Baneshwor Campus Journal of Academia 2023-06-13T12:57:23+00:00 Ghaman Singh Khadka, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>Baneshwor Campus Journal of Academia, is an annual, peer review journal, published from Research Management Committee, Baneshwor Multiple Campus, Shantinagar, Kathmandu. This journal publishes academic research articles received from scholars of various disciplines.</p> Adaptation and Environmental Interactions under Intelligent Regime seems a Road of Evolution – A Case Study 2023-06-13T10:48:54+00:00 Chitra B. Baniya M. Kharel <p>There are several theories on biological evolution which give emphasis either on adaptation or environment or chance or genetics or necessity and so and so forth. As this aspect of exploration, however, provides a great foundation for the understanding of biological science, this subject has not been given enough attention, especially from the eastern wisdom prospect. If adaptation, contingency, chance, necessity, and so and so forth are combined and linked with the intelligent superpower behind the screen, then the explanation about evolution could be expected to be complete. Had not such power been there, the interaction of so many factors, yet leading all systems intact at the equilibrium since time immemorial would not have been possible what we see in the evolutionary processes. Hence there is indeed a need to incorporate the new parameter i.e. the significance of supreme intelligent power for regulating the whole of the phenomena of it so that it would be more convincing, complete, scientific, or at least logical. Although this study was not conducted with a very scientific design, we believe that it would at least provide some food for thought on the subject of evolution in a new light.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus COVID 19: Impact on Nepali Media 2023-06-13T10:54:48+00:00 Lal Bahadur Airi <p>Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during the Coronavirus pandemic. This study studies the impact of the Corona pandemic in Nepalese media sector. Conducted using qualitative and quantitative methods, the study shows the short-term and longterm effects of the corona virus on media journalists and audiences. The media house collapsed, journalists were professionally insecure, and Corona had an impact on the overall media access and influence.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Understanding Suicide in Nepal from Socio-psychological Perspectives 2023-06-13T10:59:06+00:00 Laxmi Adhikari <p>The article explores on the theoretical and empirical evidences of growing suicide trend in Nepal from psychological perspective. Nepal has been witnessing the increasing suicidal attempts since the last two decades. The paper is developed based on the secondary sources of data. The published research papers, government information, suicide recorded information of police headquarter, governmental and non-governmental reports are the major sources of information. The study found that various socioeconomic, demographic, cultural, biological factors to mental illness such as anxiety, disorder and hopelessness are critical issues for suicide attempts in Nepal. It is argued that socio-environmental, cross-cultural, demographic factors have contributed to develop mental illness. If mental illness is not addressed timely then suicidal attempt is likely to happen. Government response to prevent suicidal attempt is not sufficient. Based on the second generation, theoretical understanding and prevention measures are crucial for the prevention.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Causes of International Migration of Educated Youths from Peri-Urban City of Kathmandu 2023-06-13T11:47:06+00:00 Mahesh Shrestha Anil Rana <p>This research was conducted in Chandragiri Municipality-13 to explore the following objectives; to describe the factors and forces that lead educated youths from developing countries to leave their countries and go abroad, to examine the consequences of such migrations in the study area of Chandragiri particularly. In-depth interviews was used to collect primary information from migrant students and their family members in the study area. It was Purposive sampling methods to select my participants for the study. Fourteen respondents were selected for an interview by using saturation method. There was seven migrants and seven migrant's parents among the respondents.</p> <p>This paper includes the findings that lack of better opportunity, social structure, and networking with peer’s migrants are major forces that influence the educated youths to go abroad for study. The study area has more negative consequences than positive from youth's migration to developed countries like low chances of remittance, return of migrants, and investment to sending society. Findings indicate that the research area is the exporter of educated youths to developed countries. When we compare the whole nation it can be concluded that Nepal appear as the periphery in the world economy that exports educated youths to Core Countries like Australia, USA, Japan and many European Countries to fulfill labor shortage in major areas.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Practice of Caste Hierarchy in Nepali Muslim Society 2023-06-13T11:58:07+00:00 Niranjan Ojha <p>A nation like Nepal, where Hindus make up the bulk of the population, places a greater emphasis on the study of religious minorities. Caste is a distinctive type of stratification. It is purely a Hindu phenomenon that is comprehensible and explicable in terms of Hindu principles and justifications. In addition to the Indian subcontinent, caste is widespread in the Arab world, Polynesia, North and East Africa, Japan, and North America. Like in the Hindu community, there is caste purity and practice of hierarchy in Muslim community. Saiyedism in Muslims society (the Arab domination) like Brahminism in Hindu society is a primary cause of caste prejudice in the Muslim community.