Advances in Engineering and Technology: An International Journal <p>Advances in Engineering and Technology: An International Journal is a double-blind peer-reviewed open access journal published by the Cosmos College of Management and Technology, Lalitpur, Nepal.</p> <p>This journal receives submission any time throughout the year and the editorial process runs continuously.</p> <p>Currently, the journal editorial is receiving submissions for Vol 4 Issue 1, 2024. </p> en-US <p>All the materials published in the journal are freely accessible to all. Reproduction of the part or entire content is allowed only when written consent from the publisher is obtained. Citation should be provided while reusing the contents. Furthermore, one can reproduce and distribute the published contents for non-for-profit educational purpose.</p> (Dr. Pawan Kumar Bhattarai ) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 15 Dec 2023 09:45:31 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of masonry wall on Strength and Ductility in common RC frame low storey buildings <p>The Nepal National Building code (NBC) was promulgated in 2003 and is divided into four different parts in order to cover buildings constructed in Nepal. NBC 105 has undergone a major update in 2020 with its repercussions on existing prevalent buildings. So, in this paper effort has been made to understand municipal drawings submitted to municipalities constructed with current prevalent building construction practice with column size of 300mm x 300mm, 300mm x 230mm and 230mm x 230mm. Moreover, effects of masonry infill are considered with a separate model considering an equivalent strut as per IS 1893:2016. Ten sample buildings were selected after a rigorous sampling process of over 5000 municipal drawings to represent typical buildings. Non-linear static pushover analysis was conducted on those ten buildings and twenty models. There has been an increase in the over-strength factor of the buildings while there was reduction in ductility factor of the buildings. Equations are proposed based on non-linear regression analysis to determine the changes in over-strength and ductility factor of the buildings.</p> Anup Poudel, Rajan Suwal Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Parametric performance assessment of RC columns retrofitted by CFRP <p>Retrofitting deficient columns requires meticulous efforts and most of the retrofitting techniques gravely increase the size of the member. Many studies have performed numerical and experimental studies regarding the performance of various retrofitting techniques. However, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) as a retrofitting technique is seldom considered in parametric studies so as to quantify the axial load and maximum stress capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. To this end, we perform parametric analysis considering variation in load eccentricities and no. of CFRP plies. Finite element modeling is conducted to assess the performance of non-retrofitted and CFRP retrofitted columns. We conclude that CFRP retrofitting significantly increases axial load as well as stress capacity of RC columns even for eccentric loading. .</p> Abhishek Budhathoki, Bhupendra Joshi, Bigyan Acharya, Basanta Baral, Arjun Poudel, Dipendra Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Geochemical, Mineralogical Properties and Industrial Applicability of Kaolin in Isan Ekiti, Nigeria <p>This study investigates geochemical and mineralogical property of kaolin in Isan Ekiti state, using X-Ray fluorescence and X-Ray diffractometer. The X – Ray Fluorescence of Samples is the major indicator, shows that the percentage Silicon oxide (SiO2) for both samples ranges from 50.35% to 49.76% with an average of 50.055%, Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) ranges from 24.02% to 27.25% with an average of 25.6%, Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) ranges from 3.42% to 5.14%, with an average of 4.28%, Magnesium Oxide (MgO) ranges from 4.54% to 4.24% with an average of 4.38%, Calcium oxide from 0.67% to 0.63% with an average of 0.65%, and Potassium Oxide range from 3.97 to 2.47, with an average of 3.22%. The Results of X – Ray diffractometer for samples shows that Quartz has its peak at (34.65, 2.70, 2.01 and 2.75) 2Ө values for a sample while a sample was also identified at (32.57, 3.81, 2.23 and 1.65) 2Ө values. Kaolinite has its peak at (8.82, 4.13, 4.01, 2.84, 4.22, 4.52and 1.43) 2Ө values for a sample while another sample was also identified at (8.78,4.61, 4.42, 3.63, 6.29, 4.84 and 1.52) 2Ө values. The Anatase also has its at (4.76 and 2.32) 2Ө values for a sample while a sample was also identified at (3.64 and 3.75) 2Ө values. The Kaolinite in the samples ranges from 29.97% to 34.09% with an average of 32.03%, when compared with standard parameter, its suitable and can be used in coated paper, and when properly beneficiated, will be applicable in grades of ceramic production.</p> Olatunji K.J., Muhammed J., Olanrewaju D.M. Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Flood Risk Mapping of Kamla River Basin using HEC-RAS 2D Model <p>Flood is a natural disaster that occurs repeatedly in Nepal and causes significant losses in terms of life and property particularly in low land areas around the river courses. Kamla basin is highly susceptible to flooding and had experienced many disastrous floods in the past. Flood mitigation measures generally consists of two main methods which are structural and non-structural methods. Nowadays, the importance of using nonstructural method such as flood hazard map and flood risk map are increasing because of environmental and economic aspects. In this study, the assessment of flood hazard and risk was carried out for Kamla River basin. Floods are simulated using the HEC-RAS 2D hydraulic model. The flood hazard map was prepared using the simulation result by classifying into four hazard level, corresponding to different inundation depth. The exposed elements considered for the vulnerability assessments are building, population and agriculture area. Finally, to evaluate the flood risk, a flood risk map of wards under the study area was prepared for 25year,50year and 100-year return period flood events based on the product of flood hazard and vulnerability weightage. The study’s findings may help in the planning and management of Kamla River flood plain region to avoid future likely disasters.