Adhyayan Journal <p>The Adhyayan Journal is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by the Research Management Cell of Mechi Multiple Campus, Bhadrapur, Nepal.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Ganga Prasad Adhikari) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Prevalence of Duesenberry’s Relative Income Hypothesis in Nepalese Economy <p>Present paper examines the prevalence of Duesenberry’s relative income hypothesis in Nepalese economy during 1974/75-2019/20 through ARDL bound tests under DEF and Davis-SK specifications. The ARDL under DEF specification is found to be not valid. However, the ARDL bound test under Davis-SK specification is found valid. There exists cointegration among average propensity to consume, demonstration effect and ratchet effect. The coefficient of demonstration effect is found to be negative and that of ratchet effect to be positive as reported by ARDL models. The error correction model also implies that short run shocks significantly affect long run relations among the variables. The departure from the long term growth path due to short run shocks is adjusted by 11.3 % over the next year as indicated by error correction model. This study throws some lights in policy perspective. It is recommended that government of Nepal should impose heavy tax on the consumption of durables and luxuries to discourage consumption and encourage rate of saving, which is most inevitable in Nepalese economy to foster growth of employment and income.</p> Rajendra Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Interest Income and Joint Income from Commission, Fee, and Discount on Nepalese Commercial Banks' Net Profit <p>The role of interest income and fee, commission, and discount income on the net profit of Nepalese commercial banks is investigated in this study. It also tries to find short- and long-term relationships between net profit and interest income, as well as income from fees, commissions, and discounts. The panel data of seven commercial banks are studied to look for correlations between dependent and independent variables from fiscal years 2010/11 to 2019/20. Panel unit root testing, Hausman specification test, fixed effect model, Pedroni (Engle-Granger based) co-integration test, Kao residual co-integration test, and Panel –fully modified least squares methods are used. The fixed-effect model can produce efficient outcomes, according to the Hausman test. The fixed-effect model reveals that interest income is significant in explaining commercial banks' net profit. The long-run connections between net profit and its two determinants, such as interest income and income from fee, commission, and discount income, have been discovered using both Pedroni and Kao's co-integration tests. Similarly, the fully modified least square (FMOLS) panel ensures long-term relationships between variables. Both independent factors have a substantial impact on the net profit of Nepalese commercial banks. Commercial banks' net profit is heavily reliant on the interest income from borrowers. The net profit of commercial banks in Nepal increases by 0.466 units for every unit rise in interest income. As a result, authorities must look for alternative ways to boost net profit since issues might arise if the central bank narrows the difference between the depositary and lending interest rates.</p> Arjun Kumar Dahal Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematics as a Career Desire: A Survey of Students among Mechi Multiple Campus <p>The purpose of this study was to find out how Mechi Multiple Campus students feel about mathematics as a career option. The study was conducted using a descriptive research approach. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data from a random sample of 435 pupils. To arrive at a conclusion, the data was processed using the mean and standard deviation. The findings suggest that pupils were not interested in pursuing mathematics as a career. Students would rather pursue professions in disciplines other than math. They were also hesitant to spend adequate time, effort, and determination to improve their mathematic skills.</p> Binod Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Transnational Identity in Thapa’s Seasons of Flight <p>This article focuses on the transnational identity of Nepali immigrants in America through the representative character of Prema in Manjushree Thapa’s novel, <em>Season of Flight</em>. The finding of the article is that transnational identity of immigrants is unstable and fluid. This instability and fluidity result in crossing the border from one nation to the next. Transnationalism is the process of globalization where immigrant adopts foreign culture and retains the roots simultaneously. Although immigrant has to undergo alienation and frustration in the host land, he/she prefers to live there because of immense freedom and liberty. The researcher has focused on the cultural aspect of immigrants living in transnational space, and hybridity as a theory has been applied to interpret and analyze the text.