</p> <p>This paper outlines the crucial steps that must be completed at each stage of the caste hierarchy and is based on qualitative research. The subject is being generalized through an observational technique, in-depth interviews, and library research. Muslim scholars and elderly persons who had experienced such practice were picked as the respondents for the purpose of learning more. The respondents are identified as Res.1, Res.2, Res.3, and so forth because they requested anonymity. The Muslim caste hierarchical system in Nepal is the area of this study. It tries to combat the issue of caste hierarchy among Muslim people in Nepal.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Humans and Animals’ Relationship in Karen Joy Fowler’s We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves 2023-06-13T12:02:46+00:00 Ravindra Neupane <p>This article has explored on the relationships between humans and nonhuman creatures which has long been a predominant dichotomous conceptualization. Especially it has analyzed Karen Joy Fowler’s book <em>We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves</em> which focuses on the relationship between humans and animals. The book also makes readers think about the interspecies relationship’s ethics and epistemologies as a part of ecopoetics. The present debate over animal rights and the condemnation of speciesism, which accords human creatures’ epistemic and ontological privilege, are central issues in critical and cultural animal studies.</p> <p>The dichotomous view of human-animal relationships holds that there is a categorical border between humans - who are perceived as moral subjects with personal rights and whose internal life is psychologically accessible - and animals, some of which can be considered as companions but always have a lower (or no) status in terms of legal and cultural status and whose minds are inaccessible. To investigate human and animal relations, I have formulated three steps throughout the paper. I have started by discussing recent theories that examine the bond between us and monkeys. Then I have discussed how Kellogg's experiment serves as a significant backdrop to Fowler's book.</p> <p>Finally, I have addressed the novel’s contribution to current critical discussions about human-animal interactions and animal rights, as well as the major plot of the book, which develops when the protagonist learns her own role in the ecopoetics of her chimpanzee sister Fern. The paper has investigated ecopoetics that emphasizes the move from interspecies companionship and togetherness to human superiority and instrumental asymmetry, focusing on the intricate human-animal relationships which recount an environment that causes (non-)human trauma and loss. &nbsp;</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Marriage Registration Practice in Nepal 2023-06-13T12:08:21+00:00 Rameshwor Kafle <p>Marriage registration is a relatively more difficult and serious issue than other vital events registration. It was once viewed solely as a mechanism for recording life events and updating data on a regular basis, but in the modern world, it has evolved into a socio-economic and right-based approach. This study found, the practice of marriage registration in Nepal is yet unfamiliar. According to the study, women's age, literacy, media exposure, urban settlement, caste/ethnicity, occupation, wealth index and CEB appear to be the primary influencing elements in Nepal's marriage registration practice. &nbsp;</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Case Report of Suicide Attempt Using Zinc Phosphide in Nepal 2023-06-13T12:12:24+00:00 Shirish Acharya Shubha Kalyan Shrestha Rishav Sharma Bhanu Shrestha Parshu Ram Ghimire Sameer Shrestha Samikshya Tamang Sabin Shrestha <p>Zinc phosphide is an easily available rodenticide and a common mode of poisoning in the Indian subcontinent. It is highly toxic with a mortality rate ranging from 37-100 percent. The proposed mechanism of toxicity is due to the release of phosphine gas after contact with gastric acid. The gas thus liberated, inhibits cytochrome C oxidase and oxidative respiration. The affected systems are cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and hematologic systems and cause electrolyte imbalance. Additionally, metabolic acidosis and an increase in lactate levels can be correlated with the degree of toxicity. The onset of effects can be as early as 4 hours and the risk gradually decrease after 72 hours. There is no antidote to the poison.</p> <p>Aggressive intensive care monitoring and supportive management are the only methods. Early gastric lavage with activated charcoal to induce vomiting is advised. Attempts to clear the zinc phosphide early from the lumen with evidence in the X-ray abdomen using Castor oil have been tried, showing a beneficial effect. Along with this, antioxidants such as alpha-lipoic acid and injectable magnesium sulfate can prevent oxidative injury. Early use of Vitamin K and use of N-acetyl-cysteine have been used to prevent and treat liver injury. However, these methods have not been incorporated in the standard treatment regimen but have shown positive results in preventing mortality. Further extensive studies and standardized treatment is needed for Zinc phosphide poisoning.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Impact of Worker’s Remittance on Financial Development of Nepal 2023-06-13T12:23:46+00:00 Srijana Thapa Kalpana Adhikari Thapa <p>This study analyzes the impact of remittance inflows on financial development of Nepal. Money supply and total bank deposits are selected as the dependent variables while remittance inflow as an increment of GDP, foreign direct investment as an increment of GDP, inflation, per capita income and exchange rate are selected as independent variables. The key sources of data include Quarterly Economic Bulletin published by Nepal Rashtrabank, Economic Survey published by Ministry of Finance and World Development Indicators of World Bank. The study is grounded on the secondary data which are collected for the period of 31 years from 1990 to 2021. The co-integration analysis has been performed to analyze the long run co-integrating relationship between remittance and financial development. It is found that there is long run co-integrating relationship between financial development and remittance inflow in Nepal.