Journal of Development and Administrative Studies <p>Published by the Centre for Economic Development and Administration (CEDA), Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal</p> Centre for Economic Development and Administration (CEDA) en-US Journal of Development and Administrative Studies 2091-0339 <p>The copyright of the accepted articles is reserved by the <em>Centre for Economic Development and Administration (CEDA</em>), <em>Tribhuvan University (TU).</em> No part of the article published in this journal should be reproduced except provided by the law currently in force without the written consent of the centre.</p> Climate Change Adaptation related Hindrances among Rice Farmers in Nepal: Farm Level Analysis <p>The objective of this study is to measure the hindrances of climate change adaptation among rural rice farmers in Nepal and its possible way forward. This study was done in seven districts, one district from each of seven provinces, where three from Terai region (i.e. Bara, Dang and Kailali) and four from Hilly region (i.e. Ilam, Sindhuli, Syangja and Surkhet) of Nepal. A structural questionnaire with both closed and open - ended questions were prepared and used to obtain required information from 773 rice farming households from the targeted study areas. Interviews were conducted for the crop year 2016 and for the main season rice cultivation in Nepal covering from June/July to October/November of each year (i.e., monsoonal cultivation of paddy). Results show that, factors such as inadequate operational capital, poor access to weather forecast and climate change information, inadequate awareness program on climate change from government and non-government agencies are the major barriers for over 90 percent of the farmers surveyed by this study. Similarly, about 80 percent of the sample surveyed farmers opined that high cost of improving seeds, fertilizers and irrigation, inadequate knowledge on coping mechanism or in building resilience and inadequate access to credit facilities are the major hindrances to them for addressing weather and Climate Change (CC) related vagaries. Hence, the empirical results drawn from this study suggest that there is an urgent need in Nepal for greater investment at agrarian sector to address these farmers’ level constraints and including supports for improving access to market and credit issues to farmers ( institutional and policy supports). Poor and ultra-poor farmers are more vulnerable from the vagaries of climate change, thereby immediate actions are needed from Ministry of Agriculture, and newly set up local government units in terms of more public investments at local and national level to enhance the climate change resilience of smallholding and poor farmers of Nepal.</p> Ram Kumar Phuyal Niranjan Devkota Durga Lal Shrestha Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 1 10 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23434 Climate Change and its Impact on Tourism Based Livelihood in High Mountain of Nepal <p>The climate change is the major issue of the development planning in recent world. This paper focuses on the people’s understanding and experience about the climate change, its impact on tourism dependent livelihoods of the mountain community. Participatory survey design, interview, community consultation, FGD, were conducted in the field. The literature review and hydrological and meteorological data from secondary source were collected for analysis. The people of research area feel that the fluctuation of climatic variables and extremes is occurring now and they are familiar with that change in climatic variables and associated disaster. Their experience on the warming and precipitation coincides with authorized meteorological data which depicts that the mean annual temperature is increasing and average annual precipitation is decreasing. People from High mountain region said that the impact of climate change in tourism based livelihood was experienced. All types of livelihood assets are affected by climate change in mountain region. The change in frequency and intensity of climatic variables and climate change induced hazards was observed and that retard in tourism business and tourism activities in local area.</p> Thakur Devkota Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 11 23 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23435 Demographic and Socio-economic Factors Affecting on Health Facility Delivery in Nepal <p>In Nepal, health facility delivery has improved since the 1990s, but child health delivery facility is still low. In 2001 about 9 percent of the births was delivered at a health facility (MoH, New ERA, and ORC Macro, 2002) which increased to 35 percent in 2011 (MOHP, New ERA, and ICF International Inc, 2012) and further&nbsp;increased to 57 percent in 2016 (MoH, New ERA and ICF, various 2017). This is a&nbsp;rapid increase in health facility delivery since 1996 but still nearly one-half of delivery take place at home. Research in developing countries shows that demographic, social and economic factors influence the utilization of health facility for delivery of births. This paper examines the likelihood of health facility delivery in relation to women’s demographic, social and economic status in Nepal. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data set has been utilized by applying bivariate logistics regression analysis technique to examine the effects of these variables in health facility delivery in Nepal. The analysis findings show large variations and gaps on delivery care based on demographic, social and economic status of women. Against this finding, the study concludes that there is a need for the implementation of appropriate policy and program measures by the government and other agencies to address the existing variations and gaps in utilization of health facility for delivery of births among different sub-groups of women in Nepal. Further research studies focusing on the existing barriers in health facility delivery need to be conducted in Nepal especially among women who are disadvantaged and marginalized.