</p> Birendra Pandit, Pawan Bhattarai, Pawan Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Flow physics of air pollutants dispersion: A case study in an urban street canyon in Baghbazar, Kathmandu <p>The alarming increase of hazardous pollutants in South Asian cities such as Kathmandu, Delhi, Mumbai, Dhaka, etc. risks the life of every individual there. A major source in the production of such harmful pollutants is vehicles and industries. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is proposed to model the pollutants emitted by vehicles using different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in the street canyon setup. The primary aim of the study is to understand the effect of turbulence on the transport of gaseous pollutants in the street canyon. RNG k − ϵ model performed best among other turbulence models with mean FB -0.105, NMSE 0.045, FAC2 0.915 and R 0.93 which is validated with the experimental data. Higher wind speeds allowed the concentration to disperse more effectively in Baghbazar’s street canyon, resulting in lower concentrations of pollutants.</p> Biraj Khadka, Binayak Lohani, Arun Bikram Thapa, Bibek Parajuli, Neeraj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The reliability of the standard deviation bid method for awarding construction contracts <p>This study examines the complex test of observing to time, cost, and quality factors when executing construction projects in developing countries, which frequently becomes more difficult by awarding projects based on low bids. By compared to collusion implications and e-bidding benefits using the standard deviation bid and average bid methods, the study provides light on critical aspects. An examination of contracts in Nepal’s Gandaki province between 2018 and 2022 yields interesting results. When there is no collusion, both bidding methods produce similar results. The average bid method, on the other hand, is subject to collusion, whereas the standard deviation bid method is not. To address the constraints associated with low bids, a cautious recommendation for the average bid method is made, along with vigilance against collusion. The standard deviation bid method, on the other hand, emerges as an effective obstacle to collusive behavior. To enhance the bid procedures, the study encourages for additional qualification criteria such as financial weighting and enhanced performance bonds. These amendments to Nepal’s Public Procurement Act (PPA) and Public Procurement Regulation (PPR) of 2007 are intended to address issues raised by low bids. The importance of e-bidding practices is highlighted for digital transformation and corruption prevention. The study emphasizes the importance of putting in place mechanisms to detect collusion across bid selection methods. The research concludes with an invitation for experimental exploration of the Standard Deviation Bidding Method (SDBM), with an evaluation of its efficiency across time, cost, and quality domains. This investigation has the potential to reveal the best bid selection methodology for construction projects.</p> Sudarshan Tiwari, Madhav Prasad Koirala, Santosh Kumar Shrestha, Om Prakash Giri Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation on the Suitability of Metamorphosed Granite in Ilorin Nigeria for Road Construction and Polished Rock <p>The suitability of metamorphosed granite for road construction and polished rock were investigated. Samples were taken from zones of Man Hardi Quarry Ilorin using random sampling method. The samples were subjected to different test namely, chemical analysis, polish value, oxidation properties, compressive strength and hardness test. The average chemical analysis shows the silica contents for samples from zones A, B and C are 67.73%, 73.62% and 72.40% respectively, specific gravity obtained are 4.52, 4.80 and 3.60 for zones A, B and C. The oxidation properties test reported, with no peeling was observed, the polish stone value (psv) test for the samples showed result of good abrasiveness and produced attractive colour; the values for zones A, B and C are 90.88, 97.36 and 93.71 while respectively compressive strength test estimation obtained were 142.37, 201.62 and 164.62 MPa for samples from zones A, B and C. The Hardness test values are 85.59, 96.84 and 88.11 respectively. Hence, the value obtained from the investigation on the suitability of metamorphosed granites for road construction and polish rock shows that they are good for road constructional and production of polished stoneworks.</p> Olatunji K.J., Kamilu D.O., Oladiti A.G, Akanji F.A., Dauda H.O., Ibrahim A.O., Abubakar A.A., Kolawole M.F. Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prediction of Compromised IoT Infrastructure Using Machine Learning <p>The rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to big advancements in Fog Computing, Smart Cities, and Industry 4.0. These areas handle complex data and need strong protection against cyberattacks. To make IoT devices use power more efficiently, the IETF created the RPL protocol (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks). However, due to its sophisticated design it is vulnerable to attacks. One of the most successful attacks against this protocol is flooding attacks, which leads to resource exhaustion in nodes. Consequently, there is a pressing need for new security methods. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of readily accessible, comprehensive, and organized datasets specifically tailored for IoT, as well as benchmark datasets, to train and assess machine learning models. Therefore, the primary focus of this research is on creating new labeled IoT-specific datasets with the COOJA simulator and processing these packets with machine learning algorithms. Decision Tree, Random Forest, K-Nearest Neighbor and Artificial Neural Network algorithms were compared for identifying the Flooding Attacks. The average accuracy obtained for each of the above algorithm is 89.24%, 91.128%, 89.25% and 89.73% respectively.