</p> <p>In addition, remittance inflow has long run positive relationship with total deposits. This indicates that higher the remittance inflow, higher would be the total deposits. The findings also show that per capita income, inflation and exchange rate has positive relationship with total deposit and money supply. This indicates that increase per capita income leads to increase in total deposits and money supply in long run. Likewise, the study indicates that higher the inflation in long run, higher would be the total deposits and money supply. The result of Granger Causality shows that there is unidirectional causality from remittance to total deposits and money supply. This indicates that remittance leads to increase in total deposits and the money supply in Nepal. &nbsp;</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Exploration of HIV/AIDS Risk Factors among FSWs in Hotspot Areas of Nepal 2023-06-13T12:35:54+00:00 Uddhav Sigdel <p>Risk reduction of high risk group like FSWs (female sex workers) as bride population of HIV transmission from high risk group to low risk population still has been seen problematic in Nepal. This research paper explores the key socio-economic and cultural issues of HIV/AIDS risk factors among FSWs in hotspot areas of Nepal. A qualitative data were collected from the districts (hotspot areas) of Chitawan, Nawalparasi and Rupendehi. Altogether seven FSWs were recruited to interview and successfully completed the interviews. Narratives emerged from the FSWs to their HIV/AIDS issues in different contexts. Despite the decreasing trend of HIV/AIDS among FSWs in hotspot areas, the high risk behaviors of HIV/AIDS, poor negotiation or financial influence on sexual behaviour, alcohol drinking and unwanted sexual acts that put FSWs most at risk. The major reasons behind high risk behaviors are political, economic, legal, access to services and socio-cultural dimensions. The study indicates that it is necessary to develop and implement the HIV/AIDS initiatives among FSWs to address the risk factors HIV prevention from the cultural perspectives. &nbsp;</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus Fragmented Subjects in Jonathan Franzen’s The Corrections: A Critique of Globalization 2023-06-13T12:40:15+00:00 Bhola Nath Chalise <p>This paper argues that globalization results in producing fragmented self which contradicts its original promise of bringing about happiness and coherent personality as such. In other words, the study illustrates the paradox between the integrating promises and disintegrating effects of globalization and consumer culture in post-industrial America. Analyzing Jonathan Franzen’s <em>The Corrections</em>, this study explores the dissociation in the life of the characters and the society they represent. The notion of globalization and generation gap brought by this phenomenon, the illusion that the drugs can cure depression and anxiety, passion over the financial market correction, question over sexuality and gender roles are some areas causing disorder in the life of the characters. This research is based on the cultural criticism of theories on globalization. Globalization is a multi-disciplinary phenomenon. So, to support the cultural aspect of globalization, I have, on and off, brought classical theory of macroeconomics that supports promises of globalization, and the concept of ‘supply chain’ to explain how those promises have been shattered.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus The Oppressed Anthropology of Dalits Identity: Perspective of Evolution and Modern Nepali society 2023-06-13T12:45:24+00:00 Bishnu Rai <p>When a person is insulted in the society by tagging one as untouchable, he neither writes news nor agitates that any person has been insulted. Even if he does, he tries to show off by blaming him. So I've tried to raise some issues. In our society, the Dalit caste is viewed with a low and untouchable perversion; it is a rude, adulterous culture. There are also such societies that take it as their tradition and consider it their ethnic ego. Unless we can fight against it, accepting the rule of an alleged class remains the only option. This is not an insult to anyone; it is an anthropological study of how Dalits became and why they are suffering.</p> <p>We want to end this perversion as soon as possible. Inter-caste marriage is in fact a legal trap for Dalits. If the girl or boy you like marries for interracial love, the girl's side will bring the girl back. Chandra Kami of Sarke village in Humla has recently been accused of raping a boy on the side of a girl belonging to a big caste. Similarly, Harikesar Sarki, 10, of Dang Ghorahi Municipality, had a love marriage with a 17-year-old girl from Bohora Thar. He also spent a long time in jail after three months, alleging that the girl's side had committed adultery. But the girl was released from jail after being told that we had a love marriage. But the girl forcibly took the girl away, threatening that the sky and the earth could not be reconciled. Many such incidents have been unfair to Dalits. No democratic, revolutionary leader speaks in this regard.</p> <p>56-year-old Savitra Kamini of Bajura district recently got citizenship under her old name. Being written in the citizenship certificate as a bitch did not suffer humiliation in the society. Sons and daughters were not even allowed to go to school because they insulted them {August 7, 2079, Kantipur}. It seems necessary to be aware of the situation where this kind of Hindu oppression can lead to violent activities in the society.This is a very popular song sung about the humiliation suffered by the Dalit caste in so-called Hindu upper class society. The singer of this song is Chhewang Lama. I find this song relevant in this research article. This song has raised a big question not only about the plight of Dalits but also about the rituals of Hindu society and our civilize modernity.</p> 2023-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC Baneshwor Multiple Campus