Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences <p>An official medical journal of the Universal College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Ranigaon, Bhairahawa, Nepal</p> en-US <p>Authors have to give the following undertakings along with their article:</p> <ol> <li class="show">I/we declare that this article is original and has not been submitted to another journal for publication.</li> <li class="show">I/we declare that I/we surrender all the rights to the editor of the journal and if published will be the property of the journal and we will not publish it anywhere else, in full or part, without the permission of the Chief Editor.</li> <li class="show">Institutional ethical and research committee clearance certificate from the institution where work/research was done, is required to be submitted.</li> <li class="show">Articles in the Journal are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC License (<a href=""></a>)</li> <li>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and it is not used for commercial purposes.</li> </ol> (Prof. (Dr.) Hemant Kumar Halwai) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 12 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Lessons Learnt in the COVID-19 Pandemic- Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) <p>No abstract available.</p> Nagendra Chaudhary, Shatdal Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Stumbling upon Palatogingival Groove: A Case Report <p>Palatogingival grooves (PGG) are developmental malformations infamous for precipitating endodontic-periodontal lesions. Pertaining to their discreet occurrence, variation in groove depth and funnel like shape, adherence of plaque and calculus is apparent thereby jeopardizing the periodontium and pulp. A case of palatogingival groove in maxillary left lateral incisor was diagnosed and managed with endodontic treatment followed by open flap debridement to seal the groove with biodentine and fill the defect with bone graft. On follow up, the periapical lesion and the periodontal pocket were successfully resolved.</p> Sujan Thapa, Vanita Gautam, Snigdha Shubham, Manisha Nepal, Kriti Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Haematological Profile in Microcytic Hypochromic Anaemia in Children <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>The most common disorders presenting with microcytic hypochromic anaemia are iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and β-Thalassemia trait (β-TT), and each of them has different pathogenesis and treatment modality. Here we intend to see the haematological profile in microcytic hypochromic anaemia in children apart from IDA and Thalassemia with respect to age and gender.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>A total of 95 pediatric patients between the ages of 2 to 12 years with microcytic hypochromic anaemia were included in the study. Blood samples obtained from each patient were evaluated for various haematological and biochemical profiles along with haemoglobin electrophoresis. It was a hospital based observational cross-sectional study done for a period of 18 months from January 2019 to July 2020.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Severe anaemia was seen in 55 (57.89%) cases, followed by 38 (40.00%) cases with moderate anaemia and 2 (2.11%) cases with mild anaemia. Majority of the cases showed IDA, which were 85 (89.5%) cases, followed by 6 (6.3%) cases with β-TT and 4 (4.2%) cases with β-TM. RBC count, hematocrit and RDW showed significant variation between IDA, β-TM and β-TT. Most number of correctly diagnosed cases were shown by Ricerca Index with 90 (94.74 %).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Our study concludes RBC count and RDW, along with Srivasthava Index, Ricerca Index and RDW Index could be used as reliable indices to differentiate between iron deficiency anaemia and β-Thalassemia. Red cell indices, serum iron profile and haemoglobin electrophoresis complement each other for the precise diagnosis of underlying cause of microcytic hypochromic anaemia.</p> Raju Kafle, Anupama Bastola, Ashok P Samdurkar, Narayan Gautam, Anuj Poudel, Anita Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Functional Outcome of Proximal Humerus Fracture Managed Surgically by Joshi's External Stabilizing System <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>The ideal management of proximal humerus fracture is still controversial despite various treatment options. Conservative treatment with slab is fraught with shoulder stiffness and malunion while surgical treatment with plates and nail is fraught with infection and blood loss. Therefore, Joshi External Stabilization System (JESS) being a minimally invasive percutaneous procedure can be the ideal treatment for these fractures.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>This prospective and observational hospital based study was carried out in Orthopedics Department, Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (UCMS-TH) from December 2018 to January 2021. All patients with traumatic proximal humerus fracture who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and were treated with JESS. Fracture was classified according to Neer classification and functional outcome was assessed according to Constant Murley Score (CMS) system. Post-operatively patients were regularly followed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>There was statistically significant difference in VAS score (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) measured at six weeks, three months and six months; and CMS (p&lt;0.05) at three months and six months. There was statistically significant difference between fracture type (Neer type) and fracture union (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). But the association between functional outcome and type of fracture was statically insignificant (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Displaced proximal humerus fracture when treated surgically with JESS has good functional and radiological outcome. It produces less pain, less stiffness and greater Range of Motion (ROM).