Academia Research Journal https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia <p>Academia Research Journal is a multidisciplinary, bi-lingual and bi-annual publication of the Research Management Cell, Mahendra Multiple Campus, Nepalgunj, Nepal.</p> en-US rmcnepalgunj2022@gmail.com (Prof. Dr. Bed Raj KC) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 08 Nov 2022 12:51:08 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Study of Health Status of Hotel and Restaurant Child Labor in Nepalgunj Sub-metropolitan https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48746 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;The major aim of this research paper was to investigate the present health condition of child laborers who were working in the hotel and restaurants of Nepalgunj. Socio-economic condition and family background were analyzed to find out the health condition, of labour children. The study is mainly based on primary data collected form Nepalgunj Sub-metropolitan using purposive sampling techniques. 150 people in total responded to the survey. It is now widely acknowledged that child exploitation is a serious socioeconomic issue. Children are among the demographic groups that are most frequently neglected, abused, and subjected to the worst types of child labor. Child labor is a widespread occurrence in Nepal, both in terms of general employment and population. The child labor in hotel and restaurant is common in the urban areas of Nepal who are not getting proper health care and treatment. It is concluded from the study that child laborers in hotel and restaurant is one of the visible, exploitative and hazardous forms of child labour whose health condition is vulnerable. Poverty is one of the cause and consequence of child labour. It is linked to the socio-economic, political and cultural realities of the county. The adoption of new laws and policies only cannot prevent the child labour problem unless society as a whole is aware on child right issue.</p> Lalmani Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 Lalmani Acharya https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48746 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Historicity of Swasthani https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48747 <p>This research paper is an analytical study of the popular Hindu myth <em>Swasthani</em>, with the goal of redefining its boundaries and separating it from mythological and religious interpretations. For this reading, the researcher has taken Pallav Ranjan's <em>Swasthani </em>to English adaption as a major source of data. By applying new historicism as a literary tool, the researcher has analyzed <em>Swasthani </em>to draw the new boundaries of this popular myth in Nepal. From this qualitative analysis, it is concluded that this mythological narrative, when recorded for the first time in Nepal Bhasa by Jayanta Dev, mirrored the social reality of Medieval Nepal. Through the medium of myth, the social reality of the period is depicted in this mythical text. The study concluded that <em>Swasthani </em>is not merely a myth, but also a socio-historical record of Medieval Nepal, when Newar kings ruled the Kathmandu Valley.</p> Ramesh Prasad Adhikary Copyright (c) 2022 Ramesh Prasad Adhikary https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48747 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Husband in Maternal Health Care in Muslim Community https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48748 <p>The objectives of the study were to examine the ‘Role of husband in maternal health care in Muslim community. This study has been based on descriptive research design and it is quantitative in nature. In this study samples were collected by using stratified sampling method. The interview schedule was the main tool for data collection in this study. After collection information it was tabulated in chart diagram and analyzed and interpreted with the help of percentage. The findings of the study show that the socio-economic status of the people in that community is very low and hence the literacy rate is also low. Out of total 87 Muslim respondents 42.52 percent respondents were heard about maternal care and 57.47 percent respondent were not heard maternal cares. The conclusion of this research was Muslim women don’t get proper maternal care by their husbands.