Journal of Political Science 2024-02-20T09:28:28+00:00 Than Bahadur Chhetri Open Journal Systems <p>Published by the Department of Political Science, Prithvi Narayan Campus, Tribhuvan University. Full text articles available.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" width="88" height="31"></a><br>The journal is published under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Global Power Shift and Nepal's Geopolitical Complexity 2024-02-19T16:00:26+00:00 Khadga K.C. <p>The process of globalization, with the flow of people, merchandise, and capital, has invited different challenges, threats, and insecurities. Thus, the idea of border governance has emerged among the states, calling for a collaborative approach to border management systems between the neighboring states. As a qualitative study adhering to the "practice turn" in International Relations (IR) and considering human actions responsible for constructing social realities, the study has focused on the Nepal-India open border. As a unique border, the study has pointed out different threats and challenges faced by Nepal and India because of their openness. The article has briefly elucidated the emerging concept of border governance. Likewise, it has introduced the idea of border governance for Nepal-India open borders, outlining its principles and strategies. Overall, the study emphasized the importance of border governance for Nepal-India borders, recognizing border disputes and enormous challenges.&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Political Leadership of Women in Nepal: A Critical Observation from the Local Elections 2022 2024-02-19T12:34:48+00:00 Mahendra Sapkota <p>Women's representation in political leadership is crucial for liberal democracies. However, the persistent global gender gap in political participation raises important questions. This paper focuses on the state of women's political leadership in Nepal, using the 2022 local elections as a case study. It takes an epistemological critical approach and integrates quantitative and qualitative information from various secondary sources. The study reveals an increase in the number of women in leadership positions after the election, which can be attributed to the constitutional provisions of Nepal that aim to ensure inclusion, representation, and participation. However, these provisions do not guarantee the quality, competence, and empowerment of women in leadership roles, as they still face obstacles such as patriarchal structures, elitist-centric inclusive practices, and a lack of institutional support at the local level. This paper is valuable for those interested in political science, gender studies, or development studies.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Performance of Local Governments in Kaligandaki Rural Municipality of Syangja District, Nepal: An Assessment 2024-02-19T13:14:31+00:00 Girdhari Dahal <p>Since the establishment of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the Constitution of Nepal 2015 has given the local governments a great deal of power and authority. Consequently, a lot of changes have been noticed in most of the local levels. The present study is about the performance level of local government of Kaligandaki Rural Municipality of Syangja District in Gandaki Province, Nepal. The main issues and objectives that encouraged this study are to identify the types of achievement the local government has made during its tenure from 2017 to 2022, and to explain how it has accomplished the performance. The government has carried out different development activities related to public goodness in the study area. The activities related to passing and enacting laws, and improving education, drinking water, health care, insurance, farming, roads, irrigation, job opportunities and people’s increased participation in decision-making level have been successfully implemented. The study demonstrates that the local leaders of this municipality have accomplished their tasks among the grassroots by encompassing inclusive development models. The findings of the study conclude that besides exercising democratic practice and democratic institutionalization, the local government has displays high level of performance regarding local development in this rural municipality, and this performance indicates the significance of empowering local levels in Nepal.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Exploring the Relationship between National Security Risks and Economic Factors: A Nepalese Perspective 2024-02-19T13:27:50+00:00 Lila Dhar Adhikari <p>Macroeconomic variables have a significant impact on national security. This article examines the intricate association between macroeconomic variables and national security, emphasizing the bottomless effects of economic factors on individual vulnerability to national security risks. The evolution of conventional and unconventional power, encompassing both hard and soft power, has taken on a hybrid form central to national security considerations. In today’s globalized world, economic variables have become pivotal in shaping national security threats. Employing the Critical Political Economic Approach (CPE), the study focuses on Nepal as a case study to analyze the interplay between economic determinants and national security risks. The findings indicate that the expansion of trade, financial services, FDI, migration, and remittances both positively and negatively influences national security concerns, whereas growth in poverty and inequality, foreign aid and loans, crises, corruption, critical ICT infrastructures, and cyber risks heighten threats to Nepal's security. The study suggests that fostering strong economic conditions and positive trends can mitigate the likelihood of national security incidents.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Politics of Faith: Religious Nationalism and Nepal's Democratic Landscape 2024-02-19T14:06:26+00:00 Abinav Acharya <p>Religious nationalism is a significant force in politics that has a profound impact on a nation's democratization process. This research focuses on the case of Nepal and aims to explore the historical context of the country to understand the influence of religious identity on democratization. Instead of relying on public opinion surveys, the study employs a qualitative approach, analyzing historical records and case studies. The research examines the role of religious actors in shaping the political landscape and highlights the challenges posed by religious nationalism to democratization. It emphasizes the need for institutional resilience and legislative measures to protect pluralism and inclusivity. The research concludes that religious nationalism emerges as an ideology and an identity-driven political force that will shape the course of Nepal’s democratization, requiring a deep comprehension of its consequences and actions to strengthen the country for the future.