Sunsari Technical College Journal Official journal of the Sunsari Technical College, Sunsari. Full text articles available. en-US (Dr. Prasanna Dahal, MSc, PharmD) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 28 Apr 2016 17:17:51 +0000 OJS 60 Utilization of Milk By-Product (Buttermilk) in the Preparation of Chhurpi and its Quality Evaluation <p class="Default"><em>Chhurpi</em>, a traditional milk product were prepared with slight improvement in manufacturing practice; using skim milk: butter milk at different variations (SM:BM=0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60;40. 80:20, and100:0) at 70ºC and coagulated by 2% tartaric acid maintaining pH value 5.3. The formulation having ratio SM:BM of 0:100 found to be best among all the formulations except the control one and was not significantly different in terms of flavor, body and texture, gumminess and chewiness and overall acceptability. Physico– chemical analysis of best product was found to be 10% moisture, 5.26% fat, 74.17% protein, 3.18% lactose and 6.26% total ash. Chemical analysis of the best product was not significantly different in terms of lactose content and total ash content while it was significantly different in terms of moisture content, fat content and protein content from control i.e. 100% skim milk at p&lt;0.05. Hence, according to this research the sweet cream buttermilk as a waste of dairy industries can be solely used to convert into a value added milk product with earnings.</p><p class="Default"><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015,2(1):1-6</em></p> Som Raj Shrestha, Mahalaxmi Pradhananga, Suman Kumar Lal Das Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Various Stabilizers on Sensorial Quality of Yoghurt <p class="Default">This research was aimed to preserve the yoghurts using stabilizers without refrigeration in terms of syneresis and sensory analysis. Yoghurts were prepared using three stabilizers viz., gelatin, carboxymethylcellulose and sodium alginate and a control (without stabilizer). For which set type yoghurt was prepared with 2% starter culture inoculation and was incubated at 43⁰C for 3 hours and was stored at 5-7⁰C. Statistical analysis of all the treatments showed that 0.2 % stabilizer containing samples were significantly superior (p&lt;0.05). The best samples with stabilizers containing 0.2% were again compared with control. From this, 0.2% gelatin added sample had significantly superior (p&lt;0.05) scores. Shelf life of the sample was observed and it was compared with control at refrigerated condition. Sensorial gelatin added sample was best up to eleventh days while the control was best up to seventh days. Gelatin added sample showed less syneresis compared to control and adding stabilizer seems slower the acid development and syneresis of yoghurt in terms of storage time.</p><p class="Default"><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015,2(1):7-12</em></p> Nirmala Bhattarai, Mahalaxmi Pradhananga, Shyam Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C among Blood Donors at Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal <p>Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are the chronic viral infection that might be transmitted by blood transfusion. Nepal is known to have lowest seroprevalence in Asia. The main objective of the present study is to find out the prevalence of hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and their co-infection among blood donors during study period from March to August 2014. This was a cross sectional study among volunteer blood donors in Dharan who had donated the Blood. A total of 4930 donated blood samples were collected and screened for hepatitis B and hepatitis C by using a rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. Among 4930 blood samples under study, the overall seroprevalence of hepatitis B were 0.22% (11 out of 4930) and hepatitis C were 0.39% (19 out of 4930) (P value = 0.01) and the prevalence being lower in females than males for both cases. Hepatitis B were more in age group of 21 -30 (0.4%) but hepatitis C in age group of 31-40 (0.5%). Hepatitis B and C are potential threats to be transmitted from unscreened blood.