Adhyayan Journal <p>The Adhyayan Journal is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by the Research Management Cell of Mechi Multiple Campus, Bhadrapur, Nepal.</p> RMC, Mechi Multiple Campus en-US Adhyayan Journal 2091-2722 Temperature-Dependence of Mixing Properties of Cu-Ti Liquid Alloy <p>In this study, the temperature-dependence of thermodynamic and surface properties of Cu-Ti binary liquid alloy were studied. In thermodynamic properties, excess Gibbs free energy of mixing, enthalpy of mixing, excess entropy of mixing, and activity of the system were computed at 1873 K. The surface properties were analyzed by computing the surface tension and surface concentration of the system. Thermodynamic properties were computed in the framework of the Redlich-Kister polynomial, and the surface properties were computed using the Butler model. At its melting point, the system exhibited a tendency for the formation of compounds, and as the Cu concentration was increased, the surface tension of the system gradually decreased. The excess Gibbs free energy of mixing, activity and surface tension of the system were also computed at different temperatures, in the range 1873-2173 K. With the increase in temperature of the system, the compound forming tendency of the system gradually decreased.</p> D.K. Sah D. Adhikari S.K. Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 1 10 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57306 Does the Income from Tourism and Remittances Really Matter for Economic Growth? Evidence from the Nepalese Economy <p>This study investigates the effects of tourism and remittances on Nepal's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It is based on secondary information acquired from Nepal's several economic surveys and publications from the Nepal Rastra Bank. It spans 34 fiscal years, from 1987/88 through 2020/21. The study employs descriptive and exploratory research designs.Descriptive statistics, unit root testing, Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, ARDL bound testing approach, heteroscedasticity test, serial correlation test, and CUSUM and CUSUM squares test of stability analysis are some econometrics instruments utilized.The GDP, remittances, and income from tourism are found to be correlated over the long term. In the long run, remittances and tourism revenue increase Nepal's GDP, but there is no discernible effect in the short run. The GDP increased by 0.794 and 0.157 percent for every one percent increase in tourist and remittance income. Therefore, the impact of tourism income is more significant than the impact of remittance income on GDP. Therefore, policymakers can employ tourism to promote Nepal's long-term economic growth.</p> Arjun Kumar Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 11 23 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57344 Stock Market Performance during Covid-19 Lockdown : A Descriptive Analysis of Nepal Stock Exchange <p>This article aims to investigate how the Nepalese stock market behaved during the government-imposed closure to combat COVID 19. In order to analyze the secondary data from March 2020 to September 2021, the time period was divided into three parts: first part is the first lockdown period, second part is the time following the first lockdown and the time before the second lockdown, and the third part is the second lockdown period. The Nepse Index was used as the dependent variable in an OLS regression, while the sub-indices were used as the independent variables. To reduce the issue of heteroscedasticity, all the study variables were transformed into their natural logarithmic forms. Since the study's variables were time series data, the stationarity test was also carried out to produce reliable OLS regression findings. The findings show that the lockdown imposed by the government owing to COVID 19 caused a sharp decline in the share price of all indices on the Nepalese stock market. However, as soon as the lockdown was released, the market began to recover, and the share values began to rise significantly. The findings show that banking and non-life insurance have a significant positive impact on Nepse performance over all three periods, even if the impact of finance was never felt during the study <br />period. Using the study's informative data, investors can manage their share portfolio in unexpected and bad circumstances.</p> Sagar Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 24 33 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57346 Unmet Contraceptive Need among Currently Married Adolescents in Nepal <p>Nepal has a remarkably high adolescent fertility rate with low use of contraception. A high level of unmet need for contraception persists among currently married young women in Nepal. Evidence about the unmet need for family planning and its associated factors has not been deeply analyzed in the Nepalese context yet. Therefore, this study investigates the prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning among currently married adolescent women in Nepal. It is an analytical cross-sectional study through secondary data analysis of the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey women data-file. This study is carried out on 704 currently married women aged 15-19 years. Selected independent variables are cross-tabulated with the dependent variable to analyze where the Chi-square test is applied to test the significance of the association between these two variables. This study shows that the total unmet need for family planning among adolescent women is 34 percent is much higher than the current national unmet need for family planning is 23 percent among all women of reproductive age by the NDHS 2016. The study reveals that several adolescents have a higher unmet need for family planning by different background characteristics in Nepal. Hence, it is necessary to focus on strengthening women's status by improving their socio-economic condition. That enables them to discuss sexual issues openly. Family planning programs need to design to address the unmet need of young women, especially needy adolescents.</p> Suma Sedhai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 34 41 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57349 Spiritual Quest of the Protagonist in Jack Kerouac’s The Dharma Bums <p>This article deals about the spiritual journey of Ray Smith to attain enlightenment with which he aims to bring salvation to all beings. As the guidelines of the journey is from Mahayana Buddhism, the seeker devotes his time in the activities apparently following the scripture. On his way ahead the seeker achieves the mental solace, arrives in the state of detachment. But as the seeker makes many appropriations to the religion, takesas alternative path to the corporate culture with the hope whereindividuals can live and grow free of sufferings. As a result, the journey does not yield the fruit as the seeker intends. The article focuses on ways the seeker strives and the outcome of the effort.