Academia Research Journal <p>Academia Research Journal is a multidisciplinary, bi-lingual and bi-annual publication of the Research Management Cell, Mahendra Multiple Campus, Nepalgunj, Nepal.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Bed Raj KC) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 03 Jan 2024 08:54:48 +0000 OJS 60 Sexual Behaviours and Awareness of HIV and AIDS among Migratory People <p>In the context of Nepal, where the epidemiological status of HIV&amp;AIDS is presumed to be in its early stages, a growing body of evidence indicates that HIV is emerging as a significant public health concern in the country. In response, both governmental and non-governmental entities have formulated strategic plans and policies to combat the pervasive impact of HIV &amp; AIDS. The imperative for educational institutions is to comprehensively disseminate information to both the youth and the broader community, fostering knowledge, motivational skills for self-protection against HIV &amp; AIDS, and cultivating an attitude of non-discrimination and care for individuals living with HIV &amp; AIDS. This field-based study focuses on exploring sexual behaviors and awareness regarding HIV &amp; AIDS among migratory populations in the Khatyad Rural Municipality of the Mugu district, Nepal. Employing a descriptive and qualitative research design, the study underscores the examination of sex behaviors, knowledge levels, and attitudes prevalent among migratory individuals concerning HIV &amp; AIDS. The findings of this research can serve as valuable insights for policymakers in devising strategic plans and for education specialists in crafting targeted HIV &amp; AIDS education initiatives within educational frameworks. Primary data for the study were gathered directly from the field, with a study population comprising 80 migratory individuals aged 15-60 years. The majority of these individuals were found to be married but lacking formal education. Approximately half of the respondents were aware of HIV &amp; AIDS, with education correlating to awareness of preventive measures. A subset of respondents (14%) reported engagement in pre-marital sexual practices. The study unveiled a general lack of awareness among migratory individuals regarding HIV &amp; AIDS, with insufficient knowledge on the subject. Notably, a few educated respondents exhibited a positive attitude towards individuals living with HIV. Consequently, the study identifies HIV &amp; AIDS as a critical public health issue requiring immediate attention.</p> Lal Mani Acharya Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Dystopian Reflection: A Critical Examination of Scientific Optimism in McCarthy's The Road <p>This research delves into the exploration of the detrimental impacts of science and technology on human existence through a critical analysis of Cormac McCarthy's novel, <em>The Road</em>. The narrative of the novel primarily revolves around the theme of propaganda and serves as a poignant portrayal of the political machinations of a totalitarian regime. The primary objective of this research is to dissect and critique the manifestation of scientific optimism in McCarthy's <em>The Road</em>, particularly in the context of its portrayal of the adverse effects of advanced science and technology wielded by a totalitarian government. By examining the experiences of the unnamed Man and Boy as they undertake a perilous journey in the aftermath of an unspecified global catastrophe, the study aims to unravel the profound impacts on individuals, including hunger, fear, paranoia, and a pervasive sense of identity crisis. This study examines how the use of cutting-edge science and technology by an oppressive regime has led to feelings of loss, misinterpretation, maladjustment, identity crisis, and conflict, using David Andrews' dystopian concept as a framework. The analysis involves a close examination of the novel's narrative elements, character development, and thematic content, with a specific focus on the depiction of the totalitarian government's utilization of science and technology. The findings of this research reveal a compelling critique of scientific optimism within the context of McCarthy's <em>The Road</em>. In conclusion, this research sheds light on the negative ramifications of scientific optimism as portrayed in McCarthy's <em>The Road</em>. Ultimately, <em>The Road</em> serves as a thought-provoking exploration of the fragile balance between progress and peril in a world shaped by the misuse of science and technology.