Nepalese Journal of Biosciences <p>As far as we are aware, this journal is no longer being published.</p><p>Published by the Nepal Biological Society, Biratnagar, Nepal. Full text articles available.</p> Post Graduate Campus Biratnagar en-US Nepalese Journal of Biosciences 2091-1343 An assessment of the impact of Koshi floods to birds and mammals <p>Flood impact assessment with a focus on wetland dependent birds and mammals was carried out in 2009. Data compared to 2008, showed decline in the total number of birds. The results showed that while some bird benefitted from replenished fish stock, many others suffered. South Asian River Dolphin <em>Platanista gangetica </em>increased in number within the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve after the flooding. Poverty and illiteracy contributing to lack of awareness amongst local people were hampering conservation works in the Reserve.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 1-4 (2012)</p> Hem Sagar Baral Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 1 4 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7482 Toxic effects of herbicides on transplanted paddy <p>The effectiveness of two herbicides <em>viz</em>., 2 4-D and butachlor for the control of weeds in transplanted paddy and improving the grain yield was studied. Slight toxic effect of herbicides on paddy plants was noticed at 21 days after transplanting of paddy seedlings. However, it didn’t persist for long and had no overall harmful effect on grain yield. Both the herbicides produced satisfactory control of the weed population and dry matter. This resulted in a significant increase in grain yield over un-weeded control.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 5-9 (2012) <strong> </strong></p> Chandra Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 5 9 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7483 Effect of disturbance on fine root biomass in the Tropical moist forest of eastern Nepal <p>Fine root biomass (&lt;5 mm diameter) was estimated in 0-15 cm and 15- 30 cm soil depths of disturbed and undisturbed stands of tropical moist forest in eastern Nepal. The value of root mass was higher (4.28 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) in the undisturbed stand than the disturbed stand (2.04 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The biomass of smaller fine roots (&lt;2 mm diameter) was 1.51 and 3.2 t ha<sup>-1</sup> in the disturbed and undisturbed stands respectively. Most of the fine roots were present in the surface soil layer (0-15 cm), in both the disturbed and undisturbed stands (67% in the disturbed and 64% in the undisturbed). The nitrogen stock in the fine roots was more (38.61 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in undisturbed stand than the disturbed stand (16.93 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). More nitrogen was confined in the fine roots of &lt;2 mm diameter in both undisturbed (28.8 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and disturbed (13.59 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) stands.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 10-16 (2012)</p> Tilak Prasad Gautam Tej Narayan Mandal Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 10 16 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7484 Five new species of Oedogonium Link (Chlorophyta), a freshwater filamentous algae from Nepal <p>The present paper deals with six species of genus <em>Oedogonium </em>Link, among which five species are being recorded for the first time from Nepal. They are <em>Oedogonium leave </em>Wittrock, <em>O. peipingense </em>Jao, <em>O. pisanum </em>Wittrock, <em>O. plagiostomum </em>Wittrock and <em>O. undulatum </em>(Bréb.) A. Braun in De Bary.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 17-23 (2012)</p> Shiva Kumar Raj Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 17 23 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7485 A survey of Himalayan rangeland weeds in Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale area, eastern Nepal <p>Eight common rangeland weeds including <em>Anaphalis contorta</em>, <em>Berberis erythroclada</em>, <em>Euphorbia wallichii</em>, <em>Potentilla lineate</em>, <em>Prunella vulgaris</em>, <em>Pteris aspericaulis</em>, <em>Senecio chrysanthemoides </em>and <em>Swertia pedicellata </em>were recorded from the rangelands of Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale area in the present study, among which <em>Senecio chrysanthemoides </em>and <em>Swertia pedicellata </em>were the most obnoxious species responsible for the habitat degradation for wildlife, reduction in biodiversity, curtailment of forage resources and alternation of ecosystem and functions. The main reason for rapid weed invasion was the lack of awareness of the gravity of situation among the stakeholders hindering adoption of effective weed control measures.