</p> Jentil Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Jentil Gautam https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48748 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assigning Gender Role in Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni's Sister of My Heart https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48768 <p>&nbsp;Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni through her novel <em>Sister of My Heart </em>unveils the position of women and their roles assigned in Indian patriarchal society and their effort to overthrow the biased attitude of male. As its theoretical tool it utilizes western version of liberal feminism and gender theory as stated by David Glover and Cora Kaplan. In doing so it aims at examining the reality of patriarchal ideology which considers women as second class citizen and maternal vessels. It reveals the pathetic condition of the protagonist, Anju and Sudha. They have not got the role of independent agents in the society but treated as play things. They are taught to be submissive from the very beginning of their life. The demarcation line has been drawn in the name of Bidhata Purush who also does not come to write their fortune. As a result, directly or indirectly they are engaged in their subservient lives. It is patriarchal ideology which makes them feminine and masculine, which assigns different roles, rights and responsibilities in order to make subservient. This paper concludes that the writer's, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni’s work exposes the male domination upon women in the Indian society.</p> Damodar Bhusal Copyright (c) 2022 Damodar Bhusal https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48768 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prospects of Cross Border Energy Trade in South Asia https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48774 <p>The majority of South Asian nations use a combination of renewable energy sources like hydro, solar, and wind power together with nonrenewable energy sources like nuclear, coal, and natural gas to generate their electricity. Both of these sources are indigenous to some degree. Every nation in the area benefits from one type of resource or another. In India, coal is available. Natural gas is also abundant in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bhutan, as well as hydropower. Using panel data from 2001 to 2015, this study examines the relationship between electricity consumption and changes in income, population, and foreign direct investment in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal, five South Asian nations. Additionally, the demand for electricity can be satisfied by imports or electrical production. The OLS results confirm that there is significant relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in South Asia. The OLS result further suggests that there is significant positive relation between GDP and electricity imports for India and Pakistan where as Nepal and Bangladesh have significant positive relation between GDP and electricity production. It is therefore concluded that there is a huge potential of cross border energy trade in South Asia and enhance economic growth in the region. &nbsp;</p> Subas Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Subas Gautam https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48774 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural Transformation of Ex-PLA in Nepal: A Case Study of Kailali District https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48775 <p>This study examined how the cultural values of Ex-PLA have changed along with their social position. This research seeks to investigate the three conditions of Ex-PLA: before, being, and after the war; and its integration. The objective of the research was to examine how cultural values of Ex-PLAs have changed in their time phases. When Ex-PLA has a significant number of settlements, I have picked the field Lamki Chuha Municipality of the Kailali district for this research. Interviews, observations, and a case study were all employed to gather the qualitative data for this study. The conclusion of this study has sought the life experiences of Ex-PLA who switched from being professional Marxists to becoming cultural one for adjustment in society. The research is significant for the Moist Party, the government of Nepal, and non-governmental organizations to get information which will be useful in formulating policy.