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Expenditure Practices of Provincial and Local Governments: The Case of Nepal 2024-02-19T14:16:36+00:00 Kumar Bhattarai <p>Nepal promulgated a new constitution in 2015, which adopted a federal system of governance to achieve economic equality, prosperity and social justice. The constitution has allocated expenditure responsibilities to each level of government. In such a scenario, this study employs a descriptive approach to analyze the spending practices of Nepal’s provincial and local governments. Secondary sources of data were used to cover the period from 2018/19 to 2021/22. The study found that the average share of recurrent expenditure at the provincial level of Nepal was 42.5% while such share of capital expenditure was 57.5%. At the local level, the average share of recurrent and capital expenditure was 60.5% and 39.5% respectively. Within the capital expenditure of Nepal’s provincial governments, the average share of expenditure items having relatively more contribution to capital formation was 70.6% while that of local governments, such share was 52.9% only. The study also found that Nepal's provincial and local governments spend less on the major subnational service delivery areas. Nepal’s subnational government spending practices highlight the need to spend more on capital formation. Within the capital formation, more spending on the areas having a direct impact on their future growth and prosperity is necessary. The subnational governments must also spend more on major subnational service delivery areas.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Exploring Fiscal Federalism and the Structure of Public Spending in Nigeria 2024-02-19T14:27:42+00:00 Andrew Aondohemba Chenge <p>Globally, there has been a noticeable shift towards fiscal decentralization during the last few decades. As a result, subnational levels of government now have more latitude for revenue generation and spending decisions. Nations all around the world are recognizing the benefits of fiscal decentralization. Fiscal federalism, as a component of fiscal decentralization, deals with the public sector's vertical organization. It examines the functions of the various governmental tiers and their interactions with one another through various fiscal mechanisms. The study aims to investigate the impact of Nigeria's fiscal federalism on public spending and the welfare of its citizens. The Wiseman-Peacock theory was adopted as the theoretical framework. The study was based on a documentary research design. Content analysis was used as a method for analyzing data. The derived findings revealed that Nigeria’s revenue-to-GDP ratio is among the lowest in the world. It also established that revenue shortages have created imbalances in government expenditure, i.e., recurrent above capital expenditure. The study recommends that addressing loopholes in the current tax legal framework, allocating spending more efficiently, and strengthening institutions are approaches to be applied to put Nigeria on a sustainable fiscal path.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Cyber-Politics: Social Media's Influence on Political Mobilization 2024-02-19T14:47:52+00:00 Aswasthama Bhakta Kharel <p>Commencing with the recognition of social media's profound impact on political mobilisation, this research seeks to conduct an in-depth investigation into the intricate relationship between social media and political engagement, acknowledging the significant influence of digital platforms on civic participation. Employing a methodologically rigorous mixed-methods approach, combining qualitative content analysis and secondary data for quantitative analysis, the study systematically examines the nuanced dynamics of political discourse, information dissemination, and network structures within major social media domains. Guided by Social Movement Theory, the theoretical framework illuminates the instrumental role played by online communities and influencers in shaping contemporary political movements. Preliminary findings emphasize the pivotal contribution of social media to information dissemination, community-building endeavours, and activist initiatives. However, the research also identifies challenges related to misinformation and polarization, highlighting the need for a nuanced understanding of the multifaceted relationship between social media and political engagement. Aligned with a referenced study, this research enhances understanding of the influence exerted by digital spaces on civic engagement, providing a holistic examination of policy discourse, information distribution, and network structures across major social media channels. Establishing a foundation for future research, the study offers pragmatic insights to policymakers, facilitating the discerning utilization of social media platforms for constructive mobilization while mitigating deleterious consequences in the contemporary digital milieu.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 EU-China Economic Relations in the Early 21st Century 2024-02-19T14:55:59+00:00 Md. Sayedur Rahman Md. Tahosan Habib <p>The European Union (EU) and China are two of the most influential and complex economies globally. The current state of their relationship is marked by a growing trade deficit for the EU with China, along with increasing Chinese investments in Europe's energy, technology, and infrastructure sectors. The EU has expressed dissatisfaction with China's treatment of foreign investors, limited market access for European companies, and government subsidization of domestic companies. Additionally, the EU has raised concerns about China's human rights record and its policies in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and mainland China. The partnership is expected to remain a key focus for the EU's economic outlook as both sides balance economic potential with geopolitical and security considerations. This report aims to identify and explain the primary issues, key areas for improvement, and mutual interests between the EU and China, while also proposing potential solutions to enhance their economic and trade relations. Informative articles, relevant papers, textbooks, and other sources support the discussion. Although the analysis is subjective, a quantitative methodology is also employed. The discussion presents a common interface and provides recommendations for enhancing financial relations, increasing exchange, financial and security relations, participating in and benefiting from two-way engagement, and enhancing EU-China relations.