</p> Punya Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Wild Animals Maintained in Jamunkhadi Mini Zoo, Conservation Status, and their Occurrence in Jhapa District, Nepal <p>The Jamunkhadi Mini Zoo has been in operation for 15 years and has maintained various species of wild animals, although the majority of them are either unidentified or misidentified on their species labels. Publications revealing the occurrence of wild animals in the Jhapa District are scanty. This study identifies wild animals maintained at the Jamunkhadi Mini Zoo and surveys its place of collection. A wild animal survey form was filled with the officials of the Jamunbari Community Forest and its zookeepers. High-resolution photographs of all the wild animals in the mini zoo were taken and identified with the help of relevant species identification guide books and experts in the various wildlife disciplines. A field survey was carried out by a team of 3-5 researchers to confirm the occurrence of indigenous wild animals in the forests of Jhapa. A total of 28 species of wild animals comprised of six reptile species, seven bird species, and 15 mammal species are identified and listed at the Jamunkhadi Mini Zoo. Of the 28 species maintained at the zoo, 9 (32.14%) are listed as globally threatened; whereas 15 species (53.57%) are listed as nationally threatened, and of those 28 species, 26 are confirmed to occur in the Jhapa. The Leopard Cat, <em>Prionailurus bengalensis </em>has probable habitat in the northern forests that connect with Ilam District in the south. The Sloth Bear, <em>Melursus ursinus </em>has not been recorded in Jhapa.</p> Tapil Prakash Rai Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 'स्मृतिको पर्खालभित्र' नाटकमा अभिघात {Trauma in the play Smritiko Parkhalbhitra} <p>स्मृतिका पर्खालभित्र नाटकमा अभिघात शीर्षकका प्रस्तुत लेख सो नाटकका पात्रद्वय महेश्वर र किशोरीका चरित्रमा उत्पन्न मानसिक पीडामा आधारित छ । यसमा मनोविज्ञानका अनुसार व्यक्तिमा उत्पन्न हुने मानसिक चोटद्वारा विकसित पात्रका अस्वस्थकर व्यवहारको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यहां आवेशमा गल्ती गर्दा उत्पन्न भएको मानसिक चोट वा पीडाद्वारा प्रताडित अवस्था कति घातक हुन्छ भन्ने कुरा यस नाटकका पात्र महेश्वरको चरित्रले देखाएको छ । ललितको हत्या गरी उसकी श्रीमती विवाह गरेर गएपछि हत्याको रहस्य खुल्ने&nbsp; त्रासले केही समयपछि शर्मिलालाई पनि नफर्किने गरी भारततिर&nbsp;पठाएको प्रसङगका स्मरणले यस नाटकको पात्र महेश्वरलाई अभिघातका घाउले&nbsp; पोल्दछ । ललितका तस्विर देख्दा पूर्वस्मृतिका घटना र अपराधले सताएर मद्यपान गर्दासमेत अभिघातका पीडा बढदै गएर ऊ किशोरीलाई नै पे्रमिका ठानी सम्बोधन गर्दछ । किशोरी आमाको व्यभिचारी प्रवृत्तिका कारण आपूmहरू पिताका स्नेहबाट वञ्चित भएको ठानी अभिघातको पीडाबाट सताइएकी छ । पस्तुत लेख विषयपरिचय, अध्ययन विधि, अभिघात, कथापसङ्, स्मृतिको पर्खालभित्र अभिघात, महेश्वर, किशोरी, निष्कर्षजस्ता उपशीर्षकका विषय विश्लेषण सहित सङगठित गरिएको छ भने महेश्वर हत्या बोधबाट प्रताडित भएका र किशोरीलाइ मातृस्नेहका अभावले शर्मिला (आमा) प्रति नकारात्मक भावना विकसित भएको छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।&nbsp;</p> <p>{Smritiko Parkhalbhitra is based on the mental agony of two characters Maheshwar and Kishori.<br>It analyzes the unhealthy behavior of the characters developed due to psychological trauma. The<br>character of Maheshwar, the protagonist of this play, has shown how fatal the condition is due to<br>the mental injury or pain caused by making a mistake in passion. Maheshwar, the protagonist of<br>this play, is traumatized by the memory of the incident in which Sharmila was sent to India after<br>some time for fear of revealing the secret of the murder after killing Lalit and marrying his wife.<br>When he sees Lalit's picture, he addresses Kishori, as his beloved because of psychological<br>suppression of his guilt of killing Lalit. Kishori is tormented by the trauma of thinking that she<br>has been deprived of her father's affection due to her mother’s adulterous tendencies. The article<br>is presented from the perspective of trauma theory that analyses Maheshwar who is filled with<br>guilt for his murderous act and Kishori who has a negative feeling towards her mother Sharmila<br>for being deprived of motherly affection and love in her life. }</p> ठाकुरपसाद ThakurPrasad पोखे्रल Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Employment Generation in Nepalese Economy <p>This study aims to analyze the impact of FDI on employment generation in industrial sector of Nepal for the period of 1990-2020. For analyzing the impact of FDI, the econometric analysis likes OLS, unit root, co-integration, vector autoregressive model and Granger causality are undertaken. Results of unit root test are not stationary in level but stationary after first differenced. The result of co-integration test indicates that there is no co-integration between foreign direct investment and employment generation. This means a long-run co-integration relation between variable does not exist. The result of Granger causality test shows there is no bidirectional causality between these variables. It is seen that due to the negligible and flexible amount of FDI in Nepal, there is no long-run relationship between FDI and employment generation.