</p> Kanshi Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Kanshi Prasad Adhikari https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48775 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematics Achievement of Ethnic Group Students: A Quantitative Study in Banke District https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48776 <p>The study investigated the mathematics achievement of ethnic group students. The main objectives of this study were to seek mathematics Achievement of Tharu and Muslim ethnic groups on cognitive level: Knowledge, Skill, Comprehension and Application of grade nine students of Banke district. Achievement test was taken to get the required information. It was taken among 240 students on both ethnic group students. Two tailed t-test at 0.05 level of significance was used to analyze the collected data. The finding of this study shows that the Tharu ethnic group students were found to be significantly better in mathematics than the Muslim students on the Knowledge, Skill, and Comprehension. But there is no significant difference in the Application level in both groups of students.</p> Ganesh Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Ganesh Prasad Adhikari https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/48776 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ‘सुमरूमा द्रौपदी’ कथामा नारी शरीर {Woman’s Body in the Story “Sumaruma Draupadi”} https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49205 <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा नारीवादी समालोचनात्मक पद्धतिअन्तर्गत प्रचलित अवधारणा नारी शरीरलाई आधार बनाई अभय श्रेष्ठको ‘सुमरूमा द्रौपदी’कथामा प्रयुक्त नारी शरीरमाथि भएको प्रयोगलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यसमा मूलरूपमा मिसेलफुकोको मान्यता र लुसी इरिगेरी, जुलिया क्रिस्तेभाको नारी शरीरका सम्बन्धमा प्रस्तुत अवधारणालाई आधार बनाइएकोछ । नारी शरीर सम्बन्धी मान्यताका कसीमा कथा विश्लेषणका लागि पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययन पद्धतिका आधारमा सामग्री सङकलन गरी पाठ विश्लेषण विधिको अवलम्बन गरिएको छ । ‘सुमरूमा द्रौपदी’कथामा धर्म तथा सामाजिक मूल्यमान्यताका आधारमा पितृसत्तात्मक सामाजिक विचारधाराले नारीलाई अधीनस्थ बनाएको र शोषण गरी नारी अधिकारबाट वञ्चित गराइएको विषय मार्मिक रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरी प्रतिरोध कार्यलाई पनि देखाइएका छ ।&nbsp; यस कथामा पुरुषप्रधान समाजमा नारीको शरीरमाथि पुरुषको अधिकार हुने, नारी पुरुषको स्वार्थपूर्तिमा वस्तुकरण हुनु पर्ने, नारीले आफनो देहलाई माया नगरी अरुकै लागि बनाइएको मान्ने जस्ता विषयको खोजी प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुतकथामा नारी शरीर शोषण र दमनमा रही अधीनस्थ अवस्थामा रहेको हुनाले त्यसको विरोध र स्वअस्तित्वको खोजीका लागि नारीचेतना जागरूप बनेका निष्कर्ष यस अध्ययनमा रहेको छ ।&nbsp;</p> <p>{</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><br><br>The usage of the female body in Abhay Shrestha's short story "Sumruma Draupadi," which<br>is based on the popular conception of the female body, is presented in the current research<br>using a feminist critical methodology. It is mostly based on Michel Foucault's theory and<br>the notion of the feminine body put out by Lucy Irigieri and Julia Kristeva. The data for the<br>narrative analysis of the beliefs about the female body has been gathered using the textual<br>analysis approach, which is based on the library study method. On the basis of religion and<br>societal ideals, the patriarchal social philosophy has oppressed women in the narrative<br>"Sumruma Draupadi," making them subordinate and robbing them of their rights. Males's<br>rights over women's bodies in this narrative, as well as women's need to be objectified for<br>men to feel whole, have all been studied in this study. Men also have rights over women's<br>bodies in a society where men predominate. According to the study's findings, women's<br>bodies are exploited and oppressed in the tale that is being told, and their awareness has<br>been aroused to fight against this and seek for self-existence.