</p> Prakriti Raj Kandel, Bipan Shrestha, Kishor Man Shrestha, Shreshal Shrestha, Pradip Chhetri Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Feeding Practice among Mothers Attending the Immunisation Clinic of UCMS Hospital, Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Practice of exclusive breast feeding has dramatically reduced infant mortality in developing countries due to reduction in diarrhea and infectious diseases. We conducted a study to assess the feeding practices among mothers with children less than 12 months of age attending the immunization clinic of UCMS hospital, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in the immunization clinic of Pediatric ward of UCMS, Nepal for a period of four months. Mothers of child of 0-12 months were included in the study. Sample size was 372 which was based on the number of mothers visited Pediatric ward for immunization of their child of age group 0-12 months during the duration of the study. Mothers were interviewed by using a pre-validated structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version-20 software and presented by descriptive statistics as frequency and percentages.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Most of the children were above six months, 56.5% were of 7-12 months of age group. Exclusive breastfeeding was done in 48.4% children for first six months. Maximum population preferred hospital as their mode of delivery. 93.5% mothers opted for hospital as their place of delivery. 23.4% mothers were illiterate. Night feeding was practiced by 96.2% mothers.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Breast feeding awareness must be spread among mothers by workshops and health education programs.</p> Binod Kumar Gupta, Raju Kafle, Nagendra Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the Prevalence and Associated Factors of Perceived Stress on COVID-19 Among Healthcare Providers in Rupandehi District Health Institutions, Western Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Healthcare providers (HCPs) though stood as front-liners during the crisis situation were not themselves immune to the psychological consequences due to COVID-19. The present study aimed to find the prevalence of perceived stress on COVID-19 pandemic and its associated factors among health care providers in Rupandehi district health institutions.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>This cross- sectional study was conducted among the HCPs in the institutions of Rupandehi district in Western <a href="">Nepal</a>, from August to November, 2020. Total 126 subjects were included and probability sampling technique was applied for sample collection. After written consent from participants socio-demographic data were collected and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) was applied.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The study showed the prevalence of perceived stress in COVID-19 HCPs found to be 65.1% considering score 20 as cut-off. Age, work place, precaution measures taken and staying with family were statistically significant with the perceived stress level (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed perceived stress level had statistically significant association with precaution means and work place of HCPs. Healthcare providers who had unsatisfactory precaution means followed at work were 2.66 times more likely to have perceived stress as compared to satisfactory precaution means as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.66 (1.09-6.51). Healthcare providers who stayed with family members were 2.28 times more likely to have perceived stress level as AOR=2.28 (0.94-5.52).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The study showed increased prevalence of perceived stress among HCPs during the initial stage of COVID‐19 pandemic in Nepal. Considering the findings, there is urgent need to develop and implement appropriate stress management and coping strategies to the target group.</p> Sreya Paudyal, Sailaja Ghimire, Yudhisthir Raj Khadka, Manoj Dhungana Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Utilization of Antenatal Care Services Among Women Visiting for Institutional Delivery in Tertiary Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Antenatal Care (ANC) services utilization during pregnancy plays an important role in prevention and management of pregnancy related complication thus improving the maternal and child health. Hence this study aimed to identify the factors influencing utilization of ANC service among women visiting for institutional delivery in tertiary hospital of Bhairahawa, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>Hospital based cross-sectional study was carried among 396 women admitted in the postnatal ward of Universal College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal form September 2019 to December 2019 following ethical clearance and verbal consent from participants. Variables with significant association (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) in bivariate analysis were entered into multivariate logistic regressions to find the factors affecting utilization of antenatal care services. </p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>This study revealed that 18.43% of respondents did not receive any ANC services. Among those who were not receiving ANC service, 86.3% never felt the need for ANC services throughout the period of pregnancy. ANC service utilization was found to be associated with religion (AOR=3.15, 95% CI: 1.40-7.08) and husband education (AOR=5.09, 95% CI: 1.63-15.92).