The Third Pole: Journal of Geography Education 2024-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 Prof. Narayan Prasad Paudyal, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>The Third Pole is designed to disseminate geographical education and provide opportunity to stimulate scholars in contributing the innovative, thought provoking and research based articles to support the development of Nepal and also disciplinary profession.</p> Geographical reflections in the Bhagavad Gita: Lessons for the 21st century 2024-01-16T03:39:53+00:00 Kabi Prasad Pokhrel <p>Bhagavad Gita with reference to geographical reflection and environmental education for sustainability of modern world. The study is concentrated to reinterpretation of passages of Bhagavad Gita with reverence to geographical knowledge and insights for ecology, economy and societal sustainability. The method of the study is narrative by using qualitative approaches. The findings of the study clearly reveal that the insights of Bhagavad Gita is essential, important and useful for modern world in order to develop ethical and moral grounds for deep ecology i.e. co-existence of soil (mother earth), soul (spiritual value for connecting human action to universe) and society (equidistance of cultural values and traditions for the principle of live and late live).</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Soil erosion and environmental degradation in Nepal: A Review of Environmental Policies 2024-01-16T03:51:35+00:00 Balaram Raya <p>Soil erosion is a natural process that occurs more frequently in mountainous regions in the Himalayas due to the complex landforms. Nepal also experiences severe forms of soil erosion due to its geographical complexity. This study examines the issues of soil erosion in relation to the environment and evaluates the effectiveness of existing environmental policies in Nepal, using secondary sources of data. The study reveals that Nepal has an average annual soil erosion rate of 25 tons per hectare per year, resulting in the total annual loss of 369 metric tons. This rate is higher compared to other areas around the world. The middle mountain region of Nepal has a higher mean annual soil erosion rate per hectare per year (which is of 38.4 tons) than other physiographic regions. Soil erosion is caused by various factors such as rainfall, water flow, land cover, geographical setting, and conservation practices – which leads to a decrease in agricultural productivity. Both on-site and off-site effects pose a significant risk to agriculture, development projects and the environment. It is suggested that the steps have to be taken to the environmental safeguard for reducing soil erosion and mitigate the problem through government agencies by emphasizing on effective implementation measures of the existing environmental policies, regulations, and development plans.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Drivers of changing cropping patterns in Nepal: A review 2024-01-16T04:09:04+00:00 Lal Bahadur Oli <p>This paper reviews various aspects of drivers of changing cropping patterns in Nepal based on secondary data sources. Data were acquired from Google Scholar and Research Gate database 32 relevant professional journal articles in between 2000-2022 were intensively reviewed. The drivers of changing cropping patterns are complex and interrelated in the farming system. Spatial analysis of cropping patterns of different geographical scales shows that cropping pattern is an integral part of a behavioral focus to reflect the space relation of the community people. The drivers of changing cropping patterns are numerous and intricately linked. It is challenging to gauge the relative significance of the effects ascribed to each scale of the driver or the interactions between them at any particular geographic region. The study revealed that there are several types of drivers for changing cropping patterns. Among these various types of drivers, the theme of technological advancement/inputs, climate change, infrastructural development, road connectivity, and market demand play prominent roles in changing cropping patterns however other drivers such as off-farm employment, agriculture service extension/training, government policies, population growth/change/migration (rural to urban; international.), are also remarkable in this studies. In the Nepalese context, this study indicates that the more prominent role playing drivers of changing cropping patterns are technological advancement /inputs, infrastructural development and road connectivity, and market demand and climate change however land degradation and government policies also play a role to shifting cropping patterns. These all drivers interact and link with each other, leading to changing cropping patterns in Nepal.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Climate change and adaptive strategies for agriculture in Panchkhal Municipality 2024-01-16T04:22:24+00:00 Suman Kumar Shrestha <p>Climate change is a modern global crisis caused by human activities that emit greenhouse gases and alter the Earth's natural systems. It is now an undeniable global burning issue, affecting the complex relationship between the physical landscape, natural resources, and how communities adapt to the effects of climate change. Climate change brings many uncertainties to the livelihoods of farming communities that depend on weather and climate. The purpose of this paper is to examine the climate change and adaptive strategies of the farmers in Panchkhal Municipality using an explanatory mixed-methods research design. Primary data were collected from field observation, questionnaires, and interviews. Secondary data were collected from the Center Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM). The finding shows the many impacts of climate change, such as hot waves, floods, landslides, droughts, increased diseases in agriculture production, and drying up water resources. Similarly, it shows that traditional adaptive strategies have been changing due to a decline in food crop production over the last two decades. Thus, strong policy efforts need to be prepared to mitigate the adverse impact of climate change on traditional farming methods.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Demographic dynamics and role of senior citizens in Nepal 2024-01-16T06:22:03+00:00 Shalik Ram Sigdel Khem Kumar Bhurtel Surya Sigdel <p>The demographic shift from high fertility to low mortality naturally leads to population aging. Global ageing, the success story of the 21st century has been made possible by advancements in medicine, socioeconomic development, and public health initiatives. This paper explores the demographic dynamics of the senior citizen in Nepal and their roles for developing the society and the country as a whole. Elderly people are not only the burdens and beneficiaries but also the assets of society, repository of boundless knowledge, and skills. The seniors play a role of counselor, care taker, main source of ethical instruction, and source of income. Moreover, they are living history and socio cultural transformer.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Unlocking economic opportunities: Analyzing relationship between educational attainment, skilled training and monthly income of labor migrants 2024-01-16T06:40:11+00:00 Santosh K. Mahato Devi Prasad Paudel <p>This research examines the relationship between skill training, educational attainment, and monthly income among labor migrants, with a focus on recognizing the importance of education and skill in enhancing employability and income potential for unlocking their economic opportunities. Using a quantitative research approach, data is collected through surveys conducted among 385 labor migrants. The findings pointed out the correlation between the level of education and the monthly income of labor migrants as the calculated Chi-square value (χ²) of 0.046 was lower than the predetermined significance level p of 0.05. Also, there is correlation between skilled training and monthly income as a Chi-square value (χ²) of 0.000, which was lower than the predetermined significance level (p) of 0.05. The study reveals that labor migrants with more advanced education and specialized training typically earn greater monthly incomes in comparison to those without such training or with lower educational qualifications.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023