</p> Ramesh Prasad Adhikary Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Underlying Factors and Outcomes of the Madheshi People's Movement in Nepal (2007-2008) <p>The study focuses on the Madheshi People’s Movements in the Tarai region of Nepal during 2007 and 2008. The key issues investigated include the catalysts behind these movements, their influence on Nepalese politics, and the sustained implications for Madheshis and other marginalized communities. The primary aim of this research is to discern the causes of the Madheshi People’s Movements, understand their impact on Nepalese politics, and evaluate the lasting effects of the achievements stemming from these uprisings. Utilizing semi-structured interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), questionnaire surveys, and an extensive review of secondary data, the research unfolds the transformative nature of the Madheshi People’s Movement of 2007. The methods employed provide a comprehensive understanding of the socio-political landscape surrounding these movements. The research identifies three core elements contributing to the initiation of the 2007 and 2008 Movements: perceived discrimination against Madheshis, radicalization of regional and ethnic issues influenced by the Maoist rebellion, and the precedent set by the People’s Movement of 2006. The Madheshi People’s Movements significantly impacted Nepalese politics, leading to the declaration of Nepal as a federal state and notable electoral success for Madheshi political parties. However, internal divisions emerged within the Madheshi identity, with marginalized communities distancing themselves from the Madheshi label, posing a potential threat to the movements' achievements. While the Madheshi People’s Movements brought about crucial changes in Nepal's political landscape, the emergence of internal dissent among Madheshis calls for a strategic repositioning of Madheshi political parties. To preserve their achievements, these parties must transcend identity boundaries and represent the interests of all marginalized communities in Nepal. Failure to do so risks eroding the gains made through the identity politics initiated by the Madheshi parties.</p> Arjun Prasad Pokharel Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner: A Marxist Analysis <p>This article attempts to analyze Khalid Hosseini's novel <em>The Kite Runner</em> from a Marxist point of view. As a metaphor, Hosseini has used the word "runner" in the title of his novel to speak about one of the classes of people in our society. There are kite runners who run around screaming as they attempt to catch cut and falling kites during the kite flying contest. By looking at some major characters and their roles, an analysis has been presented from the perspective of Marxism. Additionally, the article tries to illustrate how there is an unexplained form of discrimination that prevails even in a friendship between the proletariat and the bourgeois. Despite that friendship appears to be working well namely to say between Amir and Hassan. This article is a qualitative research work for which the novel <em>The Kite Runner</em> has been used as the primary source of data. The secondary sources of data used in this research paper are articles published on it both physically and virtually. The discussion and analysis presented in this paper indicate that class struggles exist in various forms at various times, depending on the thoughts and actions of those individuals who are naturally inclined to maintain some sort of distinction that they appear to place a high value on, regardless of the nature of their relationship.</p> Raj Kumar Tharu Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in Nepal <p>Nepal's strategic location between India and China, coupled with favorable market access and lower tariffs, presents an enticing prospect for foreign investors. Despite these advantages, the nation faces challenges, including a fragile financial sector, bureaucratic hurdles, and political instability, hindering substantial Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). This study investigates the correlation between FDI and economic growth in Nepal, recognizing the critical role of FDI in the country's development. The goal of the study is to examine the linear relationship between these factors while analyzing the trajectory and structure of foreign direct investment and economic growth in Nepal. Among the specific goals are looking at FDI inflow by sector, assessing the link between FDI and economic growth, and developing theories based on these goals. The research design is explorative, descriptive, and analytical, employing time series data from FY 1994 to 2021. Data is sourced from government bodies like NRB, MOF, MOI, and CBS, and econometric tools are applied for analysis. Limitations include reliance on secondary data and a study period of 25 years. The study underscores the need for an investor-friendly environment to attract foreign investments and addresses the challenge of accumulating capital domestically. Recognizing the indispensable role of FDI in Nepal's economic development, the study provides insights for policymakers and recommends investment-friendly policies to promote FDI inflows and contribute to economic growth.