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Soft Power and Small States: A Theoretical Discussion 2024-02-19T15:07:31+00:00 Binod Khanda Timilsana <p>This paper analyses global debates on soft power and its implications for small states in international relations. It primarily focuses on theoretical debates about the soft power of small states. It examines the conceptual development of soft power and how it relates to small states using a qualitative approach. It has observed small states from quantitative and qualitative definitions and found them to have divergent priorities with distinct characteristics. Furthermore, a soft power taxonomy was used to observe soft power resources, instruments, receptions, and outcomes. Methodologically, this paper follows the qualitative literature review approach, using a systematic framework. Finally, the paper examines the ontological position of soft power in international relations theory, providing a unique proposition that stands out from realism, liberalism, and constructivism. In conclusion, the paper reviews the opportunities, challenges, and practices of soft power in the foreign affairs of small states, drawing on theoretical and philosophical lenses to develop persuasive arguments.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Beyond Borders: A Review of Diaspora and Female Immigrant Experience 2024-02-19T15:19:31+00:00 Nagendra Bahadur Bhandari <p>This article reviews the conceptualization of the diaspora and the inclusion of female immigrants’ experiences in diaspora studies. It surveys the changing notion of diaspora with the inclusion of varied groups of immigrants, including females. Then, it examines the previous research about female immigrants’ experiences, particularly focusing on South Asian female immigrants. Over time, the conceptualization of the diaspora has evolved from a perspective focused on victimhood to a more socially constructed view of identity formation that transcends the binary distinction between home and host countries. This broader conceptualization of diaspora includes various forms of transborder migration and settlement, allowing for a more inclusive examination of the experiences of female immigrants. In the beginning, women immigrants were often equated with male immigrants. However, as time passed, scholars started linking gender concerns with additional factors like social class, nationality, and ethnicity. In this context, the research on the experience of South Asian female immigrants revolves around changing gender roles and family dynamics, including contradictory aspects of whether migration reinforces domination or provides autonomy to South Asian female immigrants.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shifting Trends in Regionalism 2024-02-19T15:30:29+00:00 Bhim Nath Baral <p>Regionalism is a movement that emerged after World War II. It involves countries that are geographically close and interdependent, collaborating with the help of governments and NGOs to achieve mutual benefits in a particular area of shared interest. Such regional clusters have evolved due to geographical proximity, economic interdependence, security issues, social and cultural background, and more. The end of the Cold War led to the rise of new regionalism shaped by factors such as globalization, the emergence of new players, shifts in global power dynamics, increased interdependence, alterations in security paradigms, the advent of multipolar, and various other influences. This shifting pattern has had a major impact on world politics and power dynamics. Traditional notions of security are evolving to encompass human security concerns, while economic collaboration and identity-based regionalism are gaining prominence. Asia's growing economic clout, new regional players' arrival, and smaller states' growing role are reshaping the global power landscape. Asymmetric positions and chequered history hinder the functioning of regionalism. In this context, the article seeks to analyze the changing dynamics of regionalism, the primary drivers of this shift, and its implications for global power dynamics. The article is presented from the perspectives of neo-realism, neo-liberalism, and constructivism in a descriptive, analytical, and exploratory format, where the necessary information is obtained from secondary qualitative data.&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Shifting Geopolitics 2024-02-19T15:46:11+00:00 Dev Raj Dahal <p>Geopolitics has now taken center stage in shaping the domestic and foreign policies of nation-states. This trend largely aligns with the principles of political realism, where states aim to survive in an anarchical international order by maximizing power and wealth while minimizing losses. In an era characterized by rapid ecological, economic, and technological changes, as well as uncertainty and conflicting dynamics in international politics, geopolitical narratives have captured the attention of statesmen, journalists, academics, policy analysts, and military strategists. The traditional version of geopolitics, which was characterized by determinism, expansionism, and aggression, has given way to a more nuanced understanding of where states make strategic choices in a multi-polar world. However, this shift has also witnessed a decline in multilateralism and the rise of nationalism, populism, and fundamentalism, which has weakened international regimes and global governance institutions. These developments are occurring at a time when many global issues, such as arms proliferation, pandemics, poverty, inflation, and climate change, require international cooperation. The global power shift from the Atlantic to Asia, particularly with the ascent of China as a geo-strategic rival to the USA with global influence in security, development, and civilization initiatives, as well as the growing Sino-Russian partnership, has created new geopolitical dynamics. India's neutral stance between a resurgent Russia and the USA, while being part of America's Indo-Pacific strategy, alongside rival strategies aimed at containing, deterring, and pushing back against China, has placed small states like Nepal in a challenging position. The Russian invasion of Ukraine, driven by the latter's interest in joining NATO and the EU, has reshaped bilateral relationships among major and minor states. This ongoing conflict shows no signs of resolution, further complicating global geopolitics. The emergence of the Eurasian geopolitical pole and the Atlantic solidarity, along with their contest for supremacy, are affecting global security, political and economic order, and the formation and dissolution of alliances among nation-states as they strive to rebalance their relationships.</p> 2024-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024