Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2024-01-22T13:39:10+00:00 Kalika Prasad Upadhyay Open Journal Systems <p>The official journal of the Nepal Agricultural Research Council. Also available on its own <a title="JNARC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> <p>Authors can now submit articles online - <a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal prior to submitting, or if already registered can simply <a href="/index.php/index/login">log in</a> and begin the 5 step process. Reviewers can also&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal.</p> Reforming Agricultural Extension System in Nepal: What can we adopt from selected Agriculture Led Countries? 2024-01-05T05:20:01+00:00 Krishna Prasad Timsina Sanjiv Subedi Sunita Pandey Deepa Devkota Aabhash Aryal Jeevan Lamichhane <p>This paper compares the existing Nepalese agricultural extension system with other selected agriculture-led countries to explore the needs and opportunities of introducing an innovative agricultural extension system in Nepal. A review of various documents including journals, reports, and policy papers was carried out. The status of financial and human resources in agricultural extension of Nepal was assessed from 753 municipalities and 7 provinces through survey interviews and, additionally, expert consultations were done with 15 key personnel working in the field of agricultural extension in Nepal. We examined the major changes in the agricultural extension made before and after the federalization in Nepal and examined institutional arrangements and activities for agricultural sector governance after federalization. Further, three cases were selected from selected agriculture-led countries based on the working modality of research and extension either solely or jointly or in hybrid mode. The study found insufficient human resources for agriculture sector governance especially in provinces and municipalities with 37.4% and 29% of vacant positions, respectively. The recruited agriculture technicians were mostly engaged in administrative management and handout distribution rather than agricultural technology transfer. Most technicians were freshly recruited without any on-the-job training. The paper discussed about the agriculture extension approaches, service mechanisms and structure across the countries, and its relevancy in Nepal.&nbsp; Irrespective of operational modality of research and extension, technological advancement and application of Information Communication Technology plays an important role for the effectiveness of the extension services.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Toxicity evaluation of essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) 2024-01-07T04:22:39+00:00 Sunil Aryal Asmita Poudel Ajaya Shree Ratna Bajracharya Lok Nath Aryal Kapil Kafle <p>This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, toxicity, and effectiveness of clove bud oils against <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> in the stored maize variety Manakamana-4. The toxicity evaluation of the oil on maize weevils were conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with eight treatments including seven different oil concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, 0.625%, 0.3125% and 0.15625%) and control replicated four times at laboratory conditions in National Entomology Research Center, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal during 2020/2021. The results exhibited higher toxicity of clove oil to weevils after 72 h of oil exposure. Higher concentrations and longer exposure periods resulted in an increased mortality rate. Lower concentrations required a longer time for 50% of the weevil population to kill, whereas higher concentrations required a shorter time. Moreover, the essential oil was effective in causing the mortality of the weevil population at all three time intervals of 6, 10, and 16 days with varying mortality rate as lower concentrations required extended exposure time. In the same way, repellency assays of clove oil by applying four different concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%) on Whatman filter paper showed significant pest repellant activity. Repellent action was also highly dependent upon oil concentration and exposure time showing highest repellent activity (98.75%) at 10% concentration at 24 h interval. Additionally, it indicated higher the concentrations of clove oil higher the seed germination and fewer the weevil progeny emergence, and vice-versa. Since clove oil is considered to have low mammalian toxicity and a minimum risk pesticide, it can be incorporated into integrated pest management system in storage against maize weevils.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Cytogenetic and agro-morphological study of Wheat addition lines possessing Thinopyrum elongatum and Aegilops triuncialis chromosomes 2024-01-07T04:57:06+00:00 Sushma Devkota Raju Maharjan Deepak Raj Pant