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 24-30 (2012)</p> Dil Kumar Limbu Madan Koirala Zhanhuan Shang Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 24 30 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7486 Multiple drug resistant Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella and Shigella from Nepalgunj Cholera outbreak and different hospitals of Nepal <p>Diarrhoea is a major health problem throughout the world, and responsible for high morbidity and mortality in Nepal<strong>. </strong>The crosssectional prospective study was carried out to screen ESBL producer from MDR <em>Vibrio Cholerae</em>, <em>Salmonella </em>and <em>Shigella </em>from 268 diarrhoeal stools from Nepalgunj Cholera outbreak and different hospitals of Nepal during April 2010 to January 2011. The specimens were processed by standard microbiological methods and confirmed with serology. Altogether 14.18% of bacteria were isolated with 8.21% <em>V. cholerae </em>O1 El Tor Ogawa, 2.24% <em>Shigella flexneri </em>B and 3.73% <em>Salmonella </em>spp<em>. </em>Highest bacterial culture (47.36%) were isolated in Kathmandu while highest <em>V. cholerae </em>(77.27%) were isolated in Nepalgunj. The highest number of <em>Salmonella </em>spp. and <em>Shigella </em>spp. were isolated from Kanti Children’s Hospital. Highest bacteria isolation (47.36%) and highest <em>V. cholerae </em>isolation (81.81%) were observed in the August. The bacteria isolation was significantly associated with places and months (p&lt;0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the bacteria isolation with sex (P&gt;0.05). 100% <em>V. cholerae</em>, 100% <em>Shigella </em>spp. and 80% <em>Salmonella </em>spp. were MDR while only one <em>Salmonella </em>Cholerasuis was found ESBL producer.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 31-39 (2012)</p> Binod Kumar Shah Sapana Sharma Gita Shakya Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 31 39 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7487 Restoration in soil and plant properties in landslide damaged forest ecosystem <p>The pattern of natural restoration in soil and plant components was studied in five landslide-damaged (1-58-year-old) sites in the tropical moist sal (<em>Shorea robusta) </em>forest ecosystem of Nepal Himalaya .Rate of restoration in soil properties was faster in the early successional stages (1-15 year) than late stages while plant biomass recovered rapidly after 15-year age. Based on the recovery in ecosystem properties; the 58- year-old landslide damaged site demonstrated the re-establishment of an ecosystem showing closer affinity with the mature sal forest. On the basis of best fit power function models it was concluded that the estimated times for the 58-year old site to reach the level of undisturbed matured sal forest would be about 30-35 years for microbial biomass (C and N) and plant biomass and about 100-150 year for soil organic Carbon and total N. Higher accumulation of soil microbial biomass, plant biomass and high N-mineralization rate at late successional stages indicated the re-establishment of an ecosystem with enriched soil and restitution of nutrient cycling during the course of ecosystem restoration</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 40-45 (2012)</p> Tej Narayan Mandal Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 40 45 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7488 Physico-chemical properties of Seepage stream at Shripur area, eastern Nepal <p>Physico-chemical parameters of the Seepage stream of Shripur area were studied for two years from July, 2002 to June, 2004, once in every month at regular intervals. The maximum air temperature was recorded in rainy season during first year (July, 2002 to June, 2003) and second year study period (July, 2003 to June, 2004). Water temperature was maximum in summer and lowest in winter season. Transparency, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride were maximum in winter season. Free CO<sub>2</sub> and BOD was maximum in summer season. The minimum transparency, total alkalinity, total hardness and chloride were recorded in rainy season. DO and pH were maximum in winter and minimum in summer season during the whole study period. Air temperature, water temperature, free CO<sub>2</sub>, BOD showed positive and significant correlation with each other. Transparency showed positive and significant correlation with pH, DO, total alkalinity, total hardness and chloride. pH showed positive and significant correlation with DO and chloride. Similarly, DO, total alkalinity, total hardness and chloride showed positive and significant correlation with each other.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 46-54 (2012)</p> Damodar Thapa Chhetry Joydeb Pal Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 46 54 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7489 General properties of water of Baidya fish pond, Tankisinwari, Nepal <p>In the present study, ranges and correlation among different physicochemical parameters <em>viz</em>., air temperature, water temperature, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chloride, total alkalinity, total hardness and phosphate were taken into consideration. The water quality of Baidya fish pond was normal except high fluctuation of chloride 1±0.241 to 29.84±0.260 mg/l and ammonia 1.55±0.088 to 18.7±0.061 mg/l during manuaring period and casual addition of wastes like toilet cleaners, caustic potash etc. Outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) was observed at the periphery of Baidya fish farm during winter months when polluted cold water from Koshi canal was added. The affected fishes developed several lesions around the body and fin rot. Due to sudden fall in dissolve oxygen, less than 4 mg/l during April and May, 2010 mass mortality of fishes <em>Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Hypothalamichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis </em>occurred. When chicken droppings were added in pond, ammonia was raised up to 18.7 mg/l which led to mass mortality of fish (Pangasius) during August.