Nepal Agriculture Research Journal <p>The official publication of the Society of Agricultural Scientists, Nepal (SAS-N). Full text articles available.</p> en-US <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This license allows reusers to copy and distribute the material in any medium or format in unadapted form only, for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> (Jiban Shrestha) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 02:06:05 +0000 OJS 60 Does potato seed system working effectively in Nepal? <p>The present study analyses the gaps and issues in the production and distribution system of potato seeds in Nepal. Households’ survey combined with focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KII) were carried out to collect the information. Gross benefit and descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis of the data. Results revealed that National Potato Research Program (NPRP) and some private companies were responsible for the zero generation Pre-Basic Seeds (PBS) production. National Centre for Potato, Vegetables and Spice Crops Development Program (NCPVSCDP) collects the seed demand and helps in potato seed certification at the farmers’ level. The current production is inadequate to meet the demand. As the present potato productivity is 16.72 mt ha-<sup>1 </sup>which is less than projected by National Seed Vision (NSV), reducing the yield gap is one of the important ways to meet the demand. The Gross benefit per hectare of first-generation basic potato seed (BS1) was NRs 14, 66,667 ($ 12,759) and second-generation basic potato seed (BS2) was NRs 9, 20, 667 ($ 8,009). However, the potato seed system is not working effectively in Nepal. Therefore, the adoption of improved potato varieties should be extensive through a strong mechanism for maintaining the full seed cycle and its proper distribution. Further, it is equally important to change the perception of farmers by showing the comparative benefit of growing ware potato and seed potato.</p> Samaya Gairhe, Krishna Prasad Timsina, Yuga Nath Ghimire, Surya Prasad Adhikari, Devendra Gauchan, Kalika Prasad Upadhyay, Benu Prasad Prasai, Prakash Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Gairhe et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes for growth and yield characters at Dailekh, Karnali Province, Nepal <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Fourteen garden pea genotypes (13 improved genotypes and 1 was standard released variety) were evaluated for their morpho-agronomic characters, powdery mildew (PM) disease resistant, and yield performance. The genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications at Horticulture Research Station (HRS), Dailekh in 2018 and 2019. The results revealed that genotypes were significantly (P&lt;0.01) different for pod length (cm), pod diameter (mm), green pod plant<sup>-1</sup> (no.), green pod weight plant<sup>-1</sup> (g), seed pod<sup>-1</sup> (no.), dry pod plant<sup>-1</sup> (no.), dry seed weight plant<sup>-1</sup> (g), hundred seed weight (g) and seed yield (mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) except days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm) and branch/plant (no.). Green pod weight was significantly (P&lt;0.01) higher in genotypes HRSDGP-11-18-10 (233.1 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) and HRSDGP-11-18-1 (224.1 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) than Sikkim Local (198.3 g/plant). Genotypes HRSDGP-11-18-10, HRSDGP-11-18-13 and HRSDGP-11-18-1 showed moderate resistant (3.0) reaction to PM disease. Green pod weight plant<sup>-1</sup> showed significant (P&lt;0.01) positive correlation with seed number/plant (r=0.74**), dry pod number/plant (r=0.52**), dry seed weight (r=0.58**) and seed yield (r=0.57**). Genotypes HRSDGP-11-18-10, HRSDGP-11-18-1 and HRSDGP-11-18-13 showed 32.3%, 20.5% and 2.9% seed yield advantage over the standard variety, Sikkim Local. Based on this result, HRSDGP-11-18-10, HRSDGP-11-18-1 and HRSDGP-11-18-13 are selected as high yielding and PM resistant genotypes which can be used for commercial production as well as breeding lines for garden pea improvement program.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Binod Prasad Luitel, Bishnu Bahadur Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Luitel BP and BB Bhandari Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Selection of chemical pesticide to minimize toxic effect to ladybird beetle [Coccinella septempunctata Linn (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)] while managing black bean aphid [Aphis fabae Scop. (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] <p>Faba bean (<em>Vica faba </em>L.) is important crop of Nepal which is grown in all climatic zone of country. Different insect pests are host of faba bean but black bean aphid <em>Aphis fabae </em>Scop. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is of more concern. Most of the farmer shifted to another crop due to <em>A. fabae </em>problem. Different insecticide have been sprayed to manage this aphid but most of the farmer were unable control them. However, very limited research were conducted for its ecofriendly management. Thus, we evaluate different insecticides such as nitenpyram, flonicamid, imidacloprid, dimethoate, azadirachtin, and neem oil on laboratory. Scintillating glass vial test and filter paper test were employed. Higher number of aphid mortality were found on dimethoate with LT<sub>50</sub> value of 15.93 hour followed by nitenpyram, and imidacloprid with 18.61 and 32.87 hour, respectively on scintillating glass vial test. On filter paper test, LT<sub>50</sub> of dimethoate was 27.34 hour followed by imidacloprid and nitenpyram with 49.51 and 53.44, respectively. Similarly, higher lady bird beetle <em>Coccinella septempunctata </em>Linn (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) mortality were also caused by dimethoate with LT<sub>50</sub> value of 63.38 hour followed by imidacloprid and nitenpyram with 153.21 188.42 hour. Our result suggested that nitenpyram or imidacloprid could be used for ecofriendly management of <em>A. fabae </em>with low mortality of its predator <em>C. septempunctata</em>. However precautionary measure has to be taken before applying them and waiting period has to be maintained for harvesting.</p> Bikash Bhusal, Sunil Aryal, Ishwori Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Bhusal et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Soil macronutrient status in different depths after wheat harvest in the paddy-wheat cropping system of Rupandehi District of Nepal <p>Understanding the soil nutrient content varied with the soil depth is one of the most important aspects of every crop husbandry practice and information about the soil nutrient status of a certain area is very important for nutrient management programs. Considering this, a study was carried out in order to find out the depth-wise status of soil pH, soil organic matter and macronutrients in the paddy-wheat cropping system of the different areas of Rupandehi District of Nepal. The study was undertaken from April, 2019 to May 2019 immediately after the harvesting of the wheat crop. Altogether 108 samples were collected from two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) of randomly selected 54 sampling points by using a soil sampling auger. The soil parameters were determined by analyzing the samples at National Soil Science Research Centre, Khumaltar. The results of the study showed that soil pH values ranged from 6.73 to 8.03, but were non-significantly (p&gt;0.05) affected soil depth. The soil organic matter, Total Nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) and available potassium (K<sub>2</sub>O) in the soil were significantly (p&gt;0.05) affected by soil depth.&nbsp; Higher soil organic matter (2.01±0.06%), Total N (0.10±0.002%), available P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> (25.56±1.33 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and available K<sub>2</sub>O (47.9± 2.11 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) were found in 0-10 cm soil depth. Higher concentrations of nutrients in the upper surface may be due to the incorporation of crop residue and supplementation of depleted nutrients by external sources of fertilizers.</p> Rita Amgain, Dinesh Khadka, Sushila Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Amgain et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Does mastitis cause economic loss in dairy cattle in Nepal? <p>Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle worldwide. To assess its economic impact, a study was conducted in 384 households from eight districts namely Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Sarlahi, Chitwan, Rupandehi, Makawanpur and Kavre of Nepal having major dairy pockets, higher number of cattle population and higher number artificial insemination records. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, pretested and asked with the respondents having dairy cattle. A focus group discussion was made with the members of dairy cooperatives, service providers from the government and private sectors including veterinarians, paraprofessionals and development workers. The key informant’s interview was performed with livestock experts from veterinary laboratories, veterinarians from Department of Livestock Services (DLS) and Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) to identify and triangulate the economic loss caused by clinical and subclinical mastitis. The survey results showed that an estimated loss of 8320 million Nepalese rupees (around 64 million USD) for sub-clinical mastitis and 4430 million rupees (around 34 million USD) for clinical mastitis. Dairy cattle suffering from mastitis also showed the higher incidence of infertility. The probability of infertility in mastitis affected cattle is 11% higher as compared non affected cattle. It is recommended to initiate the effective mastitis control program immediately which also helps to reduce the incidence of infertility in dairy cattle.