</p> Sunil Kumar Acharya Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 24 35 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23436 Employment Status of Women in Tourism at Pokhara, Nepal <p>The employment generation from Pokhara as an established tourism destination in&nbsp;Nepal carries special significance in evaluating economic impact. This study aims to explore female employment status and influencing factors for the participation of women in tourism at Pokhara. A total of 250 respondents were sampled from ten&nbsp;tourism enterprises and ten in-depth interviews were conducted in order to gather&nbsp;primary data. Demographic factors such as age and marital status; socio-economic&nbsp;factors like educational level, work environment have been identified as independent variables that might have effect on women’s level of participation. The findings reveled that women’s participation in managerial position is low (31%) comparing to the operative level (69%). About 75 percent of employed women are moderately satisfied indicating the urgent need of improvement in working environment. The percentage of women employment lies only between minimum 20 to maximum 45 percent indicating the urgent need of trainings and skill development on women. The training on women has been found a noteworthy impacting factor for employment creation. The outcome of the study has positive implication on policy formulation for women employment in tourism sector.</p> Laxmi Kanta Sharma Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 36 46 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23438 Invisible Corruption in Iraqi Universities: Causes and Solutions <p>Corruption is a global phenomenon driving towards the non-productive activities, and its result becomes more risky if corruption is widespread. Corruption in high education institutions has detrimental consequences on the quality of education, the student’s ethics, the future opportunities for students, and the quality of future leadership. This paper aims to explore the role of universities in the spread of invisible corruption at the Iraqi high education sector. The main research problem is an attempt to explore the role of students, academic and other staff in the spread of invisible corruption at the Iraqi high education sector, and what best solution are used to limit its effects. This study pursues both deductive and inductive approach and uses the analysis which is supported by both theoretical evidence and statistical techniques. The study was conducted at the University of Basra and the Southern Technical University, where, the sample included professors with experience and specialization in the field of teaching and analyzing corruption in high education. The results showed limited visible corruption in the Iraqi education sector, while Invisible corruption was the most common in the Iraqi high education sector, because of the difficulty of discovering its practices. The spread of this type of corruption was due to the common interests between students and academic and administrative bodies. This requires Popularizing the culture of integrity and exposing corruption and its dangers in the external and internal community levels of Iraq's high education sector.</p> Muslim Alawi Alsaad Abdulridha Nasser Mohsen Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 47 61 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23440 Sexual Violence and Consequences of Unintended Pregnancy among the Street Based Sex Workers in Nepal <p>Unintended pregnancy, concerning particularly in street based female sex workers (SFSWs) who solicit in streets or public places for sex, is closely associated with sexual relation involuntarily and often unwillingly. It seriously challenges in physical, mental, social and economic wellbeing hazardously. The aim of the study is to explore the sexual violence, use of contraception and events and consequences of unintended pregnancy, the study of which is lacking up to the present time in Nepal. A cross-sectional study is conducted using mixed method consisting of questionnaire-based survey with 110 SFSWs along with case studies and observations. Respondents are identified by using snowball sampling technique. The findings are presented descriptively after arranging in different themes. Results show that almost all the SFSWs had experienced sexual violence at least once after involving in sex trade; 74 percent had threatening experience and 87 percent induced abortion among the unintended pregnancy from clients. The results indicate that the forced prostitution and threatening experience to follow clients' interest and unprotected sex are significantly hazardous for SFSWs' overall health. High prevalence of sexual violence and unintended pregnancy result&nbsp;in poor health outcomes for SFSWs. Assuring the sexual health and life safety of SFSWs from group sexual violence is another risk area for further exploration.</p> Rita Karki Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 62 75 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23443 Stock Market's Contribution on Economic Growth in Nepal: A Brief Note <p>This paper aims to examine the relation between stock market development and economic growth in Nepal for period of mid July 2001 to mid-July 2015 by using Karl Pearson correlation. The whole study period is divided into two parts, first stage and second stage of stock market development. The study finds that in the first stage- mid July 2001 to mid- July 2007, stock market development was not significantly associated with economic growth. In second stage-mid July 2008 to mid-July 2015 there is positive relation between stock market development and economic growth. The findings indicate that stock market has positive contribution on economic growth in Nepal.</p> Ram Khelawan Shah Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 76 82 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23445 Unmet Need for Family Planning among Currently Married Young Women in Nepal <p>A high level of unmet need for contraception persists among currently married young women in Nepal. Evidences about unmet need for family planning and associated factors are not fully analyzed in the Nepalese context. Therefore, this study investigates the prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning among currently married young women in Nepal. This is an analytical cross-sectional study through secondary data analysis of the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey women data-file. The analysis is based on 2,552 currently married young women aged 15-24 years. Logistic regression is used to assess the net effect of independent variables on dependent variable. Women’s current age, number of living children, education level, occupation, women empowerment, caste/ethnic affiliation, and residence are independent predictors of unmet need. The odds of unmet need are significantly higher among the adolescents, rural, not empowered and not working young women. There is a need to strengthen income generating activities so as to improve their socio-economic status which will translate into female economic and social empowerment which enable them to discuss on sexual issues. Family planning programmes should be designed so as to address the unmet need of young women especially the rural adolescents.</p> Kamala Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2017 CEDA/TU 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 25 1-2 83 94 10.3126/jodas.v25i1-2.23446