Journal of Tikapur Multiple Campus <p>The Journal of Tikapur Multiple Campus is published by the Research Management Cell (RMC), Tikapur Multiple Campus, Tikapur, Kailali, Nepal. It is a multidisciplinary journal that gives the space to the research base articles from diverse field of scholarship including English language education, applied linguistics, development studies, economics, literature, tourism, applied science, Nepali language, pedagogy etc.</p> Research Management Cell, Tikapur Multiple Campus en-US Journal of Tikapur Multiple Campus 2382-5227 Foreword Vol.5 <p>No abstract available.</p> Tikaram Poudel Copyright (c) 2022 Tikaram Poudel 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Value Added Tax in Nepal: An Error Correction Model <p>This study assesses the impact of macroeconomic variables on Value Added Tax (VAT) revenue in Nepal. VAT plays a great role in the revenue mobilization in Nepal. The reason behind VAT system is that it makes transparency in all kinds of transaction, helps to make the wide area of tax and discourages tax evasion. So it is needless to say that VAT is the most important sources of the government revenue. Data analysis begins with the testing of the unit root of the series to confirm whether the data are stationary or not. Augmented Dicky Fullr unit root test, co-integration test is employed to check the relationship of the variables under study. The results have shown the fact that GDP has positive impact on VAT, CPI and M2 have the positive as well as significant impact on VAT but exchange rate has negative significant impact on VAT. This is the result of OLS method but here model should be further analyzing which ensures the validity of this model. The coefficient of error term has been 3.3 percent meaning that the system corrects its previous period disequilibrium at a speed of 3.3 percent annually. The model is free from hetroskedasticity and residuals are normally distributed which is desirable for the Error Correction Model.</p> Keshar Bahadur Kunwar Copyright (c) 2022 Keshar Bahadur Kunwar 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 1 13 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46511 Teachers’ Perception on English Textbook for Grade Ten <p>This paper examines teachers’ perceptions of the academic and physical aspects of the English Textbook of Grade Ten. The researcher selected fifteen teachers from five schools using a judgmental non-random sampling method. The collected data and the teachers’ opinions were determined and analyzed by studying the book and evaluated using checklist tools. The main finding of this study shows that the textbook has both strong and weak points. Strong aspects of a textbook are an attractive cover page, biased free language, easily perceptible vocabulary, appropriate exercises, clearly reflected objectives, listening texts, and sufficient speaking and reading texts. The weaknesses are poor binding, poor paper quality, lack of skill focus on exercises, lack of illustrations, lack of references and supplementary materials as well as teacher’s guide. The results of this study could be helpful in the development of appropriate English textbooks of grade ten. Based on the finding, the paper also recommends improving the textbook.</p> Prem Prasad Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Prem Prasad Bhandari 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 14 28 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46512 Impact of Consumer Awareness in Buying Behaviour: A Case of Kailai District <p>This study examines the impacts of consumer rights awareness on buying behaviour in Kailali district of Nepal. The empirical study has collected data from primary sources based on a convenience sample of 418 consumers in different locations in Kailali district with a structured questionnaire to measure consumer awareness regarding the four basic consumer rights and their buying behaviour, utilizing a five-point Likert scale for measurement. The overall findings show that there is a significant positive association between consumers’ awareness rights and their buying behaviour. Moreover, the study indicated that the four dimensions of consumer rights imposed a positive impact on consumer buying behaviour. The study investigated the status of consumer rights awareness as the most important factor of changing consumer behaviour. The outcomes of the study can be important to understand the consumer rights and effect on their purchase behaviour and provide the reference to consumers, consumer forums, business firms, government units, policymakers, and researchers.