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>In spite of being an essential component for the care of pregnant women ANC services was not utilized by all of them as many of them did not felt the need of this service. Thus it is recommended to increase awareness regarding the available services and its importance by local stakeholders to prevent further morbidity and mortality.</p> Rubina Shrestha, Chet Kant Bhusal, Pradip Chhetri, Saneep Shrestha, Jyoti Priyanka Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Burden of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Children from Five Schools in Bhairahawa, Nepal: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the tropics including Nepal. The main objective of this study was to explore the burden of intestinal parasitic infections among children in 5 different primary schools in Bhairahawa, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS:</strong> This was a cross-sectional comparative study among 408 children from 5 schools in Bhirahawa, Nepal. Stool specimens collected in a plastic container were transported to microbiology laboratory in Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (UCMSTH) immediately. Each sample was examined macroscopically and microscopically for the evidence of parasitic infection. All samples were re-analysed by sedimentation and floatation concentration techniques one after another.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The overall prevalence of the parasitic infection was 46.5%. The prevalence varied by the methods that included routine microscopy (23.2%), sedimentation (41.6%) and flotation (8.3%). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common (29.1%) parasite followed by Entamoeba histolytica (6.1%). Mixed infection was also seen in 7.8% of the samples. Factors such as children’s academic year, age, religion, existing illness, household water sources, meat consumed, domestic animals at house, and recent history of taking anti-helminthics were significantly associated with the intestinal parasitic infections. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher in public school (61.1%) compared to private school (37%). Male students had slightly more infections (47.3%) than females (45.7%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Enteric parasitic infection was very high among the primary schools’ students in Bhairahawa, Nepal. Integrating concentration techniques in routine test can help to detect most of the enteric parasites in stool specimens.</p> Shristi Raut, Srijan Bhattarai, Rita Khanal, Sulochana Khatiwada, Rajeshwar Reddy Kasarla Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psychiatric Morbidity in Elderly Patients attending OPD of Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Geriatric psychiatry patients are increasing but enough work has not been done in this area of Nepal. We conducted this study to find out the prevalence of different psychiatric morbidities in elderly population and to find out if there are any age and gender specific differences.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>Medical records of psychiatric patients above 65 years of age visiting outpatient department of Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospitalfrom April 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019 were reviewed. Risks of having different psychiatric disorders was estimated using odds ratio.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 300 cases were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the study group was 71.49(SD=6.99). There were more females. Depressive disorderwas the most common diagnosis followed by somatoform disorder, anxiety disorder, dementia and others. Depressive disorder was higher in females and in younger subgroup of the elderly patient.The risk of having dementia was higher in older group.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric disorderfollowed by somatoform disorder in elderly patients above 65 years of age. Male patients were more likely to suffer psychiatric disorder as compared to females in this age.</p> Bhaskkar Sharma, Rajesh Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Psoriasis in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory and proliferative condition of the skin which poses a significant health problem in general population. It is clinically characterized by erythematous plaques covered by silvery white scales, associated with systemic manifestations in many organ systems.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>This is a descriptive study conducted at the Department of Dermatology, Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal. All psoriasis patients who gave consent were clinically examined and proforma documentation including patient’s clinical and demographic details was studied.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Fifty two psoriasis patients were studied. The median age was 40 years and male: female ratio was 1.7:1 with 33 (63.5%) male and 19 (36.5%) female psoriasis patients. The most common clinical type of psoriasis observed according to morphology was chronic plaque psoriasis 45 (86.54%) and according to involvement of anatomical site was nail psoriasis 33 (63.5%). This study showed that 30 (57.7%) had no symptoms of pruritus and pain and 29 (55.8%) of psoriatic cases had seasonal variation. The commonest treatment modality was a combination of oral and topical medication 29 (55.8%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Psoriasis is a common skin disorder associated with systemic manifestations seen by dermatologists. This study outlines the clinico-epidemiological profile of patients with psoriasis which can provide further guidance for taking appropriate measures in diagnosing, providing adequate treatment, and undertaking various preventive measures among psoriasis patients.