Researcher: A Research Journal of Culture and Society 2021-12-21T02:59:33+00:00 Som Prasad Khatiwada Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the Research Development Centre, Nepal. Full text articles available.</p> Front Pages 2021-12-12T12:45:57+00:00 Som Prasad Khatiwada <p>Front Pages</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Exercise of Multiparty System through the Major Electoral Practices in Nepal 2021-12-20T15:00:15+00:00 Amrit Kumar Shrestha <p>Nepal has entered into multiparty democracy in 1951. From begging to till dates of these seven decades, three decades were practiced party-less Panchayat system where political parties were outlawed. Within the remaining four decades Nepal has conducted seven national elections held in accordance to democratic norms and values. Many political parties fielded their candidates in these elections. They got various positions as per the cast of votes by Nepalese citizens. Results of elections show that Nepal has implemented the multiparty system. That was not the single or bi-party system. This article tries to analyze the participation of political parties in the elections and their position after the elections. It is based on reports published by the election commission after each election of Nepal. It analyzes only data of national elections. Nepali Congress (NC) a rightist party is a popular party of Nepal; results of elections proved it. Similarly, communists are also popular among Nepalese voters. They obtained higher votes in some national elections of Nepal. Other some rightist and leftist parties have also appeared in a significant position in the scenario of national politics of Nepal.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Sectoral Resilience of Enterprises in Eastern Nepal Amid Covid-19 with Reference to Young Entrepreneurs 2021-12-10T08:39:11+00:00 Arjun Rai Chandra Kumar Rai <p>This investigation compared the negative effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on different business sectors run by young entrepreneurs from eastern Nepal. The population in this study comprised all the young entrepreneurs of eastern Nepal. A standardized instrument was used to collect primary data from 204 young entrepreneurs. An independent sample t-test and Analysis of Variance were used as statistical tools to compare the negative impact of Covid-19 on different sectors of business. The collected data were coded, entered, and processed in Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS), version 25. The results of the study revealed that different sectors of businesses were negatively and significantly affected by Covid-19. The grocery business was the least negatively affected business amongst the seven sectors included in this study.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Challenges of Anti-Corruption and Its Impact on the Society 2021-12-12T07:04:38+00:00 Aswasthama Bhakta Kharel <p>Corruption needs to be prevented and tackled not only because of its foul but also economically causes financial losses to the state and is a violation of the rights of the social and economic community. This paper is based on the growing need to eradicate corruption in society. The forms and causes of corruption, how to combat it, and what are the challenges to eradicating corruption are issues that are on the increase on national, regional, and international agendas. Transparency International Nepal, The United Nations Convention against Corruption, Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA), Nepal,&nbsp;the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, U<sub>4 </sub>– Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI), the United Nations Declaration against Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial Transactions, and the International Code of Conduct for Public Officials are living testimonies. These calls to eradicate corruption present puzzles that scholarly investigations need to take the lead role and center stage in unraveling. This scenario reveals and demands both theoretical and practical discourse, understanding the concept of e-Government, its necessities, and challenges to implementing it.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal A Lived Experience of a University Retired English Teacher: A Narrative Inquiry 2021-12-20T15:16:43+00:00 Jib Nath Timsina <p>Teaching is a challenging job. It requires mentoring and helping students to grasp the meaning and understand the message the subject delivers. A teacher is one who inspires guides, enlightens and motivates the learner. It is lifelong process. This article is based on narrative&nbsp;inquiry research on the lived experience of a recently retired English teacher from Tribhuvan University&nbsp;who contributed a lot in English education. It explores how a master degree holder in English education joined at university and constructed and reconstructed his identity in his teaching profession unless he retired. Data were collected from face to face in depth interviews and telephone conversation then analyzed through narrative case analysis. The findings show that a university English teacher develops and modifies his identity through engaging himself in different professional development activities, interacting with different socializing factors and experiencing various emotions in university activities. He also works as curriculum developer, examiner, and invigilator, external and internal examiner in practical examinations. &nbsp;He has to labour hard in his whole professional period and has to balance his emotional behaviours, that is, happy moments as well as frustrated&nbsp;moments. The paper concludes with some implications for language teachers in context of education campuses under faculty of education in T.U.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Teacher's Perceptions towards Teaching Learning Practice at COVID Pandemic in Community School Nepal 2021-12-12T08:03:50+00:00 Khagendra Baraily Dawa Sherpa Hom Bahadur Basnet <p>This study employs the teaching learning practice adopted by student and teacher in the community school of rural areas in pandemic period. The world battle against corona virus disturbances every academic movement of institution. This study aims to dig out the student and teacher experiences from the community school and explore the perception about learning environment along with student connection indoor launched by the community school. In the philosophical standpoint, subjective reality is ontological stand and multiple realities are epistemological platform. Regarding to research design, hermeneutics&nbsp;phenomenology was chosen as qualitative approach. Purposively four teachers from community school were participated from Morag district, province no.1. The result showed that there is no effective means of learning mechanism in pandemic period. Most of the student's activity is deviated from the line of education because of various factors such as economy, family support, internet disturbance, and attitudinal barrier. The student's behavior was found to be beyond of education environment. The stakeholders of child education are found to be careless. Some of the community school in urban areas conducted their academic activity via internet but not sufficient. School in the rural areas completely stopped their activities due to various reasons. The rural municipality and school could not collaborate for running academic program. The students were not benefitted by education in the pandemic situation.