</p> Meena Kharel, Krishna Prasad Timsina, Surya Prasad Adhikari, Chandra Dhakal, Doj Raj Khanal, Tulasi Prasad Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 Kharel et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of superior rice genotypes through evaluating growth and yield parameters <p>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) is the first staple crop in terms of area coverage for cultivation and production in Nepal. In rice breeding programs, developing superior genotypes depends on the evaluation of growth and yield parameters. Thus, to detect some of the primary superior genotypes, we evaluated the growth and yield parameters of 24 genotypes of rice in Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The rice varieties were planted in an alpha lattice design with three replications. The traits, such as plant height, number of tillers, number of effective tillers, length of panicles, number of panicles per square meter, and grain yield, were found to be highly significant (p=0.05). Sabitri (4.8 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and Makwanpur-1 (4.4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were the two rice genotypes that yielded the most. Plant height, panicle length, and grains per panicle showed positive and significant (p=0.05) correlations with grain yield, showing potential genotypes for higher yield. We concluded that, among all 24 genotypes examined, the most promising varieties from a growth and yield perspective were Sabitri and Makwanpur-1.</p> <p> </p> Ankita Poudel, Manila Singh Chaudhary (Dhami), Anup Adhikari, Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agriculture Research Journal Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative performance of different lines of New Hampshire breed of poultry in Nepal <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>A study was conducted to evaluate the comparative performance of four different lines of New Hampshire (NH) poultry breed collected from different governmental farms of Pokhara, Parwanipur, Khajura and Khumaltar, Nepal. The study was undertaken for seven months from March to September 2020. The study included 160 chicks with 20 male and 20 female from each line. The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments of different lines and eight replications. The results showed that the highest average weight of day-old chicks was found for Khumaltar line and the lowest for Pokhara line (p&lt;0.001). Similarly, the highest fourth week’s weight was found 237.50±16.88 g in Khajura line and the lowest 191.60±26.53 g in Parwanipur line. In case of eight weeks weight, both male and female was the highest in Khajura line, which were 0.72±0.12 kg and 0.52±0.07 kg, respectively. At that stage, the male weight was significant (p&lt;0.001) but non-significant (p&gt;0.05) in female. Similar pattern was found in twelve and sixteen weeks, but the weight of both sex was significant (p&lt;0.001) at twenty and twenty-four weeks. At the final measurement in 24 weeks, the male and female weight was the highest in Khajura line and the lowest in Parwanipur line. The weight of both sexes of Pokhara and Khumaltar lines were similar. Khajura line was better than other lines indicating that this line is more appropriate be used for further improvement of the NH lines of the country.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Dipak Adhikari, Sagar Paudel, Niraj Baskota, Snehi Shrestha, Purna Bhadra Chapagain, Nabaraj Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 Adhikari et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of cauliflower genotypes to different planting dates for early production in Kathmandu valley <p>A field experiment was conducted to evaluate ten cauliflower genotypes at the National Horticulture Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur from June to December of 2019 and 2020. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Completely Block Design with ten genotypes (Chinese, Sarlahi Deepali, Pusa Katiki, Taichun, Pusa Sarad, Terai 1, Terai 2, Agheni, Cold Queen and Khumal Jyapu)&nbsp; planted on three dates i.e. June 25, July 15, and August 5 at a 20-day interval. The main objective of this study was to identify planting dates for cauliflower genotypes suitable recommended to planting in early-season under Kathmandu valley conditions. The results showed that planting dates significantly influenced the growth and yield of cauliflower genotypes. At 25<sup>th</sup> June planting, the genotype Sarlahi Deepali had the significantly lowest days to curd maturation (41 days after transplanting), which was at par with Pusa Katki and Terai -2 (46 DAT) with the lowest yield of 4.0 mt ha<sup>-1</sup> and 3.2 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. However, curd weight (438.6 g) and yield (27.4 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded as the maximum in Chinese with 51 days maturity period. On the 15<sup>th</sup> July planting, Terai 2 had the lowest maturity days (44 DAT), but lower yield (14.6 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>), while Cold Queen had the highest curd weight and yield (560.8 g and 35.1 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>), which was at par with Chinese (546.7 g and 34.2 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>). Similarly, on the 5<sup>th</sup> August planting, the genotype Terai 2 had the significantly (p&lt;0.001) lowest days to maturity (46 DAT), followed by Sarlahi Deepali (57) and Pusa Katiki (57), whereas the genotype Cold Queen had the highest curd weight and yield (842.1 g and 52.6 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>), followed by Taichun (718.8 g and 44.9 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) and Terai 1 (452 g and 28.3 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>). The results revealed that genotype Sarlahi Deepali was found to be early maturing for June planting, while Terai 2 was found early for July and August planting, but were not found suitable due to lower yield. The genotypes Chinese and Cold Queen were found best for June and July planting, respectively. Similarly, Cold Queen and Taichun were promising genotypes for August planting.</p> Navin Gopal Pradhan, Arvind Srivastava, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Ishwori Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Pradhan Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of varieties and pinching days on growth and yield attributes of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) <p>From June to August 2021, a field experiment was carried out at the College of Natural Resource Management, Puranchaur-19, Kaski to examine the effects of pinching on the vegetative growth and yield characteristics of African marigold (<em>Tagetes erecta</em> L.). Two major varieties, Karma-666 and Karma-555, were evaluated in the experiment with three different dates of pinching (Control, 20 DAT, and 40 DAT), which were set up in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. According to the findings, at 5% level of significance, no significant&nbsp;difference was found in the interaction effect between growth and floral characters. Karma-555 showed greater plant spread (34.77 cm) and more branches per plant (13.73) than Karma-666. Additionally, Karma-555 was found to have a higher number of flowers plant<sup>-1</sup> (39.10) and flower yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (335.77 g). However, Karma-666 had significantly (P &lt;0.001) high fresh flower weight (10.51 g) and flower diameter (7.18 cm). Plants pinched at 20DAT were found to be the most effective for enhancing vegetative growth parameters and flower yield.</p> Karishma Bhusal, Pooja Bhusal, Nirajan Acharya, Dharma Prasad Chapai, Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Bhusal et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated management of late blight of potato in Pokhara, Kaski, Nepal <p>A field experiments was carried out in Pokhara, Kaski, Nepal, to identify integrated disease management options against late blight of potato under natural epiphytotic conditions.Twelve genotypes of potato, including Janakdev as resistant and Cardinal as susceptible, were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Similarly, a two-factor randomized complete block design experiment with three replications was carried out to investigate the interaction effect of planting date and application of chemical, botanical extracts, and a biocontrol agent.Susceptible variety Cardinal was planted in three different dates starting from October 11 at a 15-day interval and received five sprays each of the chemical fungicide Krilaxyl Gold (mancozeb 64% + metalaxyl 8%), 10% V/V extracts of garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em>), neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>), and bakaino (Melia azedarach), and Phytoderma (<em>Trichoderma virid</em>e) 109 CFU/mL) and water spray as an untreated control.Among the genotypes, CIP384321.15 and Khumal Ujjwal showed the significantly (p&lt;0.01) the lowest mean value of AUDPC (the area under the disease progress curve), whereas susceptible check Cardinal and Khumal Laxmi showed the significantly (p&lt;0.01) the highest mean AUDPC values. Similarly, the 11 October planting with the application of Krilaxyl Gold showed the lowest total AUDPC&nbsp; value (382.65) and the highest total AUDPC value (1533.41). Besides the chemical fungicide, the application of extracts of garlic, bakaino, neem, and phytoderma could significantly reduce the disease and increase tuber yield. These botanical extracts and biocontrol agents can be used in the integrated disease management of potato late blight.