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 55-63 (2012)</p> Ganesh Bahadur Thapa Joydeb Pal Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 55 63 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7490 Redescription of Melanagromyza sojae (Zehntner) from India and Nepal <p>Six new species of other stem flies infesting mostly legumes were also discovered under the genus <em>Melanagromyza </em>(stem flies) from Pantnagar, Northern India. These were: <em>M. </em>species new ex stems of <em>Cassia </em>sp. (proposed name <em>M. pathaki </em>new species); <em>M. </em>species new ex stems of <em>Glycine max </em>(Linn.) Merril. (proposed name <em>M. glycini </em>new species); <em>M. </em>species new ex stems of <em>Medicago denticulata </em>willd. (proposed name <em>M. denticulata </em>Willd. new species); <em>M. </em>species new ex stems of <em>Pisum sativum </em>Linn. (proposed name <em>M. pisiphaga </em>new species); <em>M. </em>species new ex stems of <em>Trifolium pratense </em>Linn,. (proposed name <em>M. sehgali </em>new species) and <em>M. </em>species new ex stems of <em>Vicia faba </em>Linn. (proposed name <em>M. vicivora </em>new species). New names have been proposed to them as per International rules of Zoological Nomenclature. Other stem flies redescribed by author include: <em>Ophiomyia centrosematis </em>de Meijere, <em>Opmiormyia phaseoli </em>(Tryon) and <em>Ophiomyia cicerivora</em>. More than one thousand male genitalia slides were prepared for this study. Variations in morphology and genitalia characters have been described between and within the species. <em>Melanagromyza sojae </em>(Zehtner) has been redescribed here.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 64-70 (2012)</p> Ram Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 64 70 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7491 Native fish conservation in Nepal: Challenges and opportunities <p>Habitat degradation and loss probably has been more responsible for the decline of native fish species. Nepalese fishes are one of main aquatic vertebrates which are yet to be studied for their occurrence, distribution and ecology, especially from western regions of the country. However, before complete understanding on native fishes, threat over their existence have been loomed by climate change, over fishing, pollution, alteration of natural habitats and poor understanding of fish ecology etc. Thus, publicizing the importance and knowledge of fish conservation has been one of the most important challenges. The other challenges are sustainability of quality and quantity of freshwaters which have been impacted. In such circumstance to overcome the problems, adoption of community or cooperative based conservation could be one of the best approaches for freshwaters and fish restoration. Optimistically, a national strategy on conservation of freshwater fish is desirable. Fish conservation has the opportunities to be used for multidimensional purposes. A success of single fish species might contribute substantially on local economy, if that could be used in aquaculture or angling for tourism industry.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 71-79 (2012)</p> Tek Bahadur Gurung Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 71 79 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7492 Soil microbial biomass in relation to fine root in Kiteni hill Sal forest of Ilam, eastern Nepal <p>Soil microbial biomass in relation to fine root was studied in Kiteni hill Sal (<em>Shorea robusta</em>) forest of Ilam during summer season. The forest had sandy loam type of soil texture. Organic carbon was higher in 0-15 cm depth (2.09%) than in 15-30 cm depth (1.53%). Total nitrogen of 0- 15 cm depth was 0.173% and in 15-30 cm depth was 0.124%. Soil microbial biomass of carbon of Kiteni hill sal forest was (445.14 ?g g<sup>-1</sup>) and microbial biomass of nitrogen was (49.07 ?g g<sup>-1</sup>). Fine root biomass of this forest was 2.34 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (&lt;2 mm diameter) and 0.93 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (2-5 mm diameter) in 0-15 cm depth and 0.73 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (&lt;2 mm diameter) and 0.46 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (2-5 mm diameter) in 15-30 cm depth. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen of upper layer soil were negatively correlated with fine root biomass of forest.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 80-87 (2012)</p> Krishna Prasad Bhattarai Tej Narayan Mandal Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 80 87 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7493 Indigenous knowledge on common medicinal plants among Raji Community of Surkhet district, mid-western Nepal <p>Rajis are one of the endangered indigenous tribe of Nepal distributed natively in Surkhet. In present situation the Rajis are in great pressure to change their ways of practice, belief, decision making and harvesting plant resources due to increasing population, migration and modernization. The present paper highlights the indigenous knowledge and practice of medicine preparation from common ten medicinal plants of their localities, transformation of the knowledge and response of respondents on conservation and management of medicinal plants.