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Challenges of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Nepal 2021-12-20T15:29:47+00:00 Lok Nath Timsina <p>This article has presented the difficulties and challenges faced by teachers in teaching English as a foreign language in Nepal. The main objective of the article is to describe the challenges in teaching English in the countries where it is not spoken as a mother tongue. The primary data were collected from three English teachers who have been teaching English in basic level at community schools located in Madhyapur Thimi Municipality, Bhaktapur. Field observation and in-depth interviews were the major tools for data collection. From the interviews and the available literature, some challenges of teaching English as a foreign language in our context have been drawn. The result shows that the teachers encounter the challenges inside the classroom with the knowledge of teacher and students, outside of it with parents and unfavorable environment, some challenges are related to languages and others are related to the curriculum, textbooks and the policy of the government. &nbsp;The findings of the study is beneficial to the teachers, researchers, school administrators, policy makers, curriculum developers and textbook writers to obtain the fruitful results in teaching English in Nepal.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Mundhum Discourse: Interpreting through Ethnographies of Communication 2021-12-12T08:19:38+00:00 Mohan Kumar Tumbahang <p>This paper attempts to see the Limbu Mundhum from the perspective of ethnography of communication model that is the factors involving in the contextual interpretation of the classical texts or ritual performances. The textual data are based on one of the main portions of the Limbu Mundhum recitation especially <em>'Yaapmi Pongmaa Mundhum</em>' Origin of Man. The necessary information has been drawn from both the empirical observation as well as library studies. As this study is based on non-numerical data and endeavors to understand concepts, ideas or experiences, it typically falls under the qualitative research involving the theory of linguistic anthropology. The major finding of this paper is that a text cannot be interpreted in its fuller range of meaning unless the text is not analyzed through the ethnographies of speaking model. The paper may be helpful for the interpretation of rites and ritual performances through ethnographic perspective.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Teachers and Students' Perception on Intended and Enacted Teaching Methods in Higher Education Teaching 2021-12-12T08:28:55+00:00 Nirmal Raj Mishra <p>The curriculum, pedagogy and assessment are the crucial interrelated elements for effective teaching learning activities in the higher education classroom. Due to so, this research project focused on analyzing the teachers and students perception on intended and enacted teaching methods in higher education teaching at Tribhuvan University. For this, the qualitative research design was applied to explore the subjective realities of research problem. It was more descriptive as well as interpretive in nature. &nbsp;During this process, the curriculum study, open ended questionnaire and participant observation methods were used to collect the verbal information for this interpretive inquiry. It found that both teachers and students positively perceived the six-month semester based program and expected that it would help to promote the activity based teaching learning activities. But, teachers were used to in lecturer method and more popular in higher education teaching. Beside this, the teachers were mostly practicing the lecture, demonstration through multimedia projector, question answer, self-study, project work and home assignment during the classroom instruction for professional core course curriculum.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal Inclusive Policy in Tribhuvan University: A Case of Its Pre and Post Implementation 2021-12-12T08:42:11+00:00 Prem Prasad Limbu <p>Tribhuvan University (TU), a leading institution of higher education in Nepal covers 83 percent educational enrolment for higher-level education. It has been implementing inclusive policy since 2009 in order to mitigate inequality in composition of higher education governance. The main assumption of the policy action of inclusion is to increase the participation of excluded groups to maintain proportional equilibrium to privileged groups. Is the policy practice working as its assumption? This study has explored the answer of this question. The result shows that the increasing participation status of women, Indigenous Nationalities and <em>Dalit</em>. It has justified the relevancy of continuity of inclusive policy practice. However, the participation of two privileged groups i) <em>Bahun </em>and <em>Chhetri </em>and ii) <em>Newar</em>&nbsp;is not found remarkable decreased. To present the concluding result the article has contained about higher education governance and TU’s inclusive policy legal provision in introduction. After that, it has included the result, discussion and conclusion interpreting comparative data presentation of policy parget groups’ pre and post policy practice participation status.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal A Study on Low Performing Students Perception towards Mathematics: A Case of Secondary Level Community School Students of Nepal 2021-12-12T08:52:32+00:00 Rajendra Kunwar <p>The students' perception of mathematics is equally important for the parents as well as the teachers to deal with them effectively. Therefore, this&nbsp;study is concerned with the secondary level&nbsp;low-performing students' perception of mathematics and its effects on their achievements. The study is based on the mixed-method survey research design consisting of&nbsp;312 grade IX and X students, 119 male and 193 female students from the 10 community schools of Province No. 1, Nepal. A Likert-type survey questionnaire, 'Perception Towards Mathematics Inventory (PTMI) was developed and administered by the researchers to the participants. Thus, the collected quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews were summarized and analyzed categorically in high-performing and low-performing groups. The findings revealed that the perception of the low-performing students towards mathematics was found negative or they did not prefer to learn mathematics.&nbsp;Similarly, the student's perception of mathematics was found to have a greater effect on their achievement.&nbsp;The group of higher achiever students was found more positive and confident towards mathematics and the lower achievers were found negative and anxious.&nbsp;However, most of the students were found aware of the value of mathematics.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal The Effect of Online Review on Online Purchase Intention 2021-12-12T09:08:04+00:00 Udgam Mishra <p>The primary goal of this research is to examine the effect of online reviews on online purchase intention. The study investigates the influence of review valence, review relevance and review accuracy on the online purchase intention. Cross-sectional data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 251 Nepalese from the eastern part. The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling. Amos 21 was used to analyze the gathered data. The findings reveal that review accuracy has a favorable and significant impact on online purchase intention. Whereas, review valence and review relevance on other hand have no substantial impact on online purchase intention. The work founded on prior research basing review valence, review relevance and review accuracy adds limited but emerging literature on online purchase intention. Marketers and policymakers will be benefited from the findings while designing and implementing different policies to attract people to persuade online purchase.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Development Centre, Nepal