Extracting Features of Transient Electric Fields With Fourier And Wavelet Transform–A Case Study Of Lightning Positive Return Stroke
Keywords:Lightning, Fourier, Wavelet, Frequency-spectrum
Frequency domain information were extracted from the time domain electric fields pertinent to the lightning positive return strokes applying Fourier transform and Wavelet transform. The electric field radiated by positive ground flashes striking the sea were recorded at 10 ns resolution at a coastal station to minimize the propagation effects. The frequency spectrum of the electric field of positive return strokes were computed applying the Fourier transform technique in the range of 10 kHz to 20 MHz owing to the fact that this range of frequency is of very much interest to the researchers and design engineers. The amplitude of the energy spectral density decreases nearly as ƒ-1 from 10 kHz to about 0.1 MHz and drops nearly as ƒ-2 up to 8 MHz. Applying the wavelet transform technique, the same positive return strokes are found to radiate in the frequency range of 5.5 to 81 kHz with the average spread distribution of 13.6 kHz to about 30 kHz. From frequency spectrum obtained from the Fourier transform it is difficult to identify as which phase of the return stroke radiates in the higher frequency range and that in the lower frequency range, whereas, one can easily identify from the frequency spectrum obtained with the wavelet transform that ramp portion of the positive return stroke radiates in the larger spectral range as compared to that of initial peak of the return stroke. Also, from the spectral density map obtained from wavelet transform one can easily observe the contribution of each phase in a range of frequency, which is not possible from the Fourier transform technique. Clearly, the wavelet transform is much more powerful tool to extract the frequency domain information of a non-stationary signal as compared to that of Fourier transform.