Journal of Political Science <p>Published by the Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus, Tribhuvan University. Full text articles available.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" width="88" height="31"></a><br>The journal is published under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Department of Political Science en-US Journal of Political Science 2362-1273 Information Warfare and Digitalization of Politics in a Globalized World <p>Online media of digital methodology has transformed human behaviors from sociocultural and political backing, interest, and participation to sharing supposition or resistance and has transfigured the approach of interaction and thinking—a serious issue for digital anthropology that centeres on internet-related changes of social marvels, a configuration of chaotic pluralism. With the prime argument that digital social media platforms implant feebleness, insecurity, and instability into social and political life, this paper investigates the risks that online media impose on democracy. Based on auxiliary secondary data, the methodology incorporates qualitative verifiable, and analytical methods. The paper's findings contend that the politico-techno-driven political economy of digital innovation has chopped social and democratic institutions and has destabilized worldwide social relations and politics, democracy has been fumed, stormed, and hacked. Social media has created a modern world order of amazing befuddling filter bubble impact where cyber-violence is misogynistic--social media is just like a redirection of Chinese whispers. Subsequently, with, private on-screen characters, governments' data dispersal, and so-called security and safeguarding of citizens' democratic rights, allegorically, George Orwell’s nightmare of 'Animal Farm' unfurling. In a bourgeois populist science of the 'digital panopticon' of technological colonialism, state surveillance, and bourgeois information, humankind is becoming more divided and unsecured and in the future citizens' will be deprived of numerous sociopolitical rights. Future people may fade under the pressure of high-tech colonialism which concurs with the normalization approach that 'offline field' powerful people are powerful 'online' too. Upcoming democracy is probable to be a discreetly 'high-hat' elitist endeavor. Current endeavors and legislations are romanticized as a glass half empty with very few tools to control cyberspace. It is pivotal to invigorate and fortify citizens’ digital agency and self-determination in society, politics, well-being, and economy, otherwise, societies/countries are probable to be more totalitarian.</p> Prakash Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 1 30 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52280 Measuring Governance in Nepal <p>The study aimed to explore the approaches, tools, and indicators around the world to measure governance and how Nepal is taking advantage of them. Measuring governance is a complex phenomenon because it depends on the context in which it is being discussed. Based on the secondary information, the study discussed the introduction of governance, its importance, prevailing approaches, and indicators of measuring governance globally and their uses in Nepal. The article acknowledges that periodic assessment of governance indicators urges countries to continuously strive for better service delivery for further improvements on these governance indicators. Nevertheless, the most widely used governance indicators by developing countries such as Nepal is developed mostly by international organizations and multi-laterals and with their strategic interest limiting their universality. Thus, such indicators may require critical evaluation and customization by developing countries before adoption. The research concludes that there is no single best universally accepted method and indicator for measuring governance. Also, Nepal needs to conduct prudent assessment and customization of the indicators and approaches for measuring governance of all three tiers of government namely local, provincial, and federal governments.</p> Badri Nath Baral Khadga K.C. Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 31 42 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52281 Performance of Anti-Corruption Agencies in Nepal: A Good Governance Perspective <p>Several anti-corruption laws and dozens of Agencies including the Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA) have been working against corruption in Nepal. The current constitution has empowered the CIAA as a supreme body for fighting corruption. Nevertheless, the anti-corruption movement is not well enough. Scholars argue that only the establishment of Anti-Corruption Agencies (ACA) cannot assure the cure and substitute for a high level of corruption. Rather, a strong political will, by various means play a key role; for example, by means of the allocation of sufficient personnel and the budget. Others argue that ACA must also be free from political interference and ACA must also be out of fear and favor in investigating political leaders and senior civil servants. Using empirical evidence derived from unstructured interviews with government officials and the net-work sampling method, this paper investigates the institutional challenges to corruption reduction in order to achieve good governance in Nepal. The study finds that administrative corruption and policy-level corruption are the major hindrances to achieving good governance in Nepal.