Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS <p>An official medical journal of the Universal College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Ranigaon, Bhairahawa, Nepal</p> Universal College of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2091-2846 <p>Authors have to give the following undertakings along with their article:</p> <ol> <li class="show">I/we declare that this article is original and has not been submitted to another journal for publication.</li> <li class="show">I/we declare that I/we surrender all the rights to the editor of the journal and if published will be the property of the journal and we will not publish it anywhere else, in full or part, without the permission of the Chief Editor.</li> <li class="show">Institutional ethical and research committee clearance certificate from the institution where work/research was done, is required to be submitted.</li> <li class="show">Articles in the Journal are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/</a>)</li> <li>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and it is not used for commercial purposes.</li> </ol> An Overview of Japanese Encephalitis https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65588 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus, is the main cause viral encephalitis, endemic in South-East Asia, and Western Pacific regions and has become a major public health problem worldwide. JEV is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito, mainly <em>Culex tritaeniorhynchus </em>that breeds in flooded rice fields, marshes, standing water around planted fields. Reservoir hosts are Adreid birds (herons and egrets), and pigs serve as amplifier hosts. Though infections are usually asymptomatic, the symptomatic Japanese encephalitis has a case fatality rate as high as 30%. Permanent neurologic or psychiatric sequelae can occur in 30-50% of those with encephalitis. There is no antiviral drug available. Treatment is mainly supportive and symptomatic. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent Japanese encephalitis. This article reviews recent advancements in diagnostic methods, prophylactics as well as therapeutic options and challenges to combat this zoonotic emerging and remerging viral encephalitis.</p> Rajeshwar Reddy Kasarla Rekha Sudi Laxmi Pathak Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 57 61 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65588 Importance of Undergraduate Research in Medical and Dental Curriculum https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65660 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>The quality of medical education has attracted considerable interest during the last few years. This interest is especially concerned with the question of how education can be made more relevant to the needs of today’s society. Emerging changes in today’s society such as rapid advances in technology, changes in demographics, environmental factors and life style may require a revision in the present system of education in such a way that students of health profession are trained to deal with problems in the future, preparing themselves to become active, independent learners and problem-solvers, rather than more or less passive recipients of information. The recent trend in medical and dental education is introduction of undergraduate research in the medical and dental curriculum. The present article reviews and describes the importance of undergraduate research to teach students how to conduct research and to develop necessary skills that can be applied outside the academic environment, to produce competent doctors and enhance patient outcomes.</p> Laxmi Pathak Rajeshwar Reddy Kasarla Kripa Ghimire Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 62 64 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65660 Role of MRI in Evaluation of Post-Traumatic Knee Injuries: A Prospective Study https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65537 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>The knee joint is the largest and most complex joint in the human body. Therefore it is often affected by trauma. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging modality that provides detailed images of the soft tissue structures of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate MRI findings in patients with post-traumatic knee joint injuries.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>This prospective study was carried out using a 3.0 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Lumina) scanner in the Department of Radiodiagno- sis and Medical Imaging at Universal College of Medical Sciences &amp; Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal, involving 128 patients with knee injuries, from September 2023 to February 2024. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>In this study of 128 participants, 57.81% were male and 42.19% were female, with a mean age of 38.60±13.05 years. The majority of MRI findings were medial meniscus tear (51.56%), followed by anterior cruciate ligament tear (46.09%), medial collateral ligament sprain (44.53%), lateral meniscus tear (39.84%), lateral collateral ligament sprain (33.59%), and posterior cruciate ligament tear (17.97%). Our study also revealed various grades of collateral ligament injuries, including the medial and lateral ligaments. There were 59.65% of cases with a grade I medial collateral ligament sprain, followed by grade II at 33.33% and grade III at 7.02%. The grade I and grade II lateral collateral ligament sprains were 62.79% and 37.21%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>MRI is a non-invasive and valuable diagnostic modality that can provide an accurate diagnosis. It is often preferred over arthroscopy.