</p> Manju Adhikari, Sundarman Shrestha, Hirakaji Manandhar, Laxman Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Adhikari et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of panicle architecture traits in rice genotypes using PTRAP <p>An experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating panicle architecture traits of different genotypes of rice in relation to yield during June to November 2020. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications and forty-two treatments. The graphical user interface used image analysis tool Panicle Trait Phenotyping (PTRAP) was used to record architecture and yield related traits. Among genotypes, the highest yield was found in high yielding late variety Sampurna (6.1t/ha) with highest number of both primary (16.33) and secondary branches (53.33). Four different types of panicle size-irregular, conical, diamond like and pyramid shaped panicle were identified in 42 genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed significant (p=0.05) and positive correlation of grain yield with architecture traits i.e., number of primary branches (r=0.88), length of primary branches (r=0.89), number of secondary branches(r=0.69), number of nodes (r=84). The correlation between spikelet number and other variables related to number of primary branches was higher than correlation with variables related to length of primary branch. The increase in number of panicle rachis length, number of primary and secondary branches and length of primary branches resulted in increased spikelet number per panicle and grain yield. It can be concluded the architectural traits like rachis length, number of primary secondary branches, and secondary branches and length of primary branches were the most important in improving panicle architecture and crop yield.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anil Gautam, Abhishek Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Gautam and Shrestha Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of calcium chloride and floral preservatives in the vase life of gerbera cut flower <p>Postharvest loss of cut flower at all the stakeholders in Nepal before reaching consumer is about 20-25% in Nepal. The major problem in gerbera for its vase life is stem or scape bending. This study was aimed to assess the effect of calcium chloride and different floral preservatives in the vase life and to evaluate the quality of different varieties of gerbera cut flower. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design in the controlled lab of Central Agricultural Laboratory located at Hariharbhawan, Lalitpur at 17±2 ˚C temperature, 55 ± 2% relative humidity (RH) and 100 lux light. The study revealed that among two varieties, Rosalin, a light pink variety of gerbera was found to be better with prolonged vase life. Rosalin showed the longest vase life (14.05 days) with higher solution uptake (13.97 mL) and recorded minimum stem bending (43.8˚) on 15<sup>th </sup>day of vase life. Among ten different vase solutions, 4% sucrose + 1% calcium chloride (18.25 days), 4% sucrose + 0.5% calcium chloride (16.58 days) and 0.5% calcium chloride (16.25 days) were found the most effective vase solutions to prolong the vase life of gerbera cut flower as compared to control (7.67 days). Vase life solution of 4% sucrose + 1% calcium chloride is a potential commercial preservative solution to improve the keeping quality and vase life of cut gerbera. To conclude, calcium treatment along with a carbohydrate in a vase solution improves the vase life of gerbera cut flower.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sumitra Timalsina, Puspa Raj Poudel, Anil Kumar Acharya, Rukmagat Pathak, Umed Kumar Pun Copyright (c) 2023 Timalsina et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of hybrid maize at different nitrogen levels in spring season at Badhaiyatal area of Bardiya District, Lumbini Province, Nepal <p>Blanket recommendation of nitrogen (N) for maize would not be applicable as the new high yielding hybridshave been grown in Nepal. A field experiment was carried out during spring season at Badhaiyatal, Bardiya to determine optimum N level for hybrid maize. The treatments consisted of three commercial maize hybrids namely Rampur hybrid-10, Rajkumar and Pioneer-3522 and four N levels i.e., 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 175 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 225 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was carried out in split-plot design with maize hybrids as main plot factor and N levels as sub plot factor in three replications. Results revealed that all yield attributes were significantly (0.05) influenced by variety and nitrogen levels except number of ears harvested per hectare. The grain yield with N level @ 225 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (8.69 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was found higher than remaining N levels. The higher yield with 225 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> was because of significantly (0.05) higher leaf area index (4.67 at 75 Days After Sowing, plant height (248.50 cm at 75 DAS), number of kernels per ear (467), ear length (18.59 cm), ear circumference (15.16 cm) and shelling percentage (70.68%). All three maize hybrids: Pioneer 3522 (8.46 tha<sup>-1</sup>), Rajkumar (8.05 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and Rampur hybrid-10 (7.63 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were found similar in grain yield. The yield attributes viz., ear length, and ear circumference number of kernels per ear showed positive correlation with grain yield. Therefore, application of N@ of 225 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>for the maize hybrids during spring season is suggested in Bardiya.