</p> Subas Gautam Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Attitudes towards Footpath Businesses in Nepalgunj <p>This research report investigates the attitude towards footpath business and its satisfaction scenario of footpath business of Nepalgunj metropolitan city. The study found that the majority of people have a positive attitude towards footpath business, as it provides a source of income for many people who would otherwise be unemployed. However, there are also some negative perceptions of footpath business, such as that it is unsightly and can be a nuisance. The study also found that the level of satisfaction among footpath businessmen is mixed. Some are satisfied with their income, while others are not. The level of income also varies depending on the type of business and the location. The study concludes that footpath business is an important part of the local economy in Nepalgunj. However, it is important to address the negative perceptions of footpath business and to ensure that footpath businessmen are able to operate safely and legally.</p> Lal Mani Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing COVID-19 Lockdown's Impact: Domestic Violence Against Women in a Selected community of Lalitpur <p>This study examines at how prevalent domestic violence was against women in a particular Lalitpur community during the Covid-19 lockdown. Violence against women encompasses acts of aggression directed primarily or exclusively towards women and girls. The confluence of economic strain, movement restrictions, heightened partner frustration, and the disruption of social and protective networks during the lockdown amplifies women's susceptibility to exploitation and abuse. Employing a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study employed a convenient sampling technique to select 74 married women within the reproductive age group. A systematic interview schedule was used for data collection, and inferential statistics like the Chi-square test were used in conjunction with descriptive statistics like frequency and percentage for the analysis that followed. The study found that during the Covid-19 shutdown, domestic violence against women was prevalent in 31.1% of cases. Victims reported experiencing emotional (37.7%), economic (23.0%), physical (31.1%), and sexual (8.2%) violence. The primary contributing factors to the occurrence of violence were identified as being confined at home with the abuser (31.1%), financial concerns (28.4%), and problematic inter-relationships within family members (28.4%). Of the variables taken into account, the only ones that showed a significant correlation with the occurrence of domestic violence during the Covid-19 lockdown era were the husband's employment, education, and history of violence. The results highlight how urgent it is to address domestic abuse of women in Nepal, especially during times of crisis like the Covid-19 lockdown. It is imperative for the country to prioritize the enhancement of support systems to prevent the occurrence of such violence and safeguard the well-being of victims.</p> Reshma KC, Smriti KC, Saroja Poudel Copyright (c) 2024 Authors Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Social Media on Academic Performance of University Students in Nepal <p>This study aims to explore the impact of social media on the academic performance of University students in Nepal. Through a comprehensive analysis of survey data and academic records, the research investigates the correlation between social media usage patterns and students' grades. Factors such as frequency of social media engagement, types of platforms utilized, and time allocation for academic tasks are examined. The findings shed light on the nuanced relationship between social media activity and academic achievement, providing insights for educators, policy makers, and students in navigating the challenges posed by digital distractions in the academic setting.