Asian Journal of Population Sciences <p>Asian Journal of Population Sciences is a peer-reviewed journal and indexed in NepJOL. The journal is published by Department of Population Studies, Prithvi Nayaran Campus, TU, Pokhara. Published on the annual basis, the journal covers a wide range of topics related to the field of social sciences that have interconnections with multidimensional aspects of human population, environment, development and sustainability.</p> Department of Population Sciences, Prithvi Narayan Campus en-US Asian Journal of Population Sciences 2822-1613 Remittances and Development: Mirage of Prosperity in Dalit Community of Kaski District <p>This article examines the propensities in international labour migration, remittances usage patterns and the influence of remittances on Dalit livelihood. Most Dalit groups of Nepal have their traditional occupational skills, but due to limited market access and the easy availability of cheap international products, their traditional occupations have been lost or threatened that has deteriorated livelihoods and the chances of development. Further, historic relegation, lower education levels, caste discrimination and sectarian hierarchy has curtailed better jobs opportunities in Nepal, compelling them to migrate abroad for work. Despite the role of remittances in alleviating caste/class discrimination and supporting family livelihoods, there has been a modest improvement in the human, educational and financial assets of Dalit households. The scenario of poor educational, economic, and human status, low participation in social and development sectors is evidence of the inability of remittances to solve livelihood problems. The rhetoric of permanent prosperity through foreign employment has proved a fiasco and a mirage of unsustainable prosperity rather than prospects of enduring genuine fortune. In the absence of productive and sustainable remittance use pattern, labour migration has become an addictive practice with high dependency on foreign labour and upsurge of consumerism that has created insecurity in livelihoods. A socioeconomic structural adjustment is mandatory to augment community economy along with human and social capital enrichment strategies that will pave the way to break the poverty and unemployment cycle. The prerequisites are the development and effective implementation of strategies that facilitate the maintenance of traditional skill-based jobs at home and policies using remittances.</p> Prakash Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2022 Prakash Upadhyay 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 1 10 10.3126/ajps.v1i1.43588 Prevalence and Some Correlates of Child Marriage in Kapilbastu District, Nepal <p>The study was carried out to examine the prevalence of child marriage before ages 20 and 18, some correlates of early marriage and prevalence of early birth as its consequence in Kapilbastu district, Nepal. The correlates of child marriage of young people (10-24 years), especially that of females were examined with some selected variables like caste/ethnicity, wealth status of household, rural-urban place of residence and education of young females. The study has used the data files of Child Marriage Baseline Survey 2016. The findings of the study are presented in percentages in cross tabulations and charts and significance of data is tested using chi-square with degrees of freedom from the contingency tables of frequency distribution at p≤0.001, p≤0.01 and p≤0.05 levels. The study found significantly higher proportion of young females than males marrying for the first time before ages 20 (23.6% vs. 9.6%, p&lt;0.001) and 18 (16.6% vs. 5.9%, p&lt;0.001). The prevalence of girl's marriage before age 20 is higher among certain caste/ethnic groups like ‘other’ category (36.8%), Dalits (31.9%), Terai/Madheshi (29.6%) castes. The findings are also significant at p&lt;0.001 from the contingency table of frequency distribution according to caste/ethnicity. More females living in the rural area than in urban were marred before ages 20 (26% vs. 19%) and 18 (19.8% vs. 10.3%). However, the data is not found significant at p=0.05 level. Similarly, the association between wealth status of household and early marriage was also not found significant at p=0.05 level. There is found negative association between age at first marriage of young females and level of their education, except for primary level of education, as the proportions of young females marrying before ages 20 and 18 declined with the increased level of education from no formal education (40.5% and 29.7% respectively) to secondary level (26.1% and 20.7% respectively) to higher than secondary level (15.1% and 1.9% respectively). The results are also significant at p&lt;0.001 level. The major and immediate consequences of early marriage are early pregnancy and childbirth. More than one-third females aged 20-24 years who married before 18 years of age, had given birth to a child before age 20 and one-in-ten had a birth within the first year of marriage.</p> Dhanendra Veer Shakya Copyright (c) 2022 Dhanendra Veer Shakya 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 11 22 10.3126/ajps.v1i1.43591 Disability Stigma and Discrimination in Nepal: A Study of Pokhara Metropolitan City <p>Stigma and discrimination attached to disability are not new phenomenon in Nepal. People, irrespective of disability status, have been aware of these phenomena since long history of human kind from socio-cultural perspectives prevalent in Nepalese society. In this context, people with disability have been facing stigma and discrimination in their family and society. There are tremendous disruptions in attaining quality of life of the people. However, there is a dearth of such studies attached to disability, especially in the present contexts of socio-cultural transformation and era of assistive devices. This study focuses on root causes of disability stigma and discrimination in people with disability in Pokhara Metropolitan City. It adopts qualitative research approach, following in-depth interview to people with disability using semi-structured questionnaires in the city. This study investigated that there are heavily loaded stigma and discrimination in people with disability, especially in women in-migrants in their place of origin. It concludes that gender, caste, class, and residence are intrinsically linked with the daily lives of the people. This study has important policy implications in reducing stigma and discrimination, and in attaining quality of lives of the people.