</p> Dhavindra Rawal Copyright (c) 2022 Dhavindra Rawal 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 29 42 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46513 Perception of Visitors on Public Park Service and their Willingness to Pay <p>The public recreation parks are public goods and need timely upgrade to ensure increase public welfare. The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of the visitors on the key constructs of park service quality and estimate their willingness to pay (WTP) to access the existing public park service. Tikapur Public Park in Kailali District of Nepal was the selected study site. Regression analysis was used to identify significant variables associated with WTP. The estimated regression analysis output result shows that income level, age, years of schooling, household size, substitute site travel cost, gender, place of residence, park quality, average stay hours in the park significantly predicted the WTP of the respondent visitors. Therefore, the result shows that there is substantial space for improvement in the park to upgrade the park recreational service. Likewise, based on stated willingness to pay for the park entry fee, the existing fee is far below than their WTP. This evidence clearly indicates that TBP bestows substantial welfare to the whole society. The park management should pay enough attention upgrade quality of park. There should be comprehensive reform project to avail timely adequate park service so as to raise utility from the park.</p> Khem Raj Subedi Min Bahadur Shahi Nathuram Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Khem Raj Subedi, Min Bahadur Shahi, Nathuram Chaudhary 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 43 64 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46514 Struggle for Identity and Independence in V.S. Naipaul’s A House for Mr. Biswas <p>V.S. Naipaul’s <em>A House for Mr. Biswas</em>– a biographical and fictionalized novel– sheds light on the dangling position of Mr. Mohun Biswas, the protagonist, epitomizing his root culture and alien culture in the course of his search for identity. This research study explores the trauma of cultural alienation and the central character’s shameless efforts to establish his belongings. He confronts the problem of dislocation and displacement while struggling for owning a house of his own at the frontier of cultures. The difficulty of adjustment, assimilation, and belongingness is evident in his involvement in various jobs. He is devoid of sound links with his customs and values. His constant repulsion and attraction to the cultures and traditions of the West and East leave him in a state of in-betweenness. Moreover, this research article has examined the pain, the plight, and the predicament of Mr. Biswas continuously struggling to acquire a house of his own which is a potent symbol of his autonomous existence. In line with such a backdrop, the purpose of the study is to examine the state of anatomical/cultural identity and freedom of individuals in the novel, weighing up the diasporic sensibility through the protagonist. The research applies a descriptive-based qualitative research design employing the diasporic underpinnings as a theoretical lens. The study is significant for it discloses more about persons’ root identity and freedom, the prime and demanding right of people.