</p> Shreedhar Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Demographic Factors on Information Communication Technology Use: A Case of Mathematics Teachers in Kathmandu District <p>The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is an important issue for teaching learning activities due to global changes; however, the success of this use depends on the readiness of the teachers. This study investigated the effect of demographic variables on the use of ICT among secondary-level mathematics teachers in the Kathmandu district. This study describes a research hypothesis testing the absence of statistically significant differences in ICT use based on demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, teaching experience, educational level, job position, and school location. For quantitative research, an online survey design was used. The data were collected through a validated online survey questionnaire, which consisted of seven demographic variables and seven items on the use of ICT. The online survey questionnaire was administered to 287 subjects. The response of mathematics teachers was only 59.23%. The response data was downloaded into Excel and cleaned. Frequency, percentage, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the cleaned data using the JAMOVI software. The results revealed no statistically significant differences in ICT use across demographic variables. Specifically, gender, marital status, age groups, teaching experience, educational level, job positions, and school locations did not significantly affect the use of ICT among secondary-level mathematics teachers. The small effect sizes limited practical significance, despite the absence of statistical significance. The findings provide valuable insights into the relationship between demographic factors and ICT integration in education. Further research should validate these results in diverse educational contexts in Nepal.</p> Ganesh Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Irrigation Dams on Fish Diversity of Budhikhola in Bardiya, Lumbini Province of Nepal <p>This extensive study describes the current status of freshwater fish diversity in the Budhikhola which is an important branch of the Karnali River that runs through the western region of the Bardiya district covering about 30 km distance in the north-south direction. To examine the effects of irrigation dams on habitat modification and fish variety, fish were collected from the entire Budhikhola stretch, with four sampling stations established depending on habitat structure. The freshwater system of the Budhikhola harbors a diverse and ecologically complex fish community comprising 41 species from 6 orders and 13 families. The dominance of the Cyprinidae family, represented by <em>Barilius barna</em>, <em>Chanda nama, Chagunius chagunio,</em> etc., highlights its ecological significance. On the other hand, the loss of important fish species is proof that the building of irrigation dams has had significant ecological effects. Human-induced hazards such as damming and overexploitation, have adversely impacted the river environment, resulting in reduced water depth, habitat structure changes, and restricted nutrient flow. The majority of the riverbed had been observed to be silt-covered. Significant fish species loss indicates ecological instability brought on by human activity. Changes in the distribution of fish sizes and spatial differences between upstream and downstream areas highlight the complex link between habitat modifications and community functioning. The catch-per-hour seasonal tendency, which peaks in September and falls in March, is correlated with fishing patterns, environmental factors, or breeding seasons. The evenness value (0.96) and high Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index (H'= 3.57) show a diverse and harmonious fish community. The relevance of family-level distinctions in implementing effective conservation and management measures is highlighted by major differences among family groups (p&lt;0.001). As the findings make clear, the long-term survival of&nbsp;the&nbsp;diversified fish ecosystem of the Budhikhola&nbsp;depends on addressing and reducing anthropogenic stressors. This study provides valuable insights for informed conservation efforts in the aquatic ecosystems of Nepal.</p> Bhesh Raj Chaudhari Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hypertension and Its Contributing Factor among Adult People of Nepalgunj, Banke, Nepal <p>Hypertension is a substantial public health concern on account of its extremely high prevalence all around the globe. It is referred to as a "silent killer" due to the fact that early-stage symptoms are rarely apparent until a medical emergency arises, such as chronic kidney disease, heart attack, or stroke. Therefore, this research aims to assess the contributing factor to hypertension among adult people of Belaspur -12, Nepalgunj, Banke. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was employed for the study, and primary data were collected through the implementation of a structured questionnaire and a non-probability convenience sampling technique. The analysis was carried out on the gathered data using descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS (version 21.0). The findings of the research revealed that among total 120 respondents, nearly half of the respondents 56 (46.7%) had hypertension in 1- stage, while more than half of the respondents 64 (53.3%) had hypertension in its 2-stage. Based on the research findings, it can be inferred that the major factors contributing to hypertension among adult population were being alcohol consumption, consumption of animal source fat, overweight or obese, family history of hypertension.</p> Ramesh Prasad Tharu Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial Orientation of Galaxies in the SDSS DR7 Supercluster <p>Spatial orientations of spin vectors 1423 galaxies in the SDSS DR7 Supercluster S[239+016+0037] was studied. The database of these galaxies is taken from the SDSS DR7 data release. Our main goal is to find out the angular momentum vectors of galaxies in the Supercluster S[239+016+0037]. Random simulation method is used to remove selection effects from the database. Finally, three statistics to compare the differences between theoretical and observed distributions: chi-square, auto-correlation, and the Fourier test. All these statistical tests suggest the random orientation of galaxies in the SDSS DR 7 Supercluster S[239+016+0037]. Furthermore, the evolution of the galaxies in the Supercluster supports the hierarchy model as suggested by Peebles (1969).</p> Janak Ratna Malla Copyright (c) 2024 Authors Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 'हर्कबहादुर' कवितामा समसामयिक यथार्थ Contemporary Reality in the Poem 'Hark Bahadur' <p>रस्तुत लेखमा कवि दिनेश अधिकारीको ‘हर्कबहादुर’ कवितालाई अध्ययनको विषय बनाइएको छ । यसमा समसामयिक यथार्थवादी चिन्तनको आधारमा कृतिको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । दिनेश अधिकारी समसामयिक विषयमा कविता लेख्ने आधुनिक कवि हुन् । उनको ‘हर्कबहादुर’ कवितामा समसामयिक यथार्थवादी दृष्टिकोण रहेको छ । साहित्यमा प्रस्तुत गर्ने विषयमा रचनाकारको तत्कालीन परिवेशसँग जोडिएर आउने समाजमा विद्यमान् रहेका विषय समसामयिक यथार्थवादी चिन्तनसँग सम्बद्ध हुन्छन् । यसमा यसै चिन्तनमा अटाउने युगबोध, सचेतता, मानवता, स्वतन्त्रता, विश्वबन्धुत्वजस्ता विषयलाई केन्द्र बनाइएको छ । यसमा विश्लेष्य कविता ‘हर्कबहादुर’मा एक निम्नवर्गीय व्यक्तिको प्रतिनिधित्व हर्कबहादुरले गरेको छ । यस कवितामा हर्कबहादुरले सामना गरेको शोषण, दमन, असमानता, अन्याय आदि समाज र राज्यसत्ताका कारक हुन् । गरिबी, अभावग्रस्त जीवन र विवशता निम्नवर्गीय वास्तविक चित्र हुन् । यस कविताको विषय निम्नवर्गीय व्यक्तिले भोगेको जीवन नै हो जुन समसामयिक यथार्थसँग सम्बद्ध छ । यस लेखमा अध्ययनलाई व्यवस्थित गर्नका लागि सामग्रीहरूको सङ्कलनमा पुस्तकालयको उपयोग गरिएको छ । यसमा आर्थिक विषमता र दयनीय अवस्था, मानवता, युगबोध र सचेतता तथा समानता, स्वतन्त्रता र विश्वबन्धुत्व जस्ता उपशीर्षकलाई विश्लेषणको विषय बनाइएको छ । सैद्धान्तिक पक्षसँग सम्बद्ध सामग्रीहरूलाई वर्णनात्मक विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ भने कविताका सान्दर्भिक पङ्क्तिहरू उदाहरणका रूपमा समावेश छन् । यसमा ‘हर्कबहादुर’ कवितामा निम्नवर्गीय जनका समस्या टटकारो देखिएको र उनीहरूको गास, बास र कपासको समस्यालाई समाधान गर्नेतर्फ सबै लाग्नुपर्ने भाव व्यक्त गर्ने समसामयिक यथार्थ रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>In this article, the poem 'Hark Bahadur' by the poet Dinesh Adhikari, has been made the subject of study. In it, the poem is analyzed on the basis of contemporary realist thinking. Dinesh Adhikari is a modern poet who writes poems on contemporary issues. His poem 'Hark Bahadur' has a contemporary realistic approach. The topics presented in literature are related to contemporary realist thinking in connection with the current environment of the author. It focuses on topics such as understanding of the age, awareness, humanity, freedom, and world brotherhood, which are based on this thought. In this analytical poem 'Hark Bahadur', a lower class person is represented by Hark Bahadur. In this poem, the exploitation, oppression, inequality, injustice, etc. faced by Hark Bahadur are factors of society and state power. Poverty, lack of life and constraint are the real picture of the lower class. The subject of this poem is the life experienced by the lower class people which is related to the contemporary reality. In this article, the library has been used in the collection of materials to organize the study. In it, subheadings like economic disparity and miserable conditions, humanity, understanding of the age and awareness and equality, freedom and world brotherhood have been made the subject of analysis. Descriptive method is used for the materials related to the theoretical aspect while the relevant lines of the poem are included as examples. In this, it is concluded that in the poem 'Hark Bahadur', the problems of the lower class people are acute and it is a contemporary reality that expresses the feeling that everything should be done towards solving their problems of grass, housing and cotton.