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 88-92 (2012)</p> Lal Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 88 92 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7494 Macro-fungi of Karhiya Community Forest, western Terai, Nepal <p>This is the preliminary report on mycological investigation carried out at Karhiya Community Forest, in Terai region of western Nepal. Phytogeographycally, the area lies within a narrow limit of altitude between 160 and 195 msl in tropical deciduous riverine forest, where major dominant species of macro fungi are <em>Amanita chepangiana, A. caesrea, A. pantherina, Macrolepiota procera, M. rhacodes, Marasamius perforans, M. oreades, Termitomyces clypeatus </em>and <em>T. eurhizeus. </em>The samples collected in the present study represented 26 genera of Basidiomycetes belonging to 18 families and 30 species. The dried specimens are housed in the Nepalese herbaria (TUCH, Kath). The area embraces the mycophagus ethnic communities like Tharu, Magar, Kumal, Majhi, Thakali, Gugung, Girel and Chhantal. The mycoelements prevailing in this area need sustainable utilization and conservation.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 93-97 (2012)</p> Hari Prasad Aryal Usha Budathokio Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 93 97 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7495 Impact of climate change on food value of molluscs in Nepal <p>The questionnaires and interviews were taken randomly with ethnic people, the molluscs consumers of different districts of Tarai regions. Regarding other information about the impact of climate change in the context of Nepal, literature survey was done. Edible molluscs are cheap non-conventional source of protein for huge population of poor ethnic peoples (53 castes living in twenty districts of Tarai in Nepal), from time immemorial. Up to, nearly four and half decades back, there were virgin forests in Tarai region, water sources were in better condition but because of rapid population explosion, encroachment of wetlands and deforestation the water sources began to dry up early in the year. Gradual increase in atmospheric temperature due to imbalanced amount of CO<sub>2</sub> and precipitation, is worsening the environment. The climate change is not only destroying the suitable aquatic environment of the molluscs habitats but their foods of plant and animal origins as well. Several changes in water chemistry might have taken place threatening aquatic lives including molluscs. As a result, annual production of mollusc also has decreased. The climate change is enforcing molluscs to change their original habitats and habits. While their production of molluscs is decreasing, demand is increasing due to rapid human population growth. The price of molluscs meat also has increased 100% as compared to one decade back (<em>Bellamya </em>Rs 20-25/kg with shell, <em>Pila </em>without shell Rs 48-60/kg, similarly bivalves (<em>Lamellidens </em>and <em>Parreysia) </em>Rs 20-30/kg with shell whereas Rs 50-60/kg without shell; <em>Brotia </em>Rs 10-12/kg with shell). Local production of Nepal covers hardly 30-40% demand of molluscs. The rest 60% demand is met imported from India. The only solution of the problem is to initiate molluscs culture which will also help conserve water sources and other aquatic organisms as well.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 98-108 (2012)</p> Bharat Raj Subba Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 98 108 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7496 Seed attributes, germination responses and seedling growth of silk cotton tree Bombax ceiba L. <p><em>In vitro </em>Seed germination through different treatments, and seedling growth of <em>Bombax ceiba </em>were studied from April 2009 to January 2010. Fifty seven per cent seed germination at control condition was enhanced up to 63% by continuous tap water washing for 48 h duration. Freshly collected seeds in April did not germinate in May and June. Stem diameter and height of one and 6 months old seedlings were 0.3 cm, 1.2 cm and 1.2 cm, 87.1 cm, respectively.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 109-112 (2012)</p> Bhabindra Niroula Dillli Ram Pokhrel Sasinath Jha Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 109 112 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7497 Histopathological changes in the gills of some fishes inhabiting polluted Singhiya river, Biratnagar, Nepal <p>Histopathological effects on the gills of a few fish species of polluted Singhiya river, Biratnagar sub-metropolis was made. The gills sections of <em>Oxygaster bacaila, Neomacheilus botia,, Glossogobius giuris</em>, <em>Puntius sophore</em>, <em>Barillius barana</em>, <em>Channa gachua </em>and <em>Silorhynchus sucatio </em>were found much deformed. Lesions, abnormal growth of taste buds and inter-lamellar space, fusion at the tips of primary as well as secondary lamellae, shifting of epithelial layer, deformation of gill head and that of outer margin, tilted secondary lamellae were found common.