}</p> महेन्द्र Mahendra वाग्ले Wagle Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49205 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 राणाकालीन जिल्ला प्रशासनमा बडाहाकिम व्यवस्था {Badahakim (the Chief Magistrate) in District Administration during Rana Resigme} https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49206 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख राणाकलीन जिल्ला प्रशासन अन्तरगत सम्पूर्ण जिल्लाको जिम्मेवारी दिने गरी श्री ३ बाट आफनो प्रतिनिधिको रुपमा नियुक्त गरिने बडाहाकिमसँग सम्बन्धित छ । जसरी केन्द्र र प्रान्तमा श्री ३ ले आफना अधिकारको प्रयोग गरी राज्यसञ्ंचालन गर्ने गर्दथे, त्यसरी नै जिल्लामा श्री ३ को उत्तराधिकारीको रुपमा सम्पूर्ण अधिकारको प्रयोग गरि जिल्ला संञ्चालन गर्ने प्रमुख प्रशासकीय पद थियो वडाहाकिम । बडाहाकिमको नियुक्ति सिधै श्री ३ बाट हुने गर्दथ्यो। खासगरी राणा परिवारका सदस्य र उनीहरुको परीवारसँग सम्बन्धित विश्वास पात्र ब्यक्तिहरुबाट वडाहाकिमको नियुक्ति गरिन्थ्यो । कहिलेकाही श्री ३ को रोलक्रममा रहेको ब्यक्तिलाई श्री ३ ले उपत्यकाबाट बाहिर राख्नुपर्ने आबस्यकता महसुस गरेमा त्यस्ता ब्यक्तिहरुलाई पनि वडाहाकिम नियुक्त गरी पठाएका पाइन्छ। वडाहाकिम गौडा र छाटीगाडाको प्रमुख प्रशासकिय पद हो । जिल्लाभित्रका सम्पूर्णकार्यालयहरुको अनुगमन , रेखदेख, नियन्त्रण, र निर्देशन गर्नु,जिल्लामा शान्ति सुरक्षा कायम राख्नु , जनतामा अन्याय अत्याचार हुन नदिनु , राणा विरोधी गतिविधि माथि रोक लगाउनु, कर्मचारीको निष्पक्ष मूल्याङकन गरी पजनीका लागि श्री ३ लाई विवरण पठाइ सहयोग गर्नु, छिमेकी देश खासगरी भारतसँगको सम्बन्धमा मित्रता कायम गर्नु, राजश्व संकलन गरी देशको ढुकुटी मजबुत बनाउनु र आफनो कायको मूल्याङकन गर्न केन्द्र बाट आउने गुप्तचर र दौडाहलाई नकारात्मक विवरण लेखी श्री ३ मा पेसगर्ने मौका नदिनु वडाहाकिमका मुख्य कार्य थिए ।</p> <p>{</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><br>Abstract <br>Thee presented article is related to the Chief Magistrate who will be appointed as his<br>representative from His Highness Sir Shree 3 used to run the state using his powers in the center<br>and the province, in the district as the successor of His Highness, the chief administrative<br>position was to run the district using all the powers. The appointment of chiefs used to be done<br>directly by His Highness. The ward chiefs were appointed especially from members of the Rana<br>family and trusted persons related to their families. Sometimes, if His Highness Rana feels the<br>need to keep a person in the roll order of the ruler, out of the valley, he appoints such people as<br>Ward Hakims and sends them as Ward Hakims. To monitor, supervise, control and direct all the<br>offices within the district, to maintain peace and security in the district, to prevent injustice and<br>atrocities on the people, to stop the anti-Rana activities, to conduct a fair evaluation of the<br>employees and send details to His Highness. To strengthen the country's treasury by collecting<br>revenue and writing a negative report to intelligence and intelligence agencies coming from the<br>center to evaluate their work. The main task of the Bada Hakim was not to give a chance to<br>enter.}</p> तेज बहादर Tej Bahadur के सी KC Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49206 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 कविता समीक्षाको शैलीवैज्ञानिक आधार {Stylistic Features of Poetry Analysis} https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49208 <p>कविता विधा रचनाका दृष्टिले सर्वसुलभ, छिटोछरितो र सर्जकको आफनो रुची र खुबीअनुसारको लोकप्रिय विधा हो। यस विधामा सर्जकले आफनो रुची र खुबीअनुसार सानोभन्दा सानो रचना पनि सिर्जना गर्न सक्छ भने वृहत्तम विशालकायकृतिको पनि रचना गर्न सक्छ । यसका लागि सर्जकमा प्रतिभा, व्युपत्ति र अभ्यासको आवश्यकता पर्छ । काव्य रचना गर्दा सर्जकमा काव्यको सैद्धान्तिक स्वरुप प्रति सचेत हुनु आवश्यक हुन्छ । सिर्जनामा सर्जकले नवीनताको खोजी गर्न लेखकलेजीवनजगतका अतिरिक्त पूर्व सिर्जना भएका कृतिको व्यापक अध्ययनलाई जोड दिनु पर्छ । परिपक्व सर्जकबाट मात्र उत्कृष्ट र मूल्यवान कृतिको सिर्जना हुने गर्छ र त्यस्ता कृतिको समालोचना गर्न&nbsp; समालोचकहरु लालायित हुने गर्छन । मूल्यवान कृतिको समालोचनाबाट पाठकले त्यसको गुणतत्वलाई आफनो जीवनशैलीसँग जोडने गर्छन । कृति समालोचना गर्ने विभिन्नमान्यताहरुमध्ये शैलीविज्ञान आधुनिक भाषाशास्त्रीय मान्यता हो । शैलीविज्ञान कृतिकेन्द्रित भएर समालोचना गर्ने पद्धति हो । यसले कृति भित्रका विशेषताहरूलाई केलाउने कार्य गर्छ । शैलीविज्ञानले साहित्यिक कृतिको संरचना, बनोट र बुनोट आदिलाई खोतल्छ । सैद्धान्तिक विश्लेषणद्वारा त्यसमा अन्तरनिहित कला सौन्दर्य र साहित्यिकताको उदघाटन गर्दछ ।