Journal of Productive Discourse <p>The Journal of Productive Discourse is an international, not for profit, double anonymised peer-reviewed journal of critical readings across disciplines. It aims to provide teachers, students and learned members of the community an authentic open-access platform featuring scholarly research, reviews and perspectives on the state of current discourse on topics of interdisciplinary interest. It is published by Madan Bhandari Memorial College, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Madan Bhandari Memorial College en-US Journal of Productive Discourse 2990-7535 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> Habituality, Perfectivity and Ergativity in Nepali <p>This paper argues that in Nepali, the position of aspect heads leads to the ergative case assignment on agents of perfective clauses and optional marking on the agents in habitual sentences. Along with split ergativity, Nepali exhibits ergative marking also for stage vs. individual level readings of the subjects in habitual sentences. A marked subject has an individual level reading and an unmarked subject has a stage level reading. In the context of the data presented in the paper, it is argued that the case marking on the agent is an inherent case, assigned to the agent in its theta position. Furthermore, such inherent case assignment or the environment in which the agent is marked, is motivated and conditioned by the aspect of the clause, represented through various aspect heads in narrow syntax.</p> Raj Laxmi Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Raj Laxmi Singh 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 6 14 Usage and Significance of Manipuri Colour Terms: Taking Cues from Imphal Children <p>There are four basic colour terms in Meiteilon or Manipuri. There are also secondary colour terms, which are derived from objects. The associated objects are used with the term ‘mǝcu’, which means colour in Meiteilon. For instance, hǝŋamapalmǝcu is the colour term for yellow where hǝŋamapal means the mustard flower. Thus the yellow colour term is derived from the yellow colour of the mustard flower and is used with mǝcu to give an equivalent term for yellow in English. This paper seeks to explore the colour terms in Meiteilon in their possible forms and terms related to their states and their cultural salience, if any, with a holistic approach. As a pilot survey, the use of Manipuri colour terms in the speeches of 8 children (five 8-year-olds and three 5-yearolds, who lived in a particular locality of Imphal) was observed in their home environment. These children seem to know the colour terms in English well compared to the Manipuri colour terms. The initial observations hint at the diminished use of native terms compared to the use of English equivalents, which is not an ideal situation for the retention of native language at large. It is still to be checked if similar situations are prevalent in other home environments, and if such cases are on the rise then consequences could be far reaching in terms of indigenous languages losing out to English.</p> Romita Ahanthem Devi Copyright (c) 2023 Romita Ahanthem Devi 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 15 24 Laryngeal Markedness in Chhatthare Limbu: An Optimality Theoretic Analysis <p>This paper looks at the laryngeal contrast in Chhatthare Limbu and formalises the phonological effects through an optimality theoretic analysis. It discusses the underlying laryngeal feature specification in the language and how it fares with the constraint ranking in the language. The analysis shows that while the voicing and aspiration contrasts are available in the language, the context sensitive markedness and faithfulness constraints inhibit the free occurrence of these contrasts.</p> Krishan Chaursiya Copyright (c) 2023 Krishan Chaursiya 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 25 32 Towards A Mother-Language Based Multi-Lingual Education in Jharkhand <p>Jharkhand is a highly multi-lingual Indian state, which is home to at least 33 indigenous communities, who speak around 20 mother languages. The new state used to experience the highest dropout of children at primary level in India. The author set up a research centre on children’s languages, M-TALL <em>Akhra. </em>The mother-language based centre focused on research and innovation in language and education. It conducted a state wide linguistic survey, which revealed that 96 percent children in the state spoke in indigenous languages, which are very different from the school’s Hindi language. Children failed to understand the language of textbooks, teachers and examination. Hence, they left school. M-TALL <em>Akhra </em>developed bilingual picture dictionaries in 9 indigenous languages for children in early grades. Then ‘<em>Bhasha Puliya</em>’ (language bridge) with content for pre-school education was developed. The piloting enabled around 80% children to acquire desired school readiness. It led to expansion of the programme to 7,200 pre-school education centres. Finally, it was upscaled across the board with improvised contents. Then M-TALL <em>Akhra </em>developed culture sensitive primary textbooks in 16 indigenous languages in five scripts. These textbooks, published in 7 languages since 2016, are used by indigenous children in around a thousand schools. A second linguistic survey was conducted recently by M-TALL <em>Akhra </em>for the state to design a foundational literacy numeracy (FLN) roadmap for children as desired under the National Education Policy, 2022.