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 113-117 (2012)</p> Bharat Raj Subba Bikash Khanal Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 113 117 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7498 Some interesting freshwater algae from Chimdi lake including a new record for Nepal <p>A preliminary study on algae of Chimdi lake was carried out. A total six freshwater algae <em>viz</em>., <em>Oscillatoria splendida </em>Grev. ex Gom., <em>Cylindrospermum stagnale </em>(Kuetz.) Born. et Flah. f. <em>variabilis </em>Prasad, <em>Gloeotrichia raciborskii </em>Woloszynska var. <em>kashiense </em>Rao, <em>Melosira varians </em>Ag., <em>Crucigenia crucifera </em>(Wolle) Collins and <em>Euastrum spinulosum </em>Delp. var. <em>bellum </em>Scott et Prescott were recorded from Chimdi lake. <em>Euastrum spinulosum </em>var. <em>bellum </em>was recorded for the first time from Nepal.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 118-125 (2012)</p> Shiva Kumar Raj Ram Kumar Rai Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 118 125 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7499 Turtles of Kankai (Mai) river and their ethno-medicinal uses <p>This paper deals with 67 specimens belonging to eight different species out of which 4 species were hard-shelled turtles such as <em>Indotestudo elongata, Melanochyles tricarinata, Melanochyles trijuga </em>and <em>Pangshura flaviventer</em>, while rest of 4 species were soft-shelled turtles such as <em>Lissemys punctata</em>, <em>Aspideretes hurum</em>, <em>Aspideretes gangeticus </em>and <em>Chitra indica. </em>Among all, <em>Lissemys punctata </em>was recorded as widely distributed and most abundant species. Ethno-medicinal uses of turtle by <em>Satar</em>, an indigenous ethnic community of southern Jhapa for human and domestic animals have been documented. Most of the diseases are treated by the use of turtle shell of <em>Lissemys punctata.</em></p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 126-133 (2012)</p> Milan Kharel Damodar Thapa Chhetry Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 126 133 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7500 Survey of marketable vegetables and edible fruits in Dharan, eastern Nepal <p>A total 77 types of vegetables and 33 fruits were recorded from the markets of Dharan during the period of one year. Among them, 11 vegetables <em>viz</em>. <em>Agaricus bisporus, Allium cepa, A. sativum, Capsicum annum, Coriandrum sativum, Dolichos lablab, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum melongena, S. tuberosum, Vigna sinensis </em>and <em>Zingiber officinale </em>and 5 fruits <em>viz</em>., <em>Citrus aruntifolia, Coccus nucifera, Musa paradisiaca, Punica granatum </em>and <em>Pyrus malus </em>were found in all months. Nineteen vegetables appeared only in winter, 21 only in summer and 30 in both winter and summer seasons but not throughout the year. Similarly, 11 fruits were available in winter, 9 in summer and 8 fruits occurred in both seasons but not throughout the year. Forty seven vegetables and 14 fruits were cultivated locally and 31 vegetables and 5 fruits were procured from other places. Fourteen vegetables and 8 fruits were brought to the market from wild habitats. Vegetables and fruits supplied from Hilly area and Terai plains were also noted. The most expensive vegetable and fruit were Mushrooms and pomegranate, respectively. Vegetable prices started to decrease from December and remained low during January, February and March; started to increase from April and reached at climax in May and June. Generally, the price of fruits was high from April to July.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 134-147 (2012)</p> Sabitri Shrestha Shiva Kumar Rai Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 134 147 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7501 Phenology, biomass and associated species of alligator weed at Biratnagar, Nepal <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 148-150 (2012)</p> Bhabindra Niroula Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 148 150 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7502 Soil borne fungi of cultivated lands of Biratnagar, Nepal <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 151-153 (2012)</p> Umesh Koirala Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 151 153 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7503 Comparison of populations of Melanagromyza sojae and Liriomyza sativae associated with Mung bean Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek grown in Biratnagar, eastern Nepal <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 154-155 (2012)</p> Moon Thapa Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 154 155 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7504 Anthropogenic impacts on Tiger frog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, at Biratnagar and its surroundings, Nepal <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 156-157 (2012)</p> Minu Kumari Sah Bharat Raj Subba Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 156 157 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7505 Impact of climate change on birds at Biratnagar and its surroundings <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p><em>Nepalese Journal of Biosciences </em>2 : 158-159 (2012)</p> Kanchan Jha Bharat Raj Subba Copyright (c) 2013-01-24 2013-01-24 2 158 159 10.3126/njbs.v2i0.7506