</p> Sanju Rawal Rajendra KC Subhash Chandra Yadav Bardan Oli Sadhan Mukhi Krishna Thapa Darshana Dhakal Narayan Bohara Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 2 5 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65537 Prevalence of Thyroid Disorder in First Trimester of Pregnancy, Study from Lumbini Province Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65549 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION <br /></strong>Thyroid disorder is the second most common endocrine disorder of pregnancy. The most common thyroid disorder is hypothyroidism which often goes undiagnosed during pregnancy without screening. It has influence in maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid disorder in the first trimester of pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>This was cross-sectional observational study conducted for a period of 6 months (Jan - June 2022) at Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal. All the pregnant women in their first trimester who came for antenatal check-up in gynae OPD was included after taking consent.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>Total 393 cases were evaluated. 58% were primigravida and 42% were multigravida. Mean age was 26 years with minimum 17 years and maximum 41 years. Majority of cases were of the age group 20 to 30 years 76.6%. Thyroid disorder noted in 21.3%. Hypothyroidism found in 18.6% with overt hypothyroidism in 12.8% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 5.8%. Hyperthyroidism noted in 2.7% with overt hyperthyroidism in 1.5% and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 1.2%.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>Thyroid disorder in pregnancy in common health problem in first trimester in pregnancy. Early diagnosis and treatment is needed to reduce complications associated with this endocrine disorder of pregnancy.</p> Deepanjali Sharma Jigyasa Subedi Manoj Lamsal Tara KC Hasina Banu Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 6 8 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65549 Anticipation of Difficult Airway by Neck Circumference to Thyromental Distance Ratio https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65550 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Unanticipated difficult intubation scenario is a major concern for anaesthetists which contributes to perioperative morbidity and mortality. Characteristics of difficult intubation indices like increased neck circumference (NC) and reduced thyromental distance (TM) when combined as a ratio can increase accuracy in predicting difficult intubation.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>This prospective, observational study was conducted at Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital on 160 patients of ASA class I and II planned for surgery under general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Airway indices measured were modified mallampati classification (MM), thyromental distance, neck circumference, and neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TM).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>NC/TM showed the highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in the non-obese group (<em>p </em>&lt;0.001) as compared to MM, NC and TM. In the obese group, NC/TM showed the highest sensitivity, PPV and NPV (<em>p </em>&lt;0.001) as compared to NC and TM while the specificity was highest and similar to MM as compared to NC and TM.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>Neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio is a better predictor of anticipating difficult intubation in both obese and non-obese patients compared to modified mallampati classification, thyromental distance and neck circumference.</p> Rejin Kumar Udaya Saba Khan Laxmi Pathak Pradip Chhetri Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 9 14 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65550 Efficacy of TENS Therapy, Therapeutic Ultrasound and Stabilization Splint as an Adjuvant to Pharmacotherapy for Temporomandibular Disorders https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65551 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>This study aims to assess the effectiveness of adjunctive treatments like transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), therapeutic ultrasound (ThUs), and stabilization splint (SS) in combination with pharmacotherapy (PT) in enhancing pain relief, mouth opening, lateral excursion, joint sound reduction, muscle tenderness improvement, and jaw deflection in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), affecting the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>The study involved 90 patients divided into three groups. Pharmacotherapy (Tab. Myospaz) was prescribed to all patients, each group received either TENS, ThUs, or SS as adjunctive treatment. Outcomes were measured at baseline and various intervals post-treatment.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>TMDs were more prevalent in younger age group (21-30 years) with female predilection (F:M =2.21:1). Significant differences were observed in pain scores, with TENS and ThUs groups showing greater reductions compared to SS. ThUs demonstrated superior results in mouth opening, while TENS showed better outcomes in lateral excursion and muscle tenderness reduction.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>This study concluded that both TENS and therapeutic ultrasound effectively reduced pain with therapeutic ultrasound showing better results in improving mouth opening, and TENS demonstrating better results in lateral excursion and muscle tenderness reduction. No significant difference among three groups were found in reducing joint sounds and deviation/deflection.