</p> Ram Prasad Aryal Badri Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Ram Prasad Aryal, Badri Aryal 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 23 31 10.3126/ajps.v1i1.43592 Prevalence and Determinants of Anaemia among Women aged 15-49 in Nepal: A Trend Analysis from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys from 2006 to 2016 <p>Anaemia remains one of the major health problems throughout the world and is most common in underdeveloped or developing countries like Nepal. Most of the studies have presented and analysed the situation on a particular time basis that could be by chance. The paper intended to assess the trends of anaemia prevalence amongst reproductive-age women throughout the decade using nationally representative data. The study used the data from recent three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2006, 2011, and 2016. More than one third (36%, 35%, and 41% in NDHS 2006/2011/2016 respectively) of women of reproductive age were anaemic. Data showed inconsistent trends of anaemia prevalence among the surveys years. The situation of anaemia has not been improved. It was even worse in the latest NDHS 2016. Policymakers should reconsider, re-evaluate, and revise the intervention programmes applied to reduce anaemia.</p> Devaraj Acharya Ramesh Adhikari Padam Simkhada Copyright (c) 2022 Devaraj Acharya, Ramesh Adhikari, Padam Simkhada 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 32 48 10.3126/ajps.v1i1.43593 Adolescent Health: Changing Over Time in Nepal <p>This article aims to analyse the adolescent health with changing context of demography, access and use of family planning methods and reproductive health and national policies adopted by the Nepalese government. Adolescent is complex transitional phase and equally vulnerable too due to its tender nature, furthermore advancement of technology from local level to global level challenges to adulthood greater today than ever before where they are natured throughout traditional norms, values and practices. Reports of census and periodical national level surveys show some improvement on sexual and reproductive health as a whole but in terms of bridging gap between disparities still remains significant. Though, following the guidelines of international conferences for universal excess quality reproductive health services to all it is poor to address the issues of adolescent. To meet the mandates of Nepal’s policies and programmes need a broad understanding of the sexual and reproductive health as it is lower level of information in terms of places to obtain safe abortion. Adolescent has more aware about ANC and PNC but unmet need for contraception is higher than other age groups. After conditional legalization of abortion maternal mortality has decreased but still high. In contrast of government efforts to enhance CPR, it is constant over few last years. Early marriage is common in society in contrast of legal provision of lower age of marriage. Age at marriage is the most attributing factors to early sexual debut among Nepalese women. The trend of adolescent pregnancy seems to be decreasing but still exists as a great challenge to meet the target set by government.</p> Umakanta Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 Umakanta Pokhrel 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 49 57 10.3126/ajps.v1i1.43594 Community-Based Screening for Hypertension and Diabetes among Adults: Study of Western Nepal <p>Hypertension and diabetes are the major public health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in western Nepal. Community based cross-sectional screening was done among 142 adult populations aged 20–80 years with blood pressure and blood sugar tests with standard protocol. Adult population was selected as a sample for the study purposively. Among the total adults screened; 73.2 percent were females, 38 percent were the age group 40-59 years with mean standard deviation of age (50.26±17.74). Hypertension presents in 45.77 percent and diabetes 7.04 percent of the adults. More than half (55.26%) of the screened male and 47.11 percent of the screened females were at the hypertension stage II. Hypertension and diabetes is more prevalent in the ≥ 60 years’ adults compared to other age groups. Age and gender were significantly associated with hypertension (Χ<sup>2</sup> = 37.615, 7.915) <em>p </em>value &lt;0.05 respectively. Similarly, there is a significant association between age group and diabetes. Hypertension was found to be more common in comparison to diabetes in all screened adults. Males have a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes than females. Age and gender were significantly associated with hypertension. There is a need for early intervention because a remarkably increased number of adults were found to have hypertension.</p> Sharada Sharma Bobby Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Sharada Sharma, Bobby Thapa 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 58 65 10.3126/ajps.v1i1.43595 Knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among the girls in Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara <p>This study is carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among girl students studying in Janapriya Multiple Campus (JMC). A descriptive and analytical study design is used to assess the knowledge and practice of girl students of JMC. All the female students were the population and the sample size was 111 from 10 plus two level and bachelor level randomly. The quantitative data collected was analysed using SPSS for Windows version 16.0. Bi-variable analysis was carried out to identify factors related to the practice of menstruation and menstrual hygiene. There is no significant association between caste and use of absorbent (chi-square = 1.84 with a degree of freedom = 1 and p &gt; 0.05.). The majority had knowledge about the use of sanitary pads; however, a small proportion (15%) of them used old cloths and reused those clothes after washing again. One or more cultural taboos and restrictions were practiced related to menstruation. More than half of the respondents had the problem of performing religious rites, followed by those having problem of entry into the kitchen and were not allowed to use the same bed. However, a few (5.4%) had no problems at their homes. It was concluded that traditional taboos were still seen in the communities from where the students came. So, reproductive health related awareness programme should be launched on those communities.</p> Krishna Prasad Tripathi Copyright (c) 2022 Krishna Prasad Tripathi 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 66 76 10.3126/ajps.v1i1.43597