</p> Roshan Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 43 59 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52283 Revenue and Expenditure Base of Municipalities at Gandaki Province <p>The funding scheme from federal and provincial government had a positive impact on equity through the formula funding scheme. However, property taxes; house and land tax; house and land rent tax; business tax; rental or lease tax; parking fees; herbs, scraps, wildlife tax and service charges are the main sources of income of municipalities. An efficient revenue base allows local governments to provide reasonably efficient services to their people. By considering this issue, the study served primarily as a quantitative study. Using a descriptive and causal comparative study design, expert opinions on key indicators of income and expenditure, and their relative importance for assessing the financial health of the municipal unit and collect opinions on actions that should be taken to improve through Key Informant Interviews (KII) checklists. The main informants were municipal executive-level officials or elected authorities. A checklist was prepared for KII instruction by considering existing literature and consulting the experts of the related field. Out of the 85 municipalities, 27 municipalities were selected as sampling units. The sample represents approximately 32% of the population. The secondary data required for the study was collected from the Annual Reports and Audit Reports of sample municipalities of the office of the auditor general. Federal and state grants play an important role in supporting local government spending. Overall, local governments have found themselves gradually strengthening their income and expenditure bases to improve their financial viability, putting them on the path to financially sustainable development.</p> Devilal Sharma Surendra Kumar Vyas Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 60 76 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52284 Introducing the Idea of Border Governance for Nepal-India Open Border <p>The process of globalization, with the flow of people, merchandise, and capital, has invited different challenges, threats, and insecurities. Thus, the idea of border governance has emerged among the states, calling for a collaborative approach to border management systems between the neighboring states. As a qualitative study adhering to the "practice turn" in International Relations (IR) and considering human actions responsible for constructing social realities, the study has focused on the Nepal-India open border. As a unique border, the study has pointed out different threats and challenges faced by Nepal and India because of their openness. The article has briefly elucidated the emerging concept of border governance. Likewise, it has introduced the idea of border governance for Nepal-India open borders, outlining its principles and strategies. Overall, the study emphasized the importance of border governance for Nepal-India borders, recognizing border disputes and enormous challenges.</p> Manish Jung Pulami Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 77 97 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52285 ‘Himalayasia’: Reclaiming Regional Identity in South Asia <p>South Asia is a conflict-prone region with numerous humanitarian challenges. South Asian states have long been struggling to bridge the political gaps among themselves. Regionalism has not been instrumental enough in this regard. This paper identifies a lack of regional identity for the South Asian peoples as one of the major obstacles why regionalism has never had much impact on the political map of South Asia. It is argued here that South Asia needs a major regional reorientation to reclaim its historic and cultural commonalities. And, that can be facilitated by a unique and meaningful geographical identification. In this regard, the Himalayan Mountain Range can be regarded as a geographical connector of the major South Asian States; hence, ‘Himalayasia’ could be a suitable name for their regional reorientation. The proposition is an outcome of a people-centric approach to constructing collective identity through social interaction among the peoples of South Asia based on their geographical identity and its already existing socio-cultural and civilizational legacies, which is expected to have gradual and incremental political implications in the states of this region. The research is qualitative-constructive as well as normative. It uses information, concepts and ideas from secondary sources and based on that substantiates new propositions vis-à-vis regional identity in South Asia.</p> Md Rashidul Islam Rusel Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 98 110 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52287 Paradigm Shift in Social Science Research: A General Perspective <p>This paper explores the paradigm shift in social science research from positivism to the contemporary approach of indigenous research paradigms. The paper is based on relevant literature on paradigm shift reviewed. It begins with a discussion of Kuhn’s notion of paradigm and paradigm shift from its historical perspectives towards the contemporary advancements of alternate paradigms such as interpretivism, criticalism, post modernism and indigenous research paradigm. Every paradigm follows certain stages from normal science, crisis and revolution or a shift into a new paradigm. The contemporary literature on social science research reveals how decolonization occurs through indigenous research paradigms. The paper then delves into the concept of decolonization and the emergence of indigenous research paradigms. The paper also examines the implications and challenges of indigenous research paradigms, including issues of decolonization among the indigenous communities of the global south. The paper concludes by emphasising the significance of decolonizing research methodologies and identifying the perspectives of marginalized communities. The existing positivist paradigm has been challenged by the critical, interpretive, and post- modern paradigms for a better understanding of social phenomena. Although there has been a positive development in the paradigm shift in social science research, challenges such as the problem of representation and the critique of power and knowledge still exist to be addressed.</p> Vijay Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 111 123 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52289 Buddhist Perspective on Politics [Public Lecture] <p>This is a public lecture delivered in a symposium jointly organized by the Surya Ratna Shakya Foundation, Pokhara and the Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus, Pokhara on September 20, 2022.</p> Bhikkhu Dhajavanto Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus 2023-02-13 2023-02-13 124 130 10.3126/jps.v23i1.52290