in Nepal.</p> Rameshwor Kafle Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 13 26 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65460 Exploring the Impact of Media Content on Social Media Engagement Through Comment Analysis <p>This study investigates audience participation on the social media platforms of Kantipur Daily, Sagarmatha Radio, and Nepal Television using survey data collected in 2024. A review of comments on Facebook and X(Twitter) indicated that positive feedback is primarily focused on sports and social/health/lifestyle news Moreover, opinions and economic news receive relatively less attention than political news. The study highlights particular areas that need more research and offers insightful information about audience dynamics in the context of digital communication. This finding emphasizes the value of social media as a political communication tool, which is especially clear from the positive comments on Political News. Additionally, despite certain restrictions, the results show how the communication landscape is changing and how social media is improving news accessibility and content quality. The finding indicates that social media has become a new arena for public affairs, and its results show that Facebook is more widely used than X.</p> Lal Bahadur Airi Shiva Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 27 36 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65461 Persistent and implications of Changing Livelihood in Hill Setting of Nepal: A Qualitative Inquiry of Vyas-10 of Tanahun <p>Nepal has witnessed rapid change in political and socioeconomic dimensions in the last three decades. Migration and remittance are key factors for the changing livelihoods and it implies various forms of Hill settings in Nepal. The aim of the study is to identify the persistence and implications of livelihood changes in the Hill setting of Nepal from the emic perspective. As per the requirement of the study, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted Dumsi village of Vyas-10 of Tanahun district. The study identified that remittance is the key driver of the livelihood change in the Hill setting. The changing livelihood of the village people also changes the gender roles, the age structure of the working age population, change in the caste-based occupation and structural change of the caste-based system and the diversification of the income sources. Agriculture was seen as the main occupation three decades ago, it is a secondary source of livelihood in the villages due to migration and remittances.</p> Uddhav Sigdel Tulshi Rijal Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 37 49 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65494 Impact of Climate Change on the Farming Community of Bhaktapur District of Nepal <p>This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of climate change on the farming community in Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study considered rainfall, temperature, flood/drought, harvest and sowing time, and pest and disease incidence over 20 years as primary factors to be considered. A household survey of 120 houses was conducted following the set of questionnaires prepared. As a result, significant changes were observed in climatic aspects as well as biological aspects. The obtained result demonstrated that the precipitation observed drastic change as there was an incidence of erratic and heavy rainfall on summer days while the intensity and frequency of rainfall decreased during winter. These abnormalities certainly do not favor agriculture and farming. Similarly, the temperature of the study area has increased annually over the last two decades. The data suggests that the average annual temperature is increasing at the rate of 0.038°C per year. Moreover, the survey showed that the time of harvest and time of sowing seeds have been delayed respectively to the time a few decades back while the climatic aberrations have increased the incidence of pests and diseases. In a nutshell, the changes in climatic conditions have a drastic change in the farming system and thus the agricultural produce and productivity. The study highlights the significant impact of climate change on traditional farming practices in Bhaktapur, Nepal. It underscores how changes in rainfall patterns, temperature, and the incidence of extreme weather events like floods and droughts have disrupted agricultural activities such as planting and harvesting cycles. The research not only identifies challenges but also emphasizes the need for adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change on farming communities. By linking research findings to policy recommendations and practical interventions, the study offers actionable insights for policymakers, practitioners, and local stakeholders striving to build resilience in agricultural systems.</p> Harka Bahadur Dhungel Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 50 62 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65496 The Concept of National Security in Kautilya's Arthashastra <p>Kautilya's <em>Arthashastra</em> stands as a timeless testament to the enduring principles of political realism. Within its ancient pages, Kautilya delves into the intricate dynamics of power, conflict, and national interests with remarkable foresight. Central to his discourse is the notion of national security, a concept that remains as pertinent today as it was in antiquity. Kautilya's strategic genius is evident in his meticulous construction of military doctrines, aimed at ensuring the safety and sovereignty of the state. Through a blend of cunning diplomacy, espionage, and military prowess, he advocates for a proactive approach to safeguarding the realm against external threats and internal dissent. In the <em>Arthashastra</em>, Kautilya elucidates the multifaceted nature of national security, encompassing not only military strength but also economic prosperity, social stability, and ideological resilience. His realist perspective emphasizes the primacy of power dynamics in international relations, advocating for the acquisition and preservation of power as the cornerstone of national security. Kautilya's insights continue to resonate in contemporary discourse, where states grapple with complex geopolitical challenges and navigate the delicate balance between self-interest and collective security. As policymakers confront evolving threats in an increasingly interconnected world, the timeless wisdom of Kautilya serves as a beacon, offering invaluable lessons on the enduring pursuit of national security in an ever-changing global landscape.