Potential surface active agent production using very low grade and cheap substrate by Bacillus subtilis as microbial cell factory
Keywords:Bacillus subtilis, Bio-surfactants, Emulsification index, Hydrocarbons, Surface tension
Bio-surfactants are surface-active molecules which are produced by the wide range of microbes including bacteria, fungi, moulds, and yeast. This study was conducted to identify bio-surfactants by Bacillus subtilis combined with use of cheap substrates and industrial wastes (Mustard cake, Whey and Soya cake) which are found locally in Nepal. Bacillus subtilis, one of the most potential bio-surfactants producer; was isolated from soil sample of hydrocarbon contaminated site. Isolates were grown in a Minimal Salt Media (MSM) with 10% (v/v) mustard oil cake, whey and soya cake separately. The presence and potential of surfactant was determined by the oil spreading technique, emulsification index (%E24) and surface tension measurement. It was revealed that the surface tensions of cell free extract were 54.41, 60.02 and 56.64 mN/m for from mustard cake, whey and soya cake respectively as compared to distilled water (72.09) at 25oC. The emulsification index values was found to be highest in engine oil from the bio-surfactant extracted from mustard cake, soya cake and whey respectively. Similarly, mustard oil showed the lowest value of emulsification index. The highest emulsification activity was shown in mustard oil i.e. 1.13 from the cell free extract from mustard oil and lowest in engine oil i.e., 0.07, by the extract from soya cake medium, when measured in spectrophotometer at 540 nm. In conclusion, strain of Bacillus subtilis was found to be the potential surface active agent producers on the mustard oil cake, which can be useful medium for various environmental, food, medicinal and industrial processes.
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