</p><p><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):13-16</em></p> Sabina Rai, Pranita Dongol, Hemanta Khanal Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Jamun (Syzygium cumini L) Wine <p class="Default">The study aims to determine the effect of various strength of juice content (100%, 75%, 50% and 25%) on the chemical and sensory qualities of the wines. Sensory analysis showed that there was no significant difference among all the products with respect to colour but showed significant difference with other respect. The product prepared from 50% juice content got the highest mean score in sensory analysis. Changing pattern of pH, total sugar, TSS and acidity in all fermentations were similar but differed significantly with respect to their changing values. The average pH, Total soluble solids (TSS- ºBx), alcohol content (% m/v), acidity (% citric acid), total sugar (% dextrose) of the best product i.e juice content of 75% were found to be 3.53, 10, 6, 0.82, 6.12 respectively. Wine made from other formulations (juice content) were significantly different (at 5% level of significance) from the best formulation with respect to TSS, alcohol content, total sugar and pH but showed similarities with the product made from 100% juice content in respect of acidity. Fermentation mash containing 50% juice content, 50% water, 20ºBx TSS, and 3.4 pH was found to be optimum for wine preparation using wine yeast at ambient temperature. The optimized recipes were cost effective over other tested variations.</p><p><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):17-22</em></p> Dipal Dahal, Suman Kumar Lal Das Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Microbiological Quality of Indigenous Dahi from Eastern Nepal <p>The present study was undertaken to evaluate the microbiological quality of indigenous <em>dahi </em>from eastern Nepal. Atotal of 39 indigenous <em>dahi </em>samples were collected from sixteen districts of eastern Nepal and analyzed. Results revealed the mean yeasts and mould count to be 20.5×10<sup>4</sup>±7503, coliform count 65±42, <em>S. aureus</em> 197±65 and total viable bacterial count 227×10<sup>6</sup>±17250 cfu/g. Total viable bacteria and yeasts and moulds were present in all samples examined. Coliforms were present in 90 % and <em>S. aureus </em>were present in 63% of samples examined whereas salmonella species were not detected in any of the samples under study.<em></em></p><p><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):23-26</em></p> Rewati Raman Bhattarai, Suman Kumar Lal Das Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Quality of Life among Epileptic and Hypertensive Patients <p>A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted through patient reported outcomes of the therapy in epileptic and hypertensive patients for the period of two months at B.P.Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Hospital, Dharan. 52 epileptic and 60 hypertensive patients were analyzed with mean±SD ages 23.69±7.61 and 60.68±14.34 years old respectively. Out of which 53.85% and 46.66% were male in epilepsy and hypertension respectively. The Mean±SD (HRQOL) 60±17 was found in epilepsy and 59±6 in hypertension. Social function, scored 61 out of 100, was highly reduced in epilepsy than in hypertension whereas role limitation due to physical function is comparatively reduced in hypertension than epilepsy, although there were no significant difference between mean HRQOL of epilepsy and hypertension (P&gt;0.05) with correlation -0.084 in paired samples T-test. There were no variations in HRQOL by gender in both groups after having drug therapy in both categories. Independent sample T test (P&gt;0.025) showed that there were no significant differences in mean HRQOL and every domains of HRQOL of epilepsy with cut point 20 years. But physical functioning, energy level and general health were significantly (P&lt;0.035) different in between age group ≥ 50 and &lt; 50 years with hypertension. The study concluded that the Health Related Quality Of Life is low in both epilepsy and hypertension than general population regardless gender and age. In hypertension a decrease in QOL was observed with age, only in relation to physical and psychological health rather than other health domains but in epilepsy there were no significant variation in health domains of HRQOL by gender and age.</p><p>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):27-32</p> Laxman Maharjan, Prasanna Dahal, Bibek Dahal, Choodamani Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Incorporation of Malted Sorghum Flour on Quality of Biscuit <p class="Default">Sorghum (<em>S. bicolor</em>) collected from Dhankuta district was used for malting. Sorghum was steeped for 12 hours at Relative humidity of 70±5% and germinated at room temperature (28±3°C) with repeated change of water at interval of every 8 hours for 2, 3,4,5,6 and 7 days. The germinated samples of each day were taken for kilning at the temperature scenario of 50-55°C until moisture reaches to 23%; 70-75°C until moisture reaches to 12%; and 90-95% until moisture reaches to 3-5%. The result of enzyme activity determination showed that the sorghum germinated for 3 days has the higher enzyme activity of 27.39 units per gram dry matter. Proximate analysis of malted and unmalted flour showed significant different (p&lt;0.05) in fat, ash, reducing sugar and crude fiber content. Likewise calcium and iron content of malted flour was significantly increased (p&lt;0.05) than that of unmalted one with subsequent decreased (p&lt;0.05) in their binder oxalate and phytate respectively. The sorghum of higher enzyme activity was then used to prepare the biscuit. Malted sorghum and wheat flour was blended in the following ratios: samples A; 30: 70, sample B; 50:50, sample C; 60:40, sample D; 0:100. The organolaptic test shows the significant difference (p&lt;0.05) between these samples in terms of flavor and test. The mean sensory score was found to be higher for sample C. This suggests that the malted sorghum flour can be used for the preparation of biscuit upto 60% (w/w) of wheat flour without alteration in texture, crispiness, appearance and overall acceptability.