</p> Binay Pattanayak Copyright (c) 2023 Binay Pattanayak 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 33 42 (De) Construction of State Identity through Postcolonial Examination of Geography: A Case Study of Nepal <p>Postcolonialism on geographical studies encompasses scholarships that draw on postcolonial perspectives to challenge forms of colonial and imperial domination of geographical narratives. The studies within and beyond geography have construed how colonial discourse and discrimination have distinctive spatial dimensions and special effects on the (de)construction of the identity of the states. Thus, applying postcolonial lenses and examining colonial and Eurocentric geographical narratives, the paper aims to deconstruct the state identity. First, the paper introduces postcolonial studies to geography by way of a review of the literature. Then, the paper reviews the Eurocentric geographical architecture to establish modern geography as a western or colonial creation. Additionally, the paper provides a colonial justification for those geographical constructs and paves the way for de-mapping the Eurocentric geographies. Notably, the paper takes a unique case study of Nepal and examines the colonial geographical frameworks the British East India Company constructed during colonisation in the Indian subcontinent. Likewise, the paper outlines the consequential colonial geographical narratives formed due to the colonial discourses and the postcolonial explanation of Nepal’s identity. In the end, the paper presents Nepal’s native geographical identity by comparing <em>Divya Upadesh</em> with that of the colonial narratives. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the Eurocentric and colonial geographical penetration into the knowledge system to construct a state identity and postcolonial approach as the method of deconstructing those identities of the state.</p> Manish Jung Pulami Copyright (c) 2023 Manish Jung Pulami 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 43 52 An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Alternative Dispute Resolution Methods <p>This study assesses the effectiveness of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) practices in projects run under the Department of Roads of Nepal government. Secondary data from case studies and primary data from questionnaire and key informant interviews are analysed in view of the decisions regarding the use of ADR in settlement of road project cases. The research uses a descriptive method in the assessment. Out of eight (8) projects, disputes related to four (4) were settled by litigation based on ADR (Adjudication and Arbitration) decision, one was sent for the reformation of arbitration by court/litigation and three (3) were awarded by ADR (Arbitration) but remained pending in the settlement process by litigation till 14 May 2022. Negotiation (i.e. amicable settlement) is the most applied ADR to resolve the disputes followed by Conciliation, Mediation and Adjudication. Arbitration is used as the last stage of ADR due to its high legal value in spite of the high time and cost. The study is significant for professionals to overcome the identified causes effectively to create zero-dispute projects by handling the issues in real time.</p> Anup Sauden Surya Chhetri Copyright (c) 2023 Anup Sauden, Surya Chhetri 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 53 64 Price Adjustment Practices and Their Impacts on Bridge Construction Contracts <p>This paper assesses the patterns and trends of price fluctuations and price adjustment practices in RCC T-beam and prestressed bridge construction contracts. Using a questionnaire survey, we conducted a descriptive research to document the existing practices. The perceptions of clients and contractors were measured using mean score and standard deviation on issue, followed by a consistency check. We then analysed the major components of price adjustments to identify trends. Price adjustment provisions are planned during the procurement planning and bid preparation stages of procurement cycle, and are used as necessary during the contract implementation stage. These provisions are meant to give protection to the contractor against price escalation. In the absence of any compensation provision in bridge construction contracts, price fluctuation can affect the time, cost and quality parameters of construction projects. This may lead to delays or cancellation of projects, reduced number of bidders, poor quality, problems with cash flow, and loss of interest of stakeholders in the project. The research draws attention to the serious issues of price adjustments among bridge projects to ensure constructability. This is the first attempt to address the issue in bridge contracts of Nepal and can serve as a starting point for further research on this topic.