</p> Krishna Prasad Jaisi Copyright (c) 2022 Krishna Prasad Jaisi 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 65 75 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46515 Women Literacy and Health Outcomes Inequality in Nepal <p>This article assesses the women literacy and health outcome inequality in Nepal. The study attempted to assess the nexus between women literacy and some key health outcomes based on provincial level data of Nepal. Basically the study follows the descriptive analysis with explanatory design under quantitative research based on the secondary data from ministry of health and population of Nepal (2017). Statistical analysis of provincial wise key health outcome data was done using chi-squire test of the goodness of fit to ensure evidence of inequality of the health outcome across the provinces of Nepal. Likewise, to find the causal relationship between women literacy rate (WLR) and institutional delivery rate (ID), contraceptive prevalence among married women (CPMW), child immunization rate (CIR), ANC (Antenatal Care) service receive by women (ANCRW), teenage pregnancy rate (TPR), total fertility rate (TFR) in seven provinces was observed using correlation and regression analysis tool. The result of chi-square test shows that there could be observed inequality in WLR and ID. Likewise, correlation analysis shows that there is positive correlation between WLR and ID, WLR and CPMW, and WLR and ANCRW but there is negative relation between WLR and CIR, WLR and TPR, WLR and TFR. The regression analysis shows that there is significant relationship among the variables WLR and ID, ANCRW, TPR, TFR. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is essential to increase women literacy to bring improvement in aforementioned key health outcomes. The implication of the study will help to make effective public health policy and strategy to reduce the equity gaps in health outcomes in Nepal.</p> Min Bahadur Shahi Copyright (c) 2022 Min Bahadur Shahi 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 76 90 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46516 Feminist Narrativization of Patriarchy in Swosthani Vrata Katha <p>The paper explores <em>Thulo Shree Swosthani Vrata Katha </em>profoundly examining its fasting process and the stories of the protagonists through feminist perception on patriarchy. Goddess Parvati, Shiva, Goma Brahmini, Vrinda and Chandrawati in the book represent all married and unmarried Hindu women living with a rooted brainwashed psychology of patriarchy. The women taking <em>vrata </em>envision the same ancient mindset of getting a husband and fortune. The old patriarchal ideology of not allowing daughter(s) get <em>prasad </em>of Swosthani has not completely changed yet. Patriarchy refers to the institutionalized system of a society wherein the father rules and controls the mother and other female family members. Moreover, it confines women within the routinized law and order of men. Thus, the paper aims to explore the status of patriarchy in <em>Swasthani Vrata Katha </em>from a feminist perspective. The theoretical modality for the study is a descriptive-based qualitative research design primarily applying Sylvia Walby’s notion of <em>Theorizing Patriarchy </em>(2016). The paper collects data from secondary sources though few are collected via personal communications with Swami Ishwor Chaitanya Ji Maharaj and a social worker Madhuri Joshi. The significance of the study lies in the investigation of the patriarchal instinct of Swosthani <em>vrata</em>. Thus, the finding of the study affirms that the radical feminists critique <em>Varta Katha </em>as being full of personal and patriarchal.</p> Nabaraj Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 Nabaraj Pandey 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 91 108 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46517 Quest for an Indigenous Pedagogy: Learning from Tharu Festivals of Western Nepal <p>This paper attempts to evoke the underpinning pedagogy in Tharu festivals of Dangaura Tharus living in western Nepal. This study also focused on assessing the connections of the Tharus’ pedagogies with that of the formal and non-formal schools. In order to explore indigenous pedagogy embedded in Tharu festivals, using interpretivism as a research paradigm and ethnography as a research design, I engaged with the Chairperson of Guruwas (Tharu Priests), 4 Barghars (village Chief) and 4 Tharu social elites (indigenous elders) of the western Nepal as selected purposively. The required