</p> Aruna Sayami, Anita Shah, Yogesh Poudyal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Vitamin D Deficiency among Children with Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Center in Eastern Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is exceedingly predominant in children leading to dysregulation of the immune system and inflammation. Data on the prevalence of VDD in children with sepsis and its association with sepsis severity are limited from our part of the world. The primary aim of this study was to identify the burden of VDD in children with sepsis.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>One hundred and five children (&lt; 15 years) with sepsis were enrolled from April 15, 2017 to April 14, 2018 from a tertiary care center in Eastern Nepal. Demographic data including BMI, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were recorded at the time of admission. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay technique (CLIA) (MAGLUMI 25-OH Vitamin D; CLIA) within 24 hours of admission. Vitamin D concentrations of &lt;20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) were considered as deficient.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of the 105 children enrolled, the majority 74 (70.55%) had vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D was deficient in 77, 65, and 66% of children in 1-5, 5-10, and 10-15 years of age group respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was maximum (80%) in underweight children. In the VDD group, 60% had severe sepsis, whereas only 32% had severe sepsis in vitamin D sufficient group with significant statistical association with sepsis severity and vitamin D deficiency.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>A high burden of VDD is present in children with sepsis which was found to be associated with greater severity of illness.</p> Shyam Prasad Kafle, Eqtedar Ahmad, Lalan Prasad Rauniyar, Namu Koirala Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analgesic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds and Leaves of Coriandrum Sativum on Swiss Albino Mice <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Pain has been described by the International Association for the Study of Pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Although NSAIDS and OPIOIDS are available for the treatment, still pain (chronic) is major problem. The present study was designed to study the analgesic effect of ethanolic extract of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> using hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in experimental animals (Swiss albino mice).</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS:</strong>The analgesic effect of leaves and seeds of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> was assessed using hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice. The animals were treated with the ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> orally at two doses of 100, 500 mg/kg body weight after electric heat and acetic acid induced pain in mice.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The study showed that ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> presented significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) and (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) analgesic activity in mice simultaneously. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunette's multiple comparison test. The results demonstrate that ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> has got analgesic potential.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The results demonstrate that ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> has got significant analgesic effect.</p> Chandrajeet Kumar Yadav, Poonam Tiwari, Roshan Mehta, Amit Kumar Shrivastava, Anjan Palikhey Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Increased Serum Ferritin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Hospital Based Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiology characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with a derangement in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion and action. Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein complex that reflects the iron stores of the body. Studies have shown that the increased body iron stores are associated with the development of glucose intolerance often leading to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The objective of the study was to find out association of serum ferritin level with T2DM and assess the correlation between serum ferritin and HbA<sub>1c</sub>.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 43 diabetic patients and 42 age and sex matched healthy controls. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum ferritin were estimated in cobas c311 autoanalyser using standard protocol.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Mean age of healthy control and T2DM were found 54.83 ± 6.48 and 55.95±10.92 years respectively. Mean FBG (mg/dL) (170.41 ± 71.7 v/s 98.38 ± 9.7), PBG (mg/dL) (266.16 ± 110.09 v/s 123.20 ± 17.0), HbA1c (%) (8.17 ± 1.83 v/s 4.9 ± 0.29 and median ferritin (μg/L) 207.90 (138, 306.0) v/s 127.95 (85.75, 210.25) were significantly higher in T2DM compared to the healthy controls. Spearman’s correlation depicted that ferritin level was positively correlated with HbA1c level but the correlation was statistically insignificant.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Serum ferritin level was found significantly higher in T2DM compared to healthy age and sex matched controls in our study.