</p> Navnit Chaudhary Madan Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Navnit Chaudhary, Madan Sharma 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 65 74 Human Resource Management Practices in Nepali Industries <p>Human resource (HR) determines the success and failure of any organisation in a rapidly changing business world. This paper undertakes to examine the current state of HR management practices in pharmacy sector of Nepal. Based on interviews, the study suggests the pharmacy sector implements a majority of the best practices outlined, with their outstanding customer services reflecting the outcomes. This is a pragmatic research focused on highlighting the issues and status of human resources in the pharmaceutical industries. However, in order to improve the situation, they must embark on reforms. These data provide some insights into the general state of the pharmaceutical industry. It was discovered that the drugstore under investigation follows optimal procedures so Nepal's poor pharmaceutical industry could reflect the country's fragile socioeconomic and political-legal status. These organisations employ people who are highly qualified and capable. Top executives are honing their skills in formulating strategic plans and setting goals.</p> Tara Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Tara Prasad Gautam 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 75 86 Listening to Survivors of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Nepal: Would It Ever Happen? <p>A theory of listening that entails openness, receptivity, attentiveness, and responsiveness shifts the onus for action onto the listener from speaker and undertakes listening not only as a process, but also as a substance. Listening to survivors in the cases of violence goes beyond hearing their experience, and taking seriously the justice interests of survivors as legal and political subjects. However, the survivors of Conflict Related Sexual Violence (CRSVs), caused in Nepal during the decade long armed conflict (1996-2006), have never been listened to for their voices and sufferings. Far from ‘substance’, they have neither been heard nor provided interim relief to which all other categories of survivors of the armed conflict were entitled to. The second National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security adopted in Nepal in 2022 has opened a possibility to listen to the CRSVs as it has included them officially for the first time. However, in reality they cannot be listened until the stakeholders move beyond tokenism to making their participation effective. It requires capacitating, providing psychosocial support, and assuring response to overcome any possible stigmatisation. The article concludes that listening to CRSVs requires a survivor-centric comprehensive approach, which includes i) work, education and good health to exercise their right to participate; ii) avenues and spaces for effective, full and meaningful participation; iii) skills for effective engagement together with the willingness of the state to open up decision making and a prudent action of all stakeholders on which the survivors can fully trust.</p> Shiva Datta Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Shiva Datta Bhandari 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 87 93 Strategies for Managing Technological Change: Insights from Practitioners <p>Technology is vital to most organisations and, hence, the ability to change this element is essential for their future success. Change will contribute to the fulfilment of customer or service user needs, via enhancement of the technological basis for these entities. An efficient and effective delivery of organisational objectives can depend on this ability to achieve successful technological change. This paper examines the change process for technology, considering the techniques for delivering change and the types of change in this sphere. The objective is to obtain an enhanced understanding of how technology can be amended in organisations and also consider the types of change identified by managers. The latter will inform the range of techniques that are recommended for use with the breadth of technologies, existing in organisations. The paper, thus, addresses this critical activity and offers insights into the practice of technology management, formulating recommendations for practice and providing a contribution to academic theory in this subject area. A review of the literature was undertaken, in order to establish the key themes in this area. An empirical study was also enacted, in the form of a survey of a sample of UK-based, current practitioners. The requirements for technological change were obtained from these managers. The data from the literature and empirical study was examined via thematic analysis. The principal themes were discerned using a grounded approach. A framework, comprising a model of the required change, was then constructed to contribute to practice and academic theory, as well as summarise this research.</p> Garry Blair Rosane Pagano Copyright (c) 2023 Garry Blair, Rosane Pagano 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 94 102 Welcome to a New Platform for Productive Discourse: A Call To Action <p>This editorial review introduces the inaugural issue of the Journal of Productive Discourse (ProD), which aims at fostering critical reading and research across disciplines. It starts with a background to the journal, highlights the themes as they emerge in the issue, summarises the articles, suggests their potential readers, and concludes with a call to action in support of the new initiative at productive discourse. Acknowledging the individuals and institutions involved in bringing the journal from its conception to fruition, the review ends with a call on researchers and practitioners to cross over disciplinary boundaries and create an international platform for intellectual exchange that can lead to positive change in the society.</p> Jagadish Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 Jagadish Pokhrel 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 1 1 1 5