information was gathered with the help of participant observation of cultural events and in-depth interviews with Barghars and traditional healers of Tharus. I identified the pedagogy embedded in Tharu festivals like Magh, Atwari, Guriya, Anatta, Dashya, Dewari, etc. and interconnected them to social theories like conflict theory, system theory, and functionalist theory. Based on my reflection and various methodological procedures on indigenous pedagogical practices in Tharu festivals, I theorize the objectives, contents, teaching methods, evaluation process and revision process embedded in Tharu festivals as indigenous pedagogy. Based on these findings, this article recommends specific culturally responsive pedagogical practices for the teachers, educational planners, and policymakers of formal and non-formal education through bottom-up approaches. I concluded that each culture has its own pedagogical process which can be applied to the education system of the nation.</p> Nathuram Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Nathuram Chaudhary 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 109 127 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46520 Agriculture and Forestry Education in Nepali Universities: A Conscientious Review <p>There is an uncontested view that higher education contributes to overall development of the nation, while higher technical education contributes to the deployment to the citizens. In consideration of the importance of natural resources as the means of national development, and for their conservation, promotion, preservation and proper utilization through the education, the Government of Nepal (GoN) established the formal system of agriculture and forestry education in 1960-1970’s, which now has been spread throughout the country by the name of different academic institutes and national universities. This report conscientiously analyzed the past and present attempts of academic developments of higher level agriculture and forest education in Nepal and draws the attention to be taken in action by different stakeholders for the expansion and betterment of the current challenges and problems of higher level agriculture and forest education with SWOT analysis. The review specifically points out at the higher level of agricultural and forest education structure, analyzes the critical problems and offers several recommendations to build capacity of the higher level agriculture and forest education systems in Nepal for next steps. The academics, research and extension being vital for the prosperity of the educational institutes, the academic institutions are advocated to establish the innovative collaboration and long-term research relationships with diverse national and international organizations after linking with agriculture and forest based industries, and finally suggesting for increasing the involvement of students in action research works with concrete strategic plans and programs. For the overall development of the provincial republican country, the financial self-sustainability of the technical institutions is not only the concern, but it needs to provide synergy in several paradigms with the non-technical faculties of the different Nepalese universities. It is also advised that the Agriculture and Forest Councils in the country must be established at the prompt to regulate the quality, quantity and job opportunity of the agriculture and forest graduates.</p> Lal Prasad Amgain Rabindra Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Lal Prasad Amgain 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 128 151 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46521 A Review on Major Diseases of Citrus in Nepal and their Management <p>Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of Nepal. Climatic conditions of mid hill regions of Nepal having an altitude ranged between 800 to 2100 meter above sea level are conducive for all types of citrus fruit cultivation. Nepal produced 273,000 tons of citrus in 2019 and ranked 43rd in global citrus production. The average productivity was 9.4 mt/ha in 2017/18.Various biotic and abiotic factors are reported to decline productivity