</p> Khagendra Kumar Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Inflation Caused by Remittance in Nepalese Economy <p>Present paper aims at identifying the impact of remittance on inflation in Nepalese economy through econometric methodology such as Cointegration test, Vector Error Correction Models (VECM) and Granger Causality tests. Using annual data series from 1990/91 to 2018/19, the variables under study are found to be cointegrated as reported by Johansen’s cointegration test. The VECM also shows the short run and long run relationship between the variables. The Granger Causality test shows the uni-directional causality from remittance to inflation. Present paper focuses on the emphasis of using remittance on capital formation. The returned migrants are to be provided soft loans to establish domestic and small-scale industries. The returned migrants are to be encouraged to forced saving.</p> Netra Prasad Nepal Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 गीतको पहिचान तथा माधव घिमिरेको ‘नेपालै नरहे’ गीति कविता {Identification of song and Madhav Ghimire's lyrical poetry "Nepalai Narahe" } <p>प्रस्तुत लेख कवि तथा गीतकार माधव धिमिरे (१९७६—२०७७)का ‘किन्नरकिन्नरी’ गीत सङग्रहमा सङकलित गीतहरूमध्येएउटा गीत (गीति कविता) नेपाल नरहेसँग सम्बद्ध छ । यसलेख नपालै नरहे गीति कवितामा पाइने राष्टियताका भावनाका अध्ययनसंग सम्बन्धित छ । उक्त गीति कविता मुख्य गरी राष्ट र राष्ट्रियताको विषयवस्तुमा आधारित रहेकालेसोही अनुसार यस गीति कवितामा प्रयुक्त पद–पदावलीका व्याख्या र विश्लेषण गर्दै यस गीति कवितामा पाइने गीतकारकाराष्टियताप्रति रहेका भावनाका खोजी गरिएको छ । यहां&nbsp; गीतमा प्रयुक्त पद तथा पदावलीहरूका विश्लेषण गर्दै भाषापरकअध्ययनलाई अध्ययनका सैद्धान्तिक आधार बनाई गीति कवितामा देशभक्तिको भावना कसरी व्यक्त भएको छ भन्नेआधारबाट अध्ययन गरिएको छ । मुख्य रूपले व्याख्या विश्लषणात्मक विधिबाट अध्ययन गरिएको यस लेखमा योकविता राष्टियताको भावनाले ओतप्रोत भएको गीति कविता हो भन्ने निष्कर्ष दिइएको छ ।</p> <p>{The present article is related to one of the songs (lyric poetry) compiled in the song collection<br>'Kinnarkinnari' by the poet and lyricist Madhav Ghimire (1976-2077). Therefore, this article is<br>related to the study of the sense of nationalism found in Nepali lyrical poetry. As the lyric poem<br>is mainly based on the theme of nation and nationality, the lyricist's sentiments towards<br>nationality are explored in this lyric poem by interpreting and analyzing the phrases used in this<br>lyric poem. Here, by analyzing the terms and phrases used in the song, linguistic study has been<br>made as the theoretical basis of the study and the study has been done on the basis of how the<br>feeling of patriotism has been expressed in this lyric poetry. In this article, which has been<br>studied mainly through interpretive and analytical method, it has been concluded that this poem<br>is a lyric poem full of nationalism.}</p> देवीप्रसाद Deviprasad आचार्य Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Invalidation, Desire and Destruction in Willa Cather’s Paul Case <p>Willa Cather’s short story “Paul’s Case” depicts how constant reproaches and invalidation of parents and teachers make an adverse effect on a child’s personality growth that might lead to tragic end of life. Paul, a motherless child, is suspended from the class and is brought in front of the inquisition jury at the office of Pittsburg High School for his clarification of his ill manners. He could not satisfy the jury the reasons for his manners and they suggest his father not to let Paul to work in the concert where he works as an usher. Then his father finds him a job in a business office from which he steals money and goes to New York. There he spends money lavishly but as the amount lowers and he comes to know that his father is coming to receive, he fears to meet him and commits suicide. This article explores how constant reproaches and invalidation mar the personality of a child from humanistic psychological perspective. Carl Roger’s Humanistic perspective of personality growth assumes that a child possesses full potentials for his or her growth and if he or she is given appropriate environment for his growth, he experiences full growth. But the social or familial imposition of their obligations mar the growth and sometimes such obligations lead to death of a child. Paul, who is suppressed and invalidated at home and at school uses concert as a place to comfort. As his father does not let him work there, he finds no palace to ease him. In the desperate mood, he steals money and spends lavishly for sometimes. But the thought of meeting his father distresses him so much that he finds no other ways than committing suicide.</p> Dinesh Kumar Poudel Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Taxonomic notes on Some Species of Genus Urochloa from Nepal <p>The purpose of this paper is to study <em>Urochloa </em>species and update information on the genus in light of recent changes in the taxonomy of the Poaceae family. <em>Urochloa </em>is popularly known as para grass. Disease-free specimens were collected and their morphological features, such as roots, stems, leaves, and floral parts, were studied. Herbarium specimens from KATH were also examined. Five species of <em>Urochloa</em>, namely, <em>Urochloa subquadripara, U. distachya, U. kurzii, U. ramosa, and U. villosa, </em>were studied. As per observation, taxonomic notes, illustrations, and keys were made.</p> Ajay Neupane, Bikram Jnawali Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Centre (RMC) , Mechi Multiple Gampus Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000