</p> महेन्द्र Mahendra वाग्ले Wagle Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालको राणाकालीन उच्चशिक्षा Higher Education during the Rana Era of Nepal <p>शिक्षा जीवनपर्यन्त निरन्तर चलिरहने प्रकृया हो । सामान्यतः शिक्षाको अर्थ सिकाइ भन्ने हुन्छ । सिकाइ प्रकृति र समाजसँग समायोजन हुन जान्ने सिप सिकाउने प्रकृया हो । हरेक प्रणालीले यो संसारमा समायोजन भई जीवनयापन गर्न सामथ्र्यको विकास गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ । मानिस बाहेक अन्य प्राणीहरुलाई वंशाणुगत गुण, जसलाई जन्मजात गुण भनिन्छ, त्यसको परिपक्कतासँगै हुने विकासले आफ्नो ब्यवहार चलाउन पुग्छ । तर मानिस सचेत प्राणी हो । जसको उच्चतम सचेत क्षमताको विकास आर्जित शिक्षाले मात्र गर्ने गर्दछ । आर्जित शिक्षामा पनि विश्वव्यापी मान्नेता प्राप्त संस्थागत शिक्षा, जसलाई औपचारिक शिक्षा भन्ने गरिन्छ । यही औपचारिक शिक्षाको उपल्लोतहलाई उच्च शिक्षा भन्ने गरिन्छ । कस्तो प्रकारको शिक्षालाई उच्च शिक्षा मान्ने, त्यसको स्तर निर्धारणको मापदण्ड र मूल्याङ्कनको आधार केलाई मान्ने भन्ने कुरा समय सापेक्ष बदलिदो देखिन्छ । संसारमा जसरी उच्च शिक्षाको विकास भैरहेको थियो नेपालमा पनि त्यसरी नै त्यही प्रकृयामा उच्च शिक्षाको विकास नभएको भए तापनि नेपाल उच्च शिक्षाको क्षेत्रमा अनविज्ञ थियो भन्न मिल्दैन । लिच्छविकाल र मल्लकालमा निर्माण गरिएका कलाकौशल, मठमन्दिर, पाटीपौवा, शिलालेख र इतिहासमा उल्लेखित मानगृह, कैलासकुट भवन र भद्राधिवास जस्ता दरबार र अन्य भवनहरुको निर्माण आजको उच्च इन्जिनियरिङ शिक्षाको समकक्षताको बलियो प्रमाण हो । नेपालमा औपचारिक उच्च शिक्षाको सुरुवात भने वि.सं.१९७५मा राणा प्रधानमन्त्री चन्द्र शमशेरले स्थापना गरेको त्रिभुवन चन्द्रशमशेर कलेज हालको त्रिचन्द्र क्याम्पस हो । वि.सं.२००७ सालसम्म आइपुग्दा नेपालमा यदाकदा विश्वविद्यालय स्थापना गर्ने कुरा चल्ने गरेको र सामान्य समिति गठन हुने बाहेक उच्च शिक्षा विकासमा खासै काम हुन सकेको देखिँदैन । वि.सं.२००७ सालसम्म नेपालमा जम्मा दुईवटा कलेजहरु मात्र स्थापना भएका थिए । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा त्यही वि.सं.२००७ सालभन्दा अगाडिको नेपालको उच्च शिक्षाको विकासको अवस्था बारे जानकारी दिने प्रयास गरिएको छ</p> <p>Education is a lifelong process. Education generally means learning. Learning is the process of learning the skills to adapt to nature and society. Every system has to develop the ability to adapt and live in this world. Other than human beings, the hereditary qualities, which are called innate qualities, develop along with their maturity to control their behavior. But man is a conscious animal, whose highest conscious ability is developed only through acquiring education. Institutional education, which is known as formal education, is universally recognized in acquired education. This level of formal education is called higher education. What kind of education is considered as higher education, the standard of determining its level and what is considered as the basis of evaluation, seems to change over time. Even though higher education was not developed in the same way in the world as higher education was developing in Nepal, it cannot be said that Nepal was ignorant in the field of higher education. The construction of palaces and other buildings such as palaces, temples, Patipauwa, inscriptions and history mentions, Kailasakut Bhavan and Bhadradhivas are a strong evidence of the equivalence of today's higher engineering education. The beginning of formal higher education in Nepal is the Tribhuvan Chandra Shamsher College established by Rana Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher in the year 1975. It is the present Trichandra Campus. By the year 2007 B.S., it seems that nothing much has been done in the development of higher education except for the establishment of a university in Nepal and the formation of a general committee. Till 2007 B.S., only two colleges were established in Nepal. In the present study, the same an attempt has been made to provide information about the state of development of higher education in Nepal prior to 2007 B. S.</p> तेज बहादुर Tej Bahadur के.सी K C Copyright (c) 2024 Author Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000