</p> Dinesh Kumar Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 43 47 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57351 Evaluation of Business Model of E-Wallets of Nepal <p>This article is intended to evaluate business model elements adopted by Nepalese e-wallets and to find out weak points in its implementation. This article also suggests ways to reduce any loss through which they are running through proper mathematical interpretation. Grey-TOPSIS method is a mathematical interpretation tool that can be used to analyze raw data. The limitation of this research is that it is based on costumer’s opinion rather than being based on company’s data. Though the output of result may vary from one costumer to another, sample population taken into consideration in research have shown that the reason behind loss of e-wallets is lack of proper identification of revenue stream by entrepreneurs. Besides revenue streams, e-wallets should also prioritize their focus on their key activities, customer segmentation, key resources, value proposition, cost structure, key partners and external relationships respectively. The success of e-wallets is not far away if they prioritize their activities as per these findings.</p> Ghan Shyam Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 48 53 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57352 Antardvandva: in Urvashi Khandakavya <p>This article examines the development of conflict in the characters of Siddhicharan Shrestha's Urvashi Khandakavya. Urvashi was captivated by Arjun's brilliance and courage after he reached Indralok, who was in exile, and she was attracted by his arrival. She intends to accomplish her mission by entering Arjuna's bedroom in a state of desire. Khandakavya is based on the context of Arjuna, who is on the verge of attaining the goals of truth, justice, and victory by mastering his senses. Due to Arjuna and Urvashi's divergent aspirations, conflict has developed in the Khandakavya. Based on subheadings, this article analyzes the topic introduction, conflict theory, historical context of conflict, categories of conflict, conflict in Urvashi Khandakavya, positive-positive conflict, negative-negative conflict, positive-negative conflict, etc. What kinds of problems do the poem's protagonists face? The conclusion has been reached that there is a contradiction between poetry and the academic problem-solving endeavor.</p> Thakur Prasad Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 54 62 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57353 Amale Sodhlin Ni Khoi Choro Bhano : Context analysis of the song <p>This article examines the context of the song Amale Sodhlin Ni Khoi Choro Bhano. Physical, personal, and cognitive context have been chosen as the primary research problems for this article. This article is a library work that was compiled using a qualitative research methodology and analytic framework. It is based on a theoretical analysis of reference analysis. Contextual analysis is a discipline that analyzes text based on the context that language creates in a linguistic structure that is higher than the paragraph level. In the presented song compilation, the counter-revolution, which has been continuously dynamic since the 2007 political change in Nepal, and the memories of a war-wounded soldier before his death are depicted.</p> Anil Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 63 71 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57354 The Phonetic, Grammatical, and Semantic Structure of Professor Sharma's Diary Poem <p>This research paper presents a structural analysis of the poet BiplavDhakal's poem Professor Sharma's Diary. Structuralism is a movement that arose in the intellectual activity of Europe and France during the 1950s and 1960s of the 20th century. It is a system devised in the fields of language, culture, society, and literature, among others. In this method, when studying literature, neither society, culture, politics, history, etc. outside the work are studied, but rather the structural components of the work's creation and their mutual relationship are. While studying a work, it has developed the practice of objectively criticizing it by analyzing its form-structure, linguistic structure, environment (country, time, and circumstance), etc. Therefore, the meaning of the above-mentioned critical poem has been conveyed through structural analysis. Since attempting to encompass the breadth of knowledge in a limited diary is fundamentalism, it has been determined that the current teaching method should be revised and a new knowledge horizon should be established. It has established BiplavDhakal as a visionary poet capable of expressing contemporary issues in poetry effectively.</p> Tulasi Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Centre (RMC), Mechi Multiple Campus 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 72 78 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57357 Comparison of Rajvanshi and Nepali languages on the basis of sentences <p>In this research article, the sentence structure of the Rajvanshi language is compared to that of the Nepali language, and their similarities and differences are examined. This article is based on qualitative field and library research. This article's information was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. For this purpose, primary data was gathered from Rajwansi native speakers in three distinct Jhapa district locations, and secondary data was gathered from Rajwansi and Nepali language grammar and language (especially Rajwansi language) writings. Thus, the available facts have been interpreted and analyzed using the descriptive method and comparative analysis as a theoretical foundation. The conclusion of this study is that the construction process (structural structure) of all sentence categories (simple sentences, complex sentences containing infinitive verbs, compound sentences, and mixed sentences) in the Rajwanshi and Nepali languages is identical.</p> Devi Prasad Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 79 85 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57399 Contrastive analyses of the Nepali and Newari languages <p>This article concentrates on analyzing the differences between Nepali and Newari using the method of contrastive analysis. Consequently, the conclusion reached by analyzing the differences between the phonological, grammatical, and semantic aspects of the Nepali and Newari languages is presented in this article using the comparative and analytic methods provided by the difference analysis method. When it is difficult for a native speaker to learn a second language, the difference between the two languages is greater, and when it is smaller, it is simpler for him to learn the difference. Based on this supposition, it appears difficult for a native Newari speaker to learn Nepali and a native Nepali speaker to learn Newari, as there are more differences than similarities between these two languages. By identifying the phonological, grammatical, and semantic differences between these two languages and by identifying the errors caused by these differences, as well as by implementing measures to correct the errors, it is very simple for Newari native speakers to learn Nepali and for Nepali native speakers to learn Newari.</p> Prem Prasad Chaulagain Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 10 86 97 10.3126/aj.v10i10.57400