</p> Deepak Yadav Hemanta Raj Pathak Ravish Mishra Laxmi Kandel Shahid Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 15 20 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65551 Prevalence of Upper Limb Length Discrepancy among Asymptomatic Population of Medical Students in Nepal: A Descriptive Cross Sectional Study https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65578 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Upper limb length discrepancy are frequently documented in various anatomical orthopedics and anthropometric journals. Proper idea about discrepancy is pivotal prior to any limb lengthening surgery. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of upper limb length discrepancy among asymptomatic population in medical students of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the department of anatomy in Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal from September 2021 to November 2022 after ethical clearance from the same institution (IRC UCMS, Ref: UCMS/IRC/079/21). Full and segmental length of upper limb was taken, recorded with help of flexible tape. Reference points for these measurements were bony landmarks as approved in the Integrative Measurement Protocol Morphological and Behavioral Research in Human and non-human primates version 1.0 were used. Convenient sampling method was used Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2016. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and percentage.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>Out of two hundred fifty seven participants 141 were male and 116 were female. Total upper limb length of male is 74.17± 4.79 cm and female is 71.92 ± 4.81cm. Total upper limb length discrepancy maximum was observed 3 cm. In our study it was observed that wrist has maximum discrepancy between right and left limb followed by arm and fore arm.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>The present study shows the prevalence of upper limb length discrepancy in asymptomatic Nepalese population.</p> Nitasha Sharma Chet Kanta Bhusal Ruku Pandit Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 21 24 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65578 Bacteriological Study of Post-Operative Wound Infection and its Antibiograms https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65579 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Postoperative wound infections are a significant complication of surgical procedures, which increases morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and increased healthcare costs. The study was undertaken with an aim to investigate the etiological agents of postoperative wounds and their sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>This study was a descriptive cross-sectional prospective study, carried out at Universal College Of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal, on 100 postoperatively wounded infected cases, during April 2023 – August 2023, Non Probability sampling method (Purposive sampling) was used, and specimens were collected by sterile cotton swabs and pus was aspirated with a sterile needle and syringe and processed using standard bacteriological techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>Postoperative wound infections caused by Gram negative bacilli were more frequent and predominant pathogens involved were <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, </em>followed by <em>Klebsiella spp </em>and <em>Enterobacter aerogenes. </em>Among Gram positive bacteria <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>was predominant. Gram positive cocci were highly sensitive to Ampicillin, and Gram negative bacilli were highly sensitive to Ceftazidime, Gentamicin, and Amikacin. Coagulase negative staphylococci were resistant to all drugs tested.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>was the commonest etiological agent for postoperative wound infections. Gram positive cocci and E.coli were highly sensitive to Ampicillin and Gram negative bacilli were highly sensitive to Ceftazidime, Gentamicin, Amikacin. <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>was resistant to vancomycin and Teicoplanin and coagulase staphylococci were resistant to all drugs tested. Gram negative bacilli were resistant to Polymyxin B and Tigecycline. Increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics warrants the judicious use of antibiotics and establishment of antibiotic policy in the hospital.</p> Apsha Shrestha Stuti Koirala Ashok Adhikari Sweata Bhandari Rajeshwar Reddy Kasarla Laxmi Pathak Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 25 29 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65579 Awareness Regarding Cancer among People Residing in Kapilvastu District https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65580 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Cancer is a second leading cause of death globally, accounting for an estimate 9.6 million deaths or one in six in 2018 according to WHO factsheet. This study aimed to assess the awareness regarding cancer and its associated factors among adults of Maharajgunj Municipality of Kapilvastu.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>Community based, cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the awareness regarding cancer and its associated factors and warning signs from January 2023 to July 2023, on a total of 400 participants in the age range of 20-90 years. Participants were enrolled in the study using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire from consented participants. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used for further analysis. The level of significance was set at <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>This study revealed that only 32.5% of participants were aware of symptoms and 32.8% of participants were aware of the risk factors associated with cancer. Significant associations were found between cancer awareness of risk factors and socio-demographic variables such as occupation (<em>p</em>=0.049), education (<em>p</em>-value=0.02), religion (<em>p</em>-value=0.033), and ethnicity (<em>p</em>-value=0.016). However, this study showed statistically significant association only between level of education and cancer awareness of symptoms.