of the citrus in Nepal. Poor orchard management, improper manuring and fertilization, including insect pests and diseases are major factors for citrus decline and low productivity of the citrus in Nepal. A literature review was carried out to explore the common diseases of citrus and their management in the context of Nepal. Along with the diseases of citrus, their casual organisms, distribution, epidemiology, intensity, symptoms, survival or spread, environmental factors, losses incurred and integrated management strategies corresponded to citrus diseases of Nepal gathered and compiled thoroughly from different literature and websites. Different 16 fungal diseases, 42 viruses, 7 bacterial diseases and some nematodes causing diseases on citrus in addition to this many diseases are reported to attack citrus crops in Nepal. Citrus greening (HLB), <em>Phytopthora </em>induced diseases, citrus canker, citrus tristeza, twig blight, powdery mildew etc. are major yield limiting diseases of citrus. Anthracnose, sooty mould, pink disease, gummosis, scab disease, citrus root nematodes, ‘Ainjeru’ are the other diseases for declining citrus production and its quality. Citrus greening and citrus tristeza are major casual agents for rapid decline and citrus root nematode is considered as casual factor for slow decline of citrus.</p> Prem Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 Prem Pandey 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 152 167 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46522 Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency of Rice Seed Production in Kailali Nepal <p>Rice crop plays a key role to maintain the food security in Nepal. However, inadequate knowledge on the economics of production hampers the level of production. Thus, this study seeks to analyze the profitability, resource use efficiency, and constraints faced in rice seed production in Kailali, Nepal. 158 households were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The primary data were collected from September to November 2021. The descriptive statistics, Benefit-Cost ratio, Cobb-Douglas production function, and scaling techniques were applied for data analysis using SPSS. Further, gross return NRs.115, 772/ha and benefit-cost ratio1.70 indicated that rice seed production was profitable with the productivity of 3.81 mt/ha. Estimation of resource use efficiency showed that the investment in seed and fertilizer needs to be increased by 53% and 63% respectively. The cost of tillage operations, labour, and agrochemicals should be decreased. The scaling technique resulted that pest in storage, inadequate capital and insufficient training were the major constraints. It is concluded that rice seed production is profitable with better yield, but the necessity was observed for the optimal allocation of inputs. The training, better storage facilities and credit access would be helpful to increase the income of farmers<strong>.</strong></p> Jyoti Dhungana Copyright (c) 2022 Jyoti Dhungana 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 168 186 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46524 Growth and Yield Performance of Potato Clones under Different Planting Dates <p>Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum </em>L<em>.</em>) is the fourth most important crop of Nepal. However, variety and planting methods have been catered for its low productivity in the country. A field trial was conducted at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Nepal from October 2016 to February 2017 to identify the suitable planting time and the best genotype. The trial was laid out in two factorial RCBD with three replications. Planting factors included four planting dates (5th October, 20th October, 4th November and 19th November), while genotypes were two potato clones (Khumal Seto and Kufri Jyoti). The result revealed that the mean effect of planting date and clones both significantly affected percentage emergence, plant height, number of leaves/plant, number and weight of tuber/plant. The maximum yield was obtained from 5th October planting (31.55 t/ha) which was statistically similar to 20th October planting (30.94 t/ha), but the lowest yield was found on 19th November (22.27 t/ha) and was at par with 4th November (22.77 t/ha). The yield of clone Khumal Seto (27.68 t/ha) was at par with Kufri Jyoti (26.09 t/ha). However, interaction effect of two factors significantly influenced percentage emergence, plant height and number of small size (&lt;25 g), medium size (25-50 g) and large size tubers (&gt;50 g), but had no significant difference on overall yield. Delayed planting (19th Nov) of both clones produced the highest percentage of small size unmarketable tuber number. Thus, planting of both clones either on 5th October or 20th October helps to maximize the productivity.</p> Ganesh Lamsal Amit Khanal Lal Prasad Amgain Copyright (c) 2022 Ganesh Lamsal, Amit Khanal, Lal Prasad Amgain 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 187 200 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46525 कर्णाली प्रदेशका चाडपर्व, संस्कृति र भाषाका शाब्दिक विशेषता {Literal features of festivals, culture and language of Karnali Province} <p>नेपाली भाषाको उद्गमस्थल कर्णाली प्रदेश चाडपर्व, संस्कार र नेपाली भाषामा छुट्टै र मौलिक विशेषता रहेका छन् ।कर्णाली प्रदेशमा सामाजिक भाषिकाको अत्यधिक प्रभाव रहेको देखिन्छ । यहाँ नातासम्बन्धी र जातिगत आधारमा प्रयोगगरिने पद पदावलीको स्थानीय प्रयोगअनुसार स्तरीय नेपालीभन्दा भिन्न स्वरूपका देखिन्छन् । साथै अभिवादनात्मक शब्दर शब्दावलीको प्रयोग र विविधतासम्बन्धी पाटो छुट्टै रहेको पाइन्छ । कर्णाली संस्कृति र पर्वमा विशिष्ट शब्दहरू प्रयोगगरिन्छन् । यी विविध चाडपर्वले हिन्दु परम्परामा अपनाइने मान्यताभन्दा आप्mनै खाले मौलिकताको छुट्टै पाटो रहेको छ ।यिनै विविध पक्षमा विहङ्गम दृष्टिले अध्ययन तथा अनुसन्धान गरी खास खास विशेषताका आधारमा रही कर्णाली प्रदेशकाचाडपर्व,संस्कार र भाषाका केही शाब्दिक पक्षको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । कर्णाली प्रदेशको कालिकोट जिल्लामा अवस्थितकालिकोट जिल्लाको नरहरीनाथ गाउँपालिकालाई अध्ययन क्षेत्र निर्धारण गरी क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन विधिका आधारमा अध्ययनतयार गरिएको छ । यस क्रममा अन्तवार्ता, छलफल र प्रश्नोत्तर जस्ता माध्यमबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी प्रयोग गरिएकोछ । प्राप्त सामग्रीलाई तत्सम्बन्धी विद्वान् र स्थानीय अग्रजको सहायताले सत्यापन गरिएको छ । उक्त सामग्रीकोवैधतातथा विश्वसनीयताका लागि सम्बन्धित विषयका पुस्तकालयीय सामग्रीमा आधारित भएर शोध अध्ययन विधि र व्याख्याविश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित भएर गुणात्मक ढाँचामा कर्णाली प्रदेशका चाडपर्व, संस्कार र भाषाका शाब्दिक विशेषता अन्यत्रभन्दामौलिक र विशिष्ट रहेका छन् भन्ने निष्कर्षमा पुग्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ ।</p> धनकृष्ण Dhankrishna उपाध्याय Upadhyaya Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 201 215 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46651 भाषापाठ्यक्रममा ब्लुम्स टेक्सोनोमीको उपयोग {Use of Blooms Taxonomy in Language Curriculum} <p>प्रस्तुत भाषा पाठ्यक्रममा ब्लुम्स टेक्सोनोमीको उपयोग शीर्षकको लेखबेन्जामिन ब्लुम र उनका सहयोगीहरूले गरेकोशैक्षिक उद्देश्यको वर्गीकरण र सोअनुरूप वर्तमान कक्षा दसका कक्षागत सिकाइ उपलब्धिको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ ।यस लेखमा शैक्षिक उद्देश्यको वर्गीकरणका बारेमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।शैक्षिक उद्देश्यको वर्गीकरणका मान्यतालाई नेपालीभाषा शिक्षणसँग जोडेर हेरिएको छ । यसमा दस्तावेज अध्ययन विधिकोअनुसरण गरेर तथ्यहरू खोजी गरिएको छ र उक्त तथ्यहरूको तार्किक र सङ्ख्यात्मक विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा ब्लुम्स टेक्सोनोमीमा रहेका शैक्षिक उद्देश्यका तीनक्षेत्र संज्ञानात्मक, भावनात्मक र मनोक्रियात्मक र अन्य उपक्षेत्र वा तह रहेका कुराको उदाहरणसहित चर्चा गरिएको छ ।यसै गरी नेपालमा बेन्जामिन ब्लुमका शैक्षिक उद्देश्यको वर्गीकरण बारेको सैद्धान्तिक तथा व्यावहारिक जानकारीको अभावरहेकाले पाठ्यक्रम विकासका क्रममाशैक्षिक उद्देश्य निर्माणमा धेरै विसङ्गतिहरू रहेका छन् । उद्देश्यको वर्गीकरणलाई अनुसरण नगरी पाठ्यक्रम निर्माण गर्दा कुनै क्षेत्र र तहका उद्देश्य अत्यधिक रहने र कुनै छुट्ने सम्भावना रहन्छ । नेपालको वर्तमान सन्दर्भमा स्थानीय पाठ्यक्रमका उद्देश्यहरू पनि निर्धारण गर्नुपर्ने भएकाले यसको महŒव झन बढेर आएकोछ । यसमा विद्यार्थीहरूको सर्वाङ्गीण विकासमा मद्दत पु¥याउन,व्यक्ति, समाज रराष्ट्रलाई शिक्षामार्फत सही दिशा प्रदान गर्नब्लुमका उद्देश्यको वर्गीकरणका आधारमा शिक्षाका लक्ष्य र उद्देश्यहरू तय गर्नु अपरिहार्य रहेको तथ्य प्रस्तुत छ । यसमा नेपाली भाषा सिकाइका सन्दर्भमा कक्षा दसको नेपाली भाषा पाठ्यक्रमका कक्षागत सिकाइ उपलब्धि तथा भाषिक सिपगत उद्देश्यहरूको विश्लेषण पनि गरिएको छ । यी कक्षागत सिकाइ उपलब्धि वा उद्देश्यहरूमा ब्लुम्स टेक्सोनोमीको प्रतिबिम्बन पर्याप्त मात्रामा देखिएको छ ।