</p> Sanjay Ghimire Madhav Raj Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 63 73 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65599 Understanding Suicide Cases in Nepal: A Comprehensive Analysis of Personality Traits <p>Understanding the intricate relationship between personality traits and suicidal tendencies is crucial for effective suicide prevention strategies. This paper delves into the influence of the Big Five personality traits - Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (OCEAN) - on susceptibility to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Through a comprehensive review of the literature and analysis of relevant cases, it explores how various personality traits intersect with suicidal ideation. Findings reveal that high neuroticism, characterized by emotional instability and negative affectivity, significantly correlates with suicidal intentions. Additionally, lower levels of agreeableness are associated with elevated suicide rates, suggesting a lack of empathy and cooperation may contribute to suicidal thinking. The paper underscores the importance of considering personality factors in suicide risk assessment and intervention strategies. By recognizing the role of personality traits in shaping individuals' responses to distress, tailored interventions can be developed to mitigate suicide risk and promote mental well-being.</p> Alaka Neupane Bharat Raj Baral Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 74 85 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65602 Exploring Elements of Style in the Poem 'Drought': Unraveling the Layers of Meaning <p>The poem "Drought" encapsulates the devastating impact of a prolonged dry spell on both the natural world and human society. Through vivid imagery, figurative language, and poignant diction, the poem portrays the bleak realities and emotional turmoil brought about by the absence of rain. The analysis explores the poem's elements of style, including its use of diction, figurative language, imagery, and syntax, to convey themes of despair, suffering, and resilience. Furthermore, from an epistemological perspective, the poem invites reflection on how knowledge is acquired and understood about the effects of drought, highlighting the complexities of human experience and the limitations of our understanding in the face of natural phenomena. Overall, "Drought" serves as a poignant exploration of the profound impact of environmental disasters and the enduring resilience of the human spirit.</p> Mamata Siwa Pariyar Sadikshya Bhujel Sahil Kushwaha Aarshi Gyawali Sumitra Lama Dhruba Kumar Neupane Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 86 95 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65617 Assessing the Relationship between Students Attitude and Online Shopping <p>This study investigates the relationship between attitudes of youth towards online shopping, focusing on BBS students at Shanker Dev Campus (SDC). The research is motivated by the growing significance of online shopping among the youth demographic and the need to understand the underlying factors driving their attitudes. Drawing on a sample of 124 BBS students, data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed through descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and hypothesis testing. The findings reveal significant relationships between trust, convenience, price, digital literacy, and attitudes towards online shopping among the surveyed students. Trust and convenience emerged as key factors positively associated with online shopping attitudes, while price sensitivity and digital literacy also played significant roles. Moreover, the study highlights the interconnected nature of these factors, suggesting that improvements in one area can positively influence others.</p> Pratibha Rimal Prakriti Bhattarai Pranit Pokhrel Prakriti Pradhananga Preeti Shahi Preety Rana Magar Jagadish Chandra Ghimire Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 96 107 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65625 Assessing the Relationship between Demographic Attributes and Patients' Views of Hospital Environment <p>The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between patient demographic factors (gender, age, marital status) and their perception of a patient-friendly hospital environment. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire to collect data from 41 patients at a hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. The questionnaire assessed perceptions of privacy, visitation, amenities, way finding, and other aspects that contribute to a patient-friendly environment. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between demographic variables and overall satisfaction. Most respondents were younger, female patients. Descriptive analysis found neutral to average satisfaction across different environment domains. Correlation analysis showed no significant relationships between gender, age, marital status and perception of a patient-friendly environment (p&gt;0.05 for all). Patient demographics did not appear to influence perceptions of a patient-friendly environment in this study. While most domains scored neutrally, opportunities remain to enhance certain areas like bathroom accessibility and parking. Larger studies are needed to further understand how hospitals can optimize their physical environments to better support patients.</p> Shrijana Khadka Netra Prasad Nyaupane Chiranjibi Timalsena Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 108 120 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65626 Patient Characteristics on Satisfaction with Healthcare Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Nepal <p>This study aimed to examine the relationship between patient demographics (gender, age) and service factors (number of hospital visits) on patient satisfaction with healthcare quality in a teaching hospital in Nepal. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sample of 40 patients attending the hospital. Data was collected using a questionnaire to assess satisfaction across various dimensions of care. The sample mainly comprised younger females attending the hospital for the first time. Most patients reported average satisfaction with sense of wellbeing, treatment received, staff skills and information provided. No significant correlations were found between gender, age, number of visits and overall satisfaction (p&gt;0.05). Patient demographics and prior hospital experience did not significantly influence satisfaction levels in this study. However, scope remains for improving various quality domains to enhance patient experience. Further research with a larger sample is needed to better understand drivers of satisfaction in the Nepalese healthcare context.</p> Sonu Dangol Ravindra Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 121 132 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65632 Exploring Forms and Practices of Menstruation in the Changing Social System: A Study of Suryabinayak-05, Katunje, Bhaktapur <p>Menstruation forms and practices with restriction have a long history not only in a single culture and region but in various religions and cultures may vary according to the level of their cultural norms, values and superstitions. The aim of the study is to explore the forms of practices of menstruation in the changing Nepali society. The qualitative data were collected from the Suryabinayak-05, Katunje, Bhaktapur district. All total 10 potential research participants were selected for in-depth interview along with non-participant observation in the field. The study indicates that the women from Brahmin and Chhetri community affiliated to Hindu religion are practicing almost all forms of discrimination due to menstruation. Stay in a separate room, eating in a separate room, bathing in separate bathroom, be away from social activities and not participate in religious activities. This discrimination should be addressed through awareness programs in the community.</p> Laxmi Adhikari Mahalaxmi Thapa Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 133 142 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65637 Interplay of Corporate Sector, Politics, and Media in Shaping News Contents in Nepal <p>This paper examines the intricate implications arising from the symbiotic relationship among the corporate sector, politics, and media in shaping news content in Nepal. This study analyzes the dynamics and interplay between politics, corporate sectors and the influence they can have on the media content largely within the privately run for-profit media outlets in Nepal. The theoretical foundation for this study has been rooted in Habermas’ public sphere model of mass media (1989). The study revealed that vested corporate and political interests are hugely influential both in shaping the opinion and performance of the news media. Besides, the corporate influence, the ideological division of media outlets and journalists not only raises ethical concerns but also the quality of discourse. Taken together, they only undermine the very credibility of the media institutions which does not allow them to become what Habermas calls the public sphere.</p> Lekhanath Pandey Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 143 155 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65656 Daily Time Table of Students in Gurukul: A Study of Gurukul in Devghat, Tanahun <p>This study aims to show the timetable applied / practiced by the students in Gurukuls , especially with reference to Mahesh Gurukul located in Devghat, Tanahun. Gurukul has got credit in the development of an innate sense of concentration of students to involve them in their study. The students will be around the environment of a teacher so that they can develop physical, mental, cognitive and spiritual goodness in them according to their regular timetable.&nbsp; Gurukul is an education system of receiving education under the full guidance of a guru/teacher. This system has been in practice since ancient times. In Gurukul education, Sanskrit language is considered as the first and oldest language used since the past time period. It has also got its own unique teaching style. Its value is that it reflects the culture in education system. There are around two hundred fifty Gurukuls in Nepal. The curriculum of traditional Gurukul education had been prepared by a guru/ teacher and would be completed within a fixed time. Furthermore, particular subjects would be completed by students within the given time period. In this context, the learners had to follow real time to complete the study of Bhagawat, Puranas or Vedas etc. It is to be understood that Gurukul education plays significant role&nbsp; for children who have not access to another type of formal education. It is generally related to teacher-centered method of learning. Gurukul education system has been established on Hindu religious and cultural practices. There are only three ways to get education in Gurukul education system: knowledge gained through Guru's service, cooperation of skill and friendly environment. Gurukul education has followed particular and certain time table to promote their traditional norms and values. So, all students and teachers should follow the time table fixed by Gurukul. The methodology of this paper is opened ended interview with head teacher and teachers and focus group discussion was held with students.</p> Toya Nath Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 156 162 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65657 Loss of Citizenship Provisions in Nepal's Citizenship Law: Addressing the Risk of Statelessness in Accordance with International Conventions <p>Citizenship denotes membership in a state, encompassing both acquisition and termination aspects. This article specifically examines the termination of citizenship in Nepal through a comparative lens. Termination can occur through voluntary means, automatic processes as per the country's laws, or governmental revocation. The study of citizenship loss is grounded in international conventions such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961), and the European Convention on Nationality (1997). Similarly, the comparative analysis extends to Nepali law including the Nepali Citizenship Act (1952), the Nepal Citizenship Act (1964), and the Nepal Citizenship Act (2006). This analysis delves into the comparative study between international conventions and Nepali citizenship laws, assessing whether the latter may potentially lead to statelessness.</p> Shanti Kumar Timilsina Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 3 1 163 175 10.3126/bcja.v3i1.65658