</p><p>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):33-37</p> Nischal Adhikari, Dev Raj Acharya Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of Processing Parameters and Extension of Shelf Life of ‘Quark’-A Type of Thick Yoghurt <p>Quark was prepared from cow milk by the optimization of different parameters like concentration of rennet, sugar percentage and flavor types. The rennet concentration used for optimization was 0.00139 %, 0.00234 %, 0.00278 % and 0.00468 %. In terms of acidity, texture, flavor and appearance. 0.00234 percent rennet was found significantly best product. The concentration of sugar in quark was varied in different proportion viz. 2, 4 and 5 %, among these 4 % was ranked best with respect to sensory properties. Flavor optimization with vanilla 125ppm without color addition was preferred significantly. Though the high quality life (HQL) of the optimized product was 45 days in deep frozen condition (-20°C), 6 days in refrigerated condition (-4°C). Yet, the product remained acceptable up to 2 days at room temperature (33 ± 2°C) and up to 15 days in refrigerated condition.</p><p><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):38-43</em></p> Ram Shovit Yadav Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Prescription Patterns in Hypertensive and Diabetic Patients Visiting Private Tertiary Care Hospital of Dharan Municipality, Nepal <p class="Default">This study was conducted to assess the drug prescribing trend of anti-hypertensive and hypoglycemic agents in hypertensive and diabetic patients in tertiary care private Hospital. The study was prospective, cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 100 prescriptions were recorded. 56% were males as compared to 44% females. The age group of the patients varied from 30 to 90 years with majority individual above 50 years of age. 59% patients were hypertensive; 26% patients were diabetic and 15% had both the diseases. For the treatment of HTN, both mono-therapy and combination therapy were followed. In mono-therapy, amlodipine was most commonly prescribed followed by losartan. In combination therapy, a two-drug combination consisting of calcium channel blockers (amlodipine) and diuretics (furosemide /hydrochlorothiazide) were given to the majority of patients, followed by Diuretics and Angiotensin receptor blocker combination. Among diabetic hypertensive, 66.67% of patients were treated with single anti-hypertensive drug and 33.35% of patients were treated with anti-hypertensive drug combinations with oral hypoglycemics. This study showed that calcium channel blockers were the most prescribed antihypertensive agents while biguanides were the mostly prescribed among anti-diabetic agents. Combination therapy was observed in a high percentage of prescriptions in hypertensive patients. Prescribing pattern among antihypertensive showed some dubitable adherences to existing evidence-based JNC guidelines<em>.</em></p><p><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):44-47</em></p> Prasanna Dahal, Laxman Maharjan, Bibek Dahal, Kissan Gupta Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Sensory and Quality Evaluation of Mayonnaise and its Effect on Storage Stability <p class="Default">This study aimed to evaluate the addition of skim milk powder to replace egg yolk in preparation of mayonnaise. Egg yolk was pasteurized at 150ºF (65.6ºC) about 1 minute for its safety. Mayonnaise was prepared from sunflower oil with the level varied from 65-75% and egg yolk from 9-15%. Mayonnaise made from 70% oil and 12% egg yolk was found to be best. Then skim milk powder (SMP) was added to replace 12% egg yolk in the ratios 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 other constituents remaining constant. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that mayonnaise substituted with 25% skim milk powder was best. The chemical composition of the product, as well as fatty acid composition and peroxide value was analyzed. Coliform and Salmonella was not detected in microbial analysis. Sensory studies for its storage stability confirmed that the product was acceptable up to 28th days at refrigerate temperature whereas sample stored in room temperature was deteriorated after 14th days. <em></em></p><p><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):48-53</em></p> Mahalaxmi Pradhananga, Babita Adhikari Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Bacteriological Evaluation of Bottled Water Commercially Available in Eastern Nepal <p class="Default">The demand for bottled water is high in these days and it has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of such processed water. The objective of this study was to assess the heterotrophic contamination and total coliform. This cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected 24 different commercial brands of bottled water available in the commercial market of the eastern region of Nepal. Total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by the membrane filtration and spread plate technique, respectively. Among 24 water sample processed, 62.5% (n=15) samples showed the heterotrophic bacterial count above the acceptable range (&lt;50 CFU/0.1ml) and 75% (n=18) samples showed the total coliform count crossed the WHO guidelines (0 CFU/ml) and not acceptable for drinking. <em>E. Coli </em>was detected in 54.2% of water samples and <em>Enterobacters aerogenes</em>(45.8%), <em>Enterococcus fecalis</em>(20.8%), <em>Pseudomonas </em>sps (20.8%), <em>Bacillus </em>species (16.6%) and <em>Staphylococcus aereus </em>(4.2%) were also detected from different samples. Only 25% of bottled water was acceptable for drinking purpose. The presence of heterotrophs and the coliform in the bottled water is a serious concern for public health. Concerned authority should prioritize this issue and continuously monitor the quality of available bottled water manufacturers in the eastern region to provide safe drinking water to the population.</p><p>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):54-57</p> Rojina Rai, Bindiya Kumal, Devina Rai, Arun Keshari, Rima Bhandari Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Colorants in our Health <p>No Abstract.</p><p>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1)</p> Madhab Lamsal Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Fast Dissolving Oral Films: A Novel Trend to Oral Drug Delivery System <p class="Default">Oral routes are most commonly preferred route for delivering drug. Most common oral dosage forms are tablet and capsules. But many patients such as geriatric, pediatric and dysphasic patients find difficult to swallow conventional tablet and capsule. To overcome various problems related to swallowing, Fast dissolving Tablets (FDTs) were designed in early 19th century and hence further advancement has led to development of Fast Dissolving Oral Films (FDOFs). In the recent years, many of the pharmaceutical groups are focusing their research on rapid dissolving technology. Amongst the plethora of avenues explored for rapid drug releasing product, FDOFs technology is gaining much attention. These are solid dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or mastication. This technology has been used for local action as well as rapid release products. The fast dissolving oral films are formulated using various Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), film forming polymers, plasticizer, flavors, colors and sweeteners. Initially FDOFs are up to breath strips, confection and oral care markets. But now it became a novel and widely accepted technology for delivering OTC and prescription medication too.</p><p>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):58-68</p> Mukem Bhattarai, Amit Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000 Food Colorants and their Toxicology: An Overview <p class="Default">There are many kinds of colorants, which have been already banned or are used under strict supervision of food safety authorities. Use of artificial colorants over natural ones has increased in modern world. Besides, it has also concerned on importance of toxicological studies. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of different colorants will define the optimum level of coloring substances on food items. Molecular size of coloring agents and their absorption ratio have significant role in toxico-kinetics. Bigger molecular size has lower absorption capacity and toxicity while vice versa for the smaller one. Higher absorption of smaller molecules can be lowered by binding with carrier molecules to make big enough to block through mucosal layer. Adverse health effects related to many colorants are itching, urticaria, anaphylaxis, hypersensitivity, intolerance reactions, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, cytostaticity and cytotoxicity. Color additives seem to be complex subject having direct relationship with consumer safety. Therefore, toxicology of attractive coloring agents might overlook the advantages of colorants. So, toxicologist and food scientist need to collaborate to define the use of different color additives and their safety in future in more scientific way.<em></em></p><p><em>Sunsari Technical College Journal 2015, 2(1):69-75</em></p> Nawaraj Gautam Copyright (c) 2016 Sunsari Technical College Journal Thu, 28 Apr 2016 00:00:00 +0000