यस आधारमाभाषा पाठ्यक्रममा ब्लुम्स टेक्सोनोमीको उपयोगको अवस्था उपयुक्त रहेको रयसको महत्व पनि बढ्दै गएको निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{The use of Blooms Texonomy in the present language curriculum focuses on the classification of educational objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues and the analysis of current class ten learning achievement accordingly. It seeks facts by following the method of document study and provides logical and numerical analysis of the facts. This article discusses the three areas of educational objectives in Blooms Texonomy, cognitive, emotional and psychological, and other sub-areas or levels. When creating a curriculum without following the classification of objectives, there is a possibility that the objectives of some area and level will be excessive and some will be missed. In the current context of Nepal, the objectives of the local curriculum also need to be determined, so its importance has increased. It presents the fact that it is essential to set the goals and objectives of education based on the classification of Bloom's objectives to help in the all-round development of the students, to provide the right direction to the individual, society and nation through education. It also analyzes the classroom learning achievement and linguistic skills objectives of the Nepali language curriculum for class ten in terms of Nepali language learning. These classroom learning achievements or objectives reflect the Blooms Texonomy substantially.}</p> तिलकदेव Tilakdev गिरी Giri Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 216 231 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46654 भाषामा अवलम्बन, स्वीकरण र अपक्षयको स्थिति {The state of adherence, acceptance and degradation in language} <p>यस अनुसन्धानमूलक लेखमा सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञान र भाषामा अवलम्बन, स्वीकरण र अपक्षयको स्थितिका बारेमा अध्ययनमा गरिएको छ । मानिस सामाजिक प्राणी भएकाले उसले समाजमै भाषिक सिपहरू सुन्ने, बोल्ने, पढ्ने र लेख्नेगर्दछ । समाज भन्दा अलग रहेर व्यक्तिले भाषाको आदनप्रदान गर्न सक्दैन । भाषा सामाजिक वस्तु भएकाले यसको प्रत्यक्ष सम्बन्ध प्रत्येक भाषाभाषी र समाजसँग रहेको हुन्छ । भाषाको उत्पत्ति प्रयोग र विकास समाजमा नै हुन्छ । यदि भाषाको प्रयोग समाजले गरेन भने त्यस भाषालाई जीवित मानिदैन । जीवित भाषा हुनलाई समाजले प्रयोग गर्नै पर्दछ । व्यक्तिले बोल्ने आदरार्थी शब्दको प्रयोगबाट उसको सामाजिक स्तर थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ । बच्चा जन्मेपछि उसले समाजबाटै भाषासिक्ने, समाजमै व्यवहार गर्ने र समाजमै प्रयोग गर्ने भएकाले भाषामा सामाजिक विशेषता भेटिन्छ । यस अध्ययनमा सुविधाजनक नमुना छनोट विधिबाट प्राप्त भएका सूचनाका आधारमा व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । भाषामा अवलम्बन, स्वीकरण र अपक्षयको स्थितिलाई यस अध्ययनमा दस्तावेजको अध्ययनबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञानको पहिचान, प्रकृति, प्रभाव र भाषाको सामाजिक भेदको पहिचानका आधारहरू तथा भाषामा अवलम्बन, स्वीकरण र अपक्षयको स्थिति के कस्तो छ ? भन्ने प्रश्नमा केन्द्रित रहेर त्यसको व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएकोछ । यस लेखमा सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञानको पहिचान र भाषामा अवलम्बन, स्वीकरण र अपक्षयको स्थितिलाई मुख्य समस्या बनाएर अध्ययन गरिएको हुँदा सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञानका बारेमा अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गर्न चाहनेहरूका लागि यो लेखऔचित्यपूर्ण हुनेछ । सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञानको पहिचान गरी यसको प्रकृति, प्रभाव र भाषामा अवलम्बन, स्वीकरण र अपक्षयको स्थितिका बारेमा निश्चित ढाँचा तयार गरिएको छ । सामाजिक तत्वहरू धर्म, वर्ग, जात, जाति, संस्कृति, रीतिरिवाज, लिङ्ग उमेर, शिक्षा, पेसा, आदर, पद प्रतिष्ठा आदि कारणले सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञानलाई निर्धारण गर्दछ भन्ने यस अध्ययनको निष्कर्ष रहेको छ ।</p> लयप्रसाद layaprasad खतिवडा Khatiwada Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 232 244 10.3126/jotmc.v5i1.46659