</p> Babu R. Dawadi, Anish Sharma, Yuba Raj Shiwakoti Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Labor Productivity in Bricklaying Operation of Building Construction in Surkhet, Nepal <p>The development of the nation’s infrastructure depends heavily on the construction industry. The entire labor productivity during the project has a significant impact on construction productivity. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the origins and consequences of labor productivity in the context of the Nepalese construction industry. The methodology involved in conducting the research is the formation of the problem statement, developing research objectives, literature review, data collection, data analysis, conclusion, and recommendations. The data for this research is collected by a literature review as well as a questionnaire and physical observations of building construction. The literature review helped to identify several elements that have an impact on labor productivity. To determine the factors that influenced labor productivity the most, a questionnaire survey was undertaken with a Likert scale. The required information was then produced by processing, analyzing, and interpreting the data using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software tools. The Cronbach’s Alpha value was computed using SPSS to measure the internal consistency and found to be 0.976 which shows the better reliability of the research and data collection. From the study, we can conclude that the results obtained from the relative importance index (RII), mean response analysis (MRA), and sensitivity analysis through Artificial Neural Network (ANN) meets the same conclusion as the highest influencing factor affecting labor productivity is ‘Material related factors’ followed by ‘Leadership related factors’, ‘Manpower related factors’, and the last ‘Other factors’.</p> Bijay Rana, Socrates Bhattarai Sharma, Uttam Neupane, Santosh Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Change in Landslide susceptibility over time in the central Himalayan region: A case study of Siddhababa Area <p>The susceptibility analysis is common for the study of landslides in the Himalayas, considering different invariant causative factors. This study’s objective is to examine changes in landslide susceptibility within the Siddhababa area by conducting analyses across various time intervals. This area in western Nepal is prone to landslides due to hilly terrain, steep slopes, complex geology, diverse vegetation cover, and extreme weather conditions. This study examines 281 landslides in an area of approximately 257.38 km2, considering 12 causative factors, including three variable factors such as land use, distance to the road, and precipitation, for three different study periods: 2005–2010, 2010–2015, and 2015–2020. For the three study periods, susceptibility analysis, validation, and mapping were performed to prepare susceptibility maps of the study area. The maps were divided into five levels, ranging from very low to very high. The findings show that the high and very high susceptibility levels have increased from 13% to 41% over time, respectively. The changes in the likelihood of landslides are due to both invariant and variable factors such as human activities and climate playing a significant role in altering the susceptibility of the area over time. It is, therefore, essential to comprehend these factors to develop appropriate strategies for mitigating and adapting to the risks posed by landslides and other natural hazards.</p> Indu Gyawali, Birasa Malla, Khem Nath Poudyal, Bhim Kumar Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact Study of the Hetauda-Dhalkewar-Inaruwa Transmission Line on the Operation of Integrated Nepal Power System <p>Despite Nepal’s abundant hydroelectric resources, a substantial disparity exists between its electricity supply and demand. This discrepancy is exacerbated by the absence of high-voltage transmission lines, hindering efficient power evacuation from a handful of generating plants. This not only incurs financial losses for the utility but also compromises the reliability of the power supply. A prime example is the protracted delay in the construction of the 576 KM long Hetauda-Dhalkebar-Inaruwa 400kV double-circuit Transmission Line, primarily due to challenges posed by local residents unwilling to relinquish their land.The Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS) heavily relies on power generation concentrated in the central mid-hills region. The construction of the Hetauda-Dhalkebar-Inaruwa (HDITL) 400kV double-circuit Transmission Line is crucial for routing power to industrialize these areas, potentially bolstering the national GDP and generating employment opportunities. Furthermore, it is essential to connect the current hydropower output of around 2300 MW to the INPS system via a high-voltage transmission line to maximize its utilization.</p> <p>The HDITL project not only reduces line losses but also enhances grid stability. It facilitates energy export and direct transmission of high-generation power, such as the 456 MW from Upper Tamakoshi, thus saving approximately 400 MW of power and preventing losses for both the Government of Nepal (GoN) and the Nepal Electricity Authority.</p> <p>This research not only calculates the reduction in power and energy losses with the commissioning of HDITL but also assesses its monetary benefits. Utilizing INPS data and Digsilent Power Factory 15.1 for power flow analysis, the study estimates that HDITL can prevent a power loss of about 26.276 MW. Furthermore, it demonstrates that HDITL significantly improves the total generation power factor in INPS, from 0.88 to 0.99, and enhances the voltage profile, underscoring its critical role in Nepal’s energy infrastructure development.</p> Ajay Shah, Sanjaya Neupane, Kamal Darlami Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000