</p> <p> </p> Madhusudhan Adhikari, Shrawan Kumar Sah, Binod Ghimire, Prajina Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Adhikari et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance evaluation of brinjal genotypes in the mid-hill region of Gandaki Province, Nepal <p>Six genotypes of brinjal were evaluated at the Horticulture Research Station, Malepatan to identify the potential genotype for mid-hills of Gandaki province in the month of May 2020 and 2021. Experiments were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The genotypes were Jumli Local, Parwanipur Selection 1, Pusa Purple Long, Tanahun Collection, Takunchaur Collection, and Pokhara Lurkee. There were significant (p&lt;0.05) differences in the observed parameters such as fruit per plant, fruit length, fruit weight, and total yield. The highest number of fruits per plant (21.56) was found in the Tanahun Collection followed by Pokhara Lurkee (13.44). The longest fruit (16.07 cm) was found in Pokhara Lurkee, which was at par with Pusa Purple Long (15.51 cm). The highest yield (33.24 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) was found in Tanahun Collection followed by Pokhara Lurkee (23.55 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>). Though Tanahun Collection performed better in yield, Pokhara Lurkee was preferred by the farmers and consumers of the growing area due to long cylindrical shape and its purple color. From this research, it can be concluded that there is a possibility of increasing the productivity of brinjal by the selection of high yielding and consumer preferred genotypes for mid-hill condition of Gandaki province. The genotype showing higher yield and better adaptability needs further evaluation in farmer's field conditions to check the consistency in their performance, and hence, register as a variety.</p> Santosh Lohani, Lok Nath Aryal, Sunil Aryal, Saroj Adhikari, Yubraj Bhusal Copyright (c) 2023 Lohani et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rice demand and production projections for 2050: Opportunities for achieving self-sufficiency in Nepal <p>Rice is a major food, contributing 67% of cereal consumption in Nepal. It is playing a substantial role in food and nutritional security. Rice production is not sufficient to meet domestic consumption, so its import has been increasing. This study aims to explore whether Nepal can be self-sufficient in rice production in the current context of increasing rice demand and changing climate. We assessed the degree to which Nepal can be self-sufficient in rice production by the years 2030, 2040, and 2050, evaluating 12 different scenarios of demand driven by production, population growth, income, and climate change effect. We used compound growth rate estimation for analyzing the growth of rice production and population growth over time. Auto-regressive regression model was used to analyze the relationship of rice import and demand with domestic production, income, and population. A significant (p=0.000) positive impact of income on the import of rice was estimated, whereas significantly (p=0.000) higher impact of production on demand was estimated compared to income. Based on current rice productivity growth of 1.47% and population growth of 1.3% per year over three decades, the country will not achieve self-sufficiency until 2050.The situation would be further worsened in climate change scenarios. However, integrating the population growth rate of the last decade (0.57% per annum) with two productivity growth rate scenarios (current and (ii) 5% annual increment), the country can be self-sufficient by 2040. Based on different scenarios, the estimated demand can be met by increasing current productivity by at least 27–43% by 2030 and 42–85% by 2050. The study identified major gaps and opportunities in the rice production systems of Nepal and provided evidence-based solutions to meet the future demands in the context of increasing population and income, declining land availability, and high vulnerability to climate change.</p> Krishna Prasad Timsina, Devendra Gauchan, Samaya Gairhe, Sushil Raj Subedi, Bhanu Bhakta Pokhrel, Santosh Upadhyay, Krishna Dev Joshi, Sunita Pandey, Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Timsina et al. Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000