शैलीवैज्ञानिक आधारमा कृति लेखन गर्नका लागि भाषाविज्ञानका क्षेत्रमा पाइने विभिन्न प्रविधिको प्रयोग गरिन्छ । कृतिकोशैलीवैज्ञानिक अध्ययन विश्लेषणका क्रममा त्यस कृतिको विधागत प्रकृति, विश्लेषणको क्षमता, ज्ञान र त्यसको अध्ययनमहत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ । शैलीविज्ञानमा विकल्प चयन, अग्रभूमि निर्माण, विचलन, समानान्तरता र शैली चिन्हको आदिका आधारमाकृतिको विश्लेषण गरिन्छ ।</p> <p>{</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;In terms of composition, poetry is the most accessible, fast and popular science according to the creator's taste and talent. In this genre, the creator can create even the smallest works according to his taste and talent, and he can also create the largest giant works. For this, the creator needs talent, pedigree and practice. While composing a poem, it is necessary for the creator to be aware of the theoretical nature of the poem. In order for the creator to search for innovation in creation, the writer should emphasize a comprehensive study of previously created works in addition to the life world. Excellent and valuable works are created only by mature creators and critics are reluctant to criticize such works. By criticizing a valuable work, the reader connects its quality with his lifestyle. Stylistics ia modern linguistic theory among the various theories of criticizing a work. Stylistics is a workcenteredmethodofcriticism.Itservestohighlightthefeatureswithinthework.Stylologyexaminesthestructure,toneandtextureofa literarywork.Duringtheanalysisofsomestylisticstudies,theliterarynatureofthatwork,theabilityofanalysis,knowledgeanditsstudyareimportant.Instylistics,theworkisanalyzedon thebasisofselectionofoptions,foregrounding,deviation,parallelismand stylistic markers etc.}</p> इन्द्रबहादुर Indrabahadur भण्डारी Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49208 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 आठहजार क्षेत्रका लोकगीतमा अर्थालङकार {Figure of Speech in the Folk Songs of Athahajar Region} https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49326 <p>सल्यान आठहजार क्षेत्रका बाह्रमासे, पर्व, संस्कार, देवस्तुति र मौसमी गरी पाँच प्रकारका लोकगीतहरू प्रचलित छन ।<br>यी लोकगीतमा अर्थालङ्कारको खोजी गर्नु नै यस शोध लेखको मूल उद्देश्य हो । यी लोकगीतमा अर्थालङ्कारको खोजीका<br>लागि सर्वप्रथम लोकगीतको सङकलन गर्ने कार्य गरिएको छ । यसका लागि सम्बन्धित क्षेत्रमा गई लोकगीतको सङकलन<br>गरिएको छ । सङकलन गरिएका लोकगीतहरूबाट उद्देश्यमूलक नमूना छनौट विधिको उपयोग गरी १५ ओटा<br>लोकगीतमा अलङ्कार खोज्ने काम यसमा गरिएको छ । अर्थालङकार पहिचान गरिएका लोकगीतको विश्लेषणको लागि<br>निगमनात्मक विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । यस शोध लेखमा उपमा, रूपक, दृष्टान्त, उत्प्रेक्षा, अतिशयोक्ति,<br>स्वभावोक्ति, स्मृति, विभावना, विशेषोक्ति, असङगति, प्रौढोक्ति, अर्थापत्ति, विकल्प, समाधि र भाविकच्छवि अलङकारको<br>अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यी अलङकारका सम्बन्धमा पूर्वीय आचार्यहरूले दिएका परिभाषाहरूलाई समेत संलग्न राखेर<br>विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । अर्थालङकारले सुशोभित यी लोकगीतहरूमा काव्यात्मकता, खोज्ने काम समेत यसमा गरिएको<br>छ । मूलतः यी लोकगीतमा रहेका मूल विषयहरू समाज, धर्म, संस्कृति, प्रकृति, नारी, प्रेम, विरह, जनविश्वासजस्ता<br>विषयवस्तुको समावेश भएको पाइन्छ । यस लेखमा भने समाज र प्रेम विषयका गीतको मात्र खोजी गरिएको छ । यस<br>क्षेत्रका लोकगीतमा खास गरेर श्रृङगार, करुण, वीर, भयानक, शान्त रसको प्रयोग भएको भए तापनि यसमा शान्त रस<br>र करुण रसका गीतको मात्र चर्चा गरिएको छ । यी लोकगीतमा मुख्य रूपमा खसानी उपभाषिका र केही मात्रामा पर्वती<br>उपभाषिकाका शब्दको प्रयोग भएको पाइन्छ । संरचनाका हिसावले लोकगीतहरू ११ देखि २५ अक्षरसम्मका पाइन्छन ।</p> डम्बर बहादुर Dambar Bahadur पुन Pun Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/academia/article/view/49326 Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000