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>The study findings indicate that approximately one-third of the participants had awareness regarding cancer risk factors and symptoms. These findings emphasize the urgent necessity for increased awareness of cancer among the community. Therefore, it is imperative to implement effective strategies to enhance community engagement in cancer-related health education programs.</p> Jyoti Priyanka Neelam Shrestha Amit Kumar Chaudhary Rubina Shrestha Gunjan Pokhrel Deepak Belbase Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 30 35 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65580 Factors Associated with Health Seeking Behavior among Women of Reproductive Age in Slum Areas of Pokhara Metropolitan https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65582 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Women’s health seeking behavior can be determined through various factors such as socio-demographic, economic, health condition etc. The objective of this study is to assess the factors associated with health seeking behavior among women of reproductive age in slum areas of Pokhara Metropolitan.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>Cross-sectional analytical study design was used to assess the health seeking behavior among 350 reproductive age women population in Pokhara Metropolitan from June to December 2019. Purposive sampling was used to collect the samples. Face to face interview was used as data collection technique and semi structured questionnaires were used as data collection tools. Data were entered in EPI-DATA and analyzed using SPSS as per data analysis plan.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>The mean age of the participant was 31 years and majority of the participants belonged to age group 25-35. Majority of the participant 80.6% were Hindu, 41.1% had basic education, 73.4% were married and 97.1% were living along with their family. No variables were found having association with health seeking behavior. Majority 57% women who were ill for &gt;30 days sought for their health care. More than half of the women i.e. 54% preferred nearby medicals/clinics as their treatment place.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>The overall health seeking behavior was good in this study area. Most of the participants had knowledge on visit to health facility when ill. Most of the participants were serious about their health issues.</p> Rakshita Lamichhane Bimala Bhatta Namuna Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 36 39 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65582 Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Datura Stramonium Leaves Extract in Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65584 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Diabetes mellitus is defined as the increase in blood glucose levels associated with a relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance or both. <em>Datura stramonium</em> is commonly known as Jimson weed or Datura belongs to family Solanaceae containing different types of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and glycosides.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>Extraction was done by maceration process using ethanol as solvent. Swiss albino mice of 20-35 gram were taken as study animal. Diabetes was induced by using Alloxan 20 mg/kg body weight and Glibenclamide 10 mg/kg body weight was used as standard. Ethanolic extract of low dose (50 mg/kg) and high dose (100 mg/kg) were subjected for Anti-diabetic activity.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>The extract treated 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and standard 10 mg/kg showed highly significant reduction in blood glucose level (BGL) on 21<sup>st</sup> and 28<sup>th</sup> day respectively when compared to negative control group. Extract treated 100 mg/kg showed significant improvement on high density lipoprotein when compared to negative control group. Extract treated 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and standard 10 mg/kg showed highly significant improvement in lipid profile when compared to negative control group. Extract treated 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and standard 10 mg/kg showed significant body weight gain when compared to negative control group. Extract treated 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg showed significant improvement in food intake. Extract treated 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg showed highly significant but standard treated 10 mg/kg showed significant improvement in water intake.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>The present study concludes that the extract possesses potent and significant anti-diabetic activity of <em>Datura stramonium </em>leaves.</p> Roshan Kumar Mehta Ramesh Kohar Vivek Kumar Mehta Narayan Gautam Pradyumna Chaudhary Mukesh Kumar Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 40 46 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65584 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Over-the-counter Drugs among Undergraduate Students of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65585 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Over-the-counter drugs are those which are safe and effective for the general public to use, without consulting a health care professional. Self-medication with over-the-counter drugs is common among medicine and health science students. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice on over-the-counter drugs among undergraduate students of a tertiary care teaching hospital.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among first and second year undergraduate students from June 2023 to September 2023. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire and was entered and analyzed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out to find out knowledge, attitude and practice of over the counter drugs.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>Among 352 students, 272 (77.27%) had good knowledge (with mean knowledge score of 7.22±1.43 out of 9) on over the counter drugs. Almost all of the students 350 (99.43%) had a positive attitude toward over the counter drugs use, (with a mean attitude score of 27.55±2.70, out of 40). Only 195 (55.40%) students always read the instructions on the medicine’s label before use. Most commonly used over the counter drugs was antipyretics 264 (75%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>Majority of the students had good knowledge and practice and positive attitude towards over the counter drugs use, however, there were few inappropriate practices. Awareness on proper use of over the counter drugs among students is necessary in medical institutions to prevent the misuse of these drugs.</p> Ruchi Shrestha Mukta Singh Bhandari Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 47 51 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65585 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Diabetic Foot Care among Diabetic Patients in a Hospital of Rupandehi https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65586 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION<br /></strong>Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Diabetic foot ulcers are common and are estimated to affect about 15% of all individuals with diabetes during their lifetimes. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding diabetic foot care among diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS<br /></strong>Cross sectional descriptive design study was conducted among 384 diabetic patients selected by using purposive sampling technique. Structured interview questionnare was used for data collection for 6 months periods and was analyzed by using descriptive and interferential statistics with Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 20.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS<br /></strong>The findings of the study revealed that 23.7% had adequate level of knowledge regarding diabetic foot, 96.9% of the respondents had positive attitude regarding diabetic foot care and 39.0% of the respondents had good practice regarding diabetic foot care.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION<br /></strong>Based on the findings, it is concluded that more than three fourth (76.3%) of the diabetic patients had inadequate knowledge regarding diabetic foot. Almost cent percent (96.9%) of the diabetic patients had positive attitude towards the diabetic foot care. More than three fifth (61.0%) of the diabetic patients had poor practices regarding diabetic foot care.</p> Gita Neupane Sulochana Ghimire Chanda Sah Moonu Shrestha Manju Pandey Netra Gautam Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 52 56 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65586 Effect of Social Media on Medical College Students https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65787 <p>Social media has transformed medical education, offering various benefits such as access to diverse learning resources, collaboration opportunities, and networking with professionals worldwide. It's indeed a double-edged sword, offering both benefits and drawbacks. On one hand, social media provides a convenient platform for accessing study materials, communicating with peers, and even engaging with instructors and academic resources. It can foster collaboration, critical thinking, and knowledge sharing. Platforms like Twitter work particularly well for delivering journal clubs and Tweetorials because they permit live global participation. Furthermore, it provides a level of informality that makes experts easier to reach, regardless of status or seniority.</p> Hemant Kumar Halwai Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 1 1 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65787 Sigmoid Volvulus: A Rare Complication of Atropine Therapy in a Patient with Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Case Report https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65661 <p>Various complications of atropine therapy in cases of organophosphorus poisoning have been reported. Among them, atropine induced paralytic ileus is a serious gastrointestinal complication with very few cases published worldwide. The tendency of over atropinization in organophosphorus poisoning despite regular monitoring is common and may develop life threatening complications as well. This necessitates knowledge, thorough examination, and an experienced approach to aid in treatment and complications management. We have discussed a case of organophosphorus poisoning, with symptoms of atropine toxicity and acute abdominal complication treated with surgical approach in our setting.</p> Sudhan Devkota Sanjog Kandel Bhawana Giri Niraj Kumar Jaiswal Pushpa Raj Dhakal Nabin Pokhrel Shreeyanshu Parajuli Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 65 68 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65661 Appendicitis with Periappendiceal Abscess and Phlegmon in Second Trimester Pregnancy: A Case Report https://nepjol.info/index.php/JUCMS/article/view/65662 <p>There is anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in all body systems in pregnancy and these changes can be often misinterpreted as pathological. The unreliable nature of complaint reports, examination findings, and laboratory parameters in pregnancy appendicitis cases makes it challenging for physicians to diagnose and manage cases effectively. So, we present a case report with presentation dangling between its typical and atypical form.</p> Kunal Yadav Krikesh Shrestha Rajesh Poudel Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 12 01 69 71 10.3126/jucms.v12i01.65662