</p> Rajendra Kumar Chaudhari, Apeksha Niraula, Basanta Gelal, Jouslin Kishore Baranwal, Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Robin Maskey, Madhab Lamsal Lamsal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness Regarding Chronic Kidney Disease Among Adults in a Hospital of Siddharthanagar Municipality <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a leading public health problem worldwide. Early detection and management of the risk factors of CKD is helpful for its prevention and reduction of burden caused by it. This study aimed to find out the awareness regarding chronic kidney disease among adults in a hospital of Siddharthanagar Municipality.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>Hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study was used to find out the awareness regarding chronic kidney disease among 165 adults attending Medical out patient department of Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal from July 11 to July 25, 2021. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to assess the awareness level and its association with different socio-demographic variables.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The findings of the study showed that 57.6% of respondents had low level of awareness regarding chronic kidney disease. Respondents have high awareness on risk factors of chronic kidney disease whereas respondents have relatively low awareness on meaning and clinical features of chronic kidney disease.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>On the basis of findings, it is concluded that more than half of the respondents have low awareness level regarding chronic kidney disease so an effort should be made to improve the awareness regarding chronic kidney disease for early identification and management of chronic kidney disease.</p> Sulochana Ghimire, Gita Neupane, Chanda Sah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mental Health of Health Science Students during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Medical College of Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Mental health impact of COVID-19 is a well-known entity. Health science students are among the high risk groups for developing mental health issues due to lengthy and rigorous studies they undertake. This study aims to explore the mental health of health science undergraduate students of Maharajgunj Medical Campus, and Maharajgunj Nursing Campus during the COVID pandemic in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2021 to July 2021 using convenience sampling technique using Nepali version of DASS-21 to undergraduate health science students of Maharajgunj Medical Campus and Maharajgunj Nursing campus.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Out of 164 participants, depression, anxiety and stress was seen in 43%, 33% and 29% respectively. Females showed more depression (47.6%) and anxiety (38.8%) and stress (32%) as compared to males</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>Mental health of health science students is adversely affected during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Narayan Bahadur Mahotra, Sabita Kandel, Sanyukta Gurung, Bishal Joshi, Sagun Ballav Pant, Sait Pradhan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dietary Modification and Life Style Changes due to COVID-19 Pandemic Homestay among Nursing Students of Pokhara: Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>In December 2019, new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) emerged in Wuhan, China causing pandemic all over the world which results in homestay order. Homestay lead to changes in lifestyle like sedentary life, sleeping habits and eating behavior. So, the objective is to assess dietary and life style modification among nursing students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional online survey was conducted from August 1 to October 15, 2020. The setting of study (Manipal) was selected purposively in which enumerative sampling technique was used constituting total sample size of 216 nursing students. Data was collected through self-administer semi-structure questionnaire via online mode which was further analyzed using descriptive statistics SPSS 20.0 version.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>There was slight modification in intake of food items like fruits, vegetable, protein, fats, commercialized items, carbonated/sweetened beverages and non-vegetarian diets (chicken and fish). During COVID-19, less than one-fifth (15%) wake up before 7 AM and 78.2% sleep duration is 7-9 hours. About 64.1% pass their leisure time watching TV/ facebook/ messenger/ youtube/ whatsapp/ instagram. Nearly 99.1% engaged in household activities during home stay. More than three-fourth (77.8%) of respondents were doing physical activity. But still 69.9% had weight gain.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Despite physical and household activities, some unhealthy practices like waking up late, increased sleep duration and use of screen was observed. There was less modification in dietary pattern. So it is recommended to follow healthy diet like Mediterranean diet having several health benefits like weight reduction, prevention from non-communicable diseases and boost immune system in period of pandemic.</p> Dibya Sharma, Ramchandra Kafle, Sakun Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Fear and Preventive Behaviors of Pregnant Women during COVID-19 Pandemic in Western Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>The perceived fear of COVID-19 is expected to have a significant positive impact on preventive behaviors as it triggers people to prevent themselves against threats. People take necessary actions to engage in preventive behaviors if they perceive high fear of transmission of disease.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>Cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to find out the perceived fear and preventive behaviors of pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic. One hundred and fifty normal pregnant women attending Antenatal Checkup (ANC) out-patient department and ward of Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (UCMSTH), Rupandehi were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used for analysis with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 16.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The study findings revealed that more than half of the respondents had high level of fear regarding COVID-19. Although participants were largely engaged in all preventive behaviors like wearing facemask, hand washing, covering nose and mouth, cleaning and disinfecting and maintaining healthy diet, while maintaining social distance, avoiding public transport, avoiding crowd, exercising regularly and quitting tobacco and alcohol were the least. There was positive correlation between perceived fear and preventive behaviors although it was not proved significantly.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The study findings concluded that more than half of the respondents had high level of fear regarding COVID-19. Adequate counseling and reassurance of these pregnant women in the current scenario might reduce their fears and increase the probability of adapting preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19.</p> Shristi Bajracharya, Saraj Gurung, Binita Khatri Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Emerging, Neglected and Underestimated Zoonotic Parasitic Ocular Infestation: A Comprehensive Review on Thelaziasis <p>Human thelaziasis is an emerging insect-borne zoonotic ocular parasitic infestation, occur more commonly in rural communities with poor living and low socioeconomic living, and mainly affects the children and old age people, where humans live in close proximity with animals. Human thelaziasis is caused by both <em>Thelazia callipaeda</em> and <em>Thelazia californiensis.</em> <em>T.</em><em> callipaeda</em> lives under the eye lids, nictitating membranes, orbit, conjunctival sac, lachrymal glands, and lacrimal ducts of cats, dogs, rabbits, horses, cattle, deer, badgers, monkeys, wolves, foxes (definitive hosts) and man being an accidental host. The vectors (intermediate hosts) are non-biting, tear-seeking, diptera flies of family Drosophilidae (fruit flies) <em>Phortica variegata</em>, which feeds on tears of their definitive hosts, including humans. Clinical manifestations include <a href="">conjunctivitis</a>, lacrimation, itching or pain with foreign body sensation, epiphora, follicular hypertrophy, and less often with severe signs and symptoms such as keratitis, photophobia, ectropion, corneal opacities (due to the migration of worm across the cornea), floaters within the eye chamber leading to visual impairment/blindness. The knowledge and scientific information on human thelaziasis is still unknown or relatively limited to many ophthalmologists and clinicians, and received little attention; hence this comprehensive and systematic review of human thelaziasis, is undertaken to highlight its importance and further research.</p> Rajeshwar Reddy Kasarla, Shristi Raut Adhikari, Kripa Ghimire, Laxmi Pathak Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Second Teachers’ Training Workshop: Feedback of the Participant Faculty Members <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Teachers training is amongst the faculty development programs that facilitates in acquiring, and updating educational skills, thereby improving teaching learning practices. Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS) Bhairahawa, Nepal organized second teachers training workshop in September 8-13, 2019. The objective of this study was to seek the immediate reaction of the participant faculty members and assess it</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>The valid semi-structured questionnaire was used for taking feedback of the participants. The questionnaire was composed of four parts: A) demographic information, B) overall feedback on training workshop, C) feedback on specific group of sessions and D) Feedback regarding strengths, area for improvement, immediate impact and application in practice. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. </p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The participants rated training on scale 1-10 (1=poor, 10=excellent) regarding its usefulness (7.88±1.58), content (7.44±1.55), relevance of session &amp; content (7.69±1.49), facilitation (7.25± 1.69) and training as overall (7.94± 1.44). The rating was notable. The rating on Likert scale 1-4 (1= not important, 4= extremely important) for “sessions on curriculum” (3.38±0.50), “sessions on teaching/learning methods” (3.25±0.68), “sessions on PBL” (3.06±0.68), “sessions on microteaching” (3.56±0.51) and sessions on assessment (3.19±0.75) was also remarkable. All participants strongly agreed (4.00±0.0), training has transformed them as better educator. The participants shared adequate content delivered systematically, group work exercises were best resources, and resource persons were friendly and competent, and suggested to reduce time of training and include more group work. Almost all participants except one perceived training has enormous impact on them academically, professionally and personally and all committed what’s learnt/acquired will apply in practice.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Overall, reaction of the participants was constructive and they acknowledged the importance of training and agreed training has transformed them as better educators. Almost all participants perceived training has immense impact on them academically and they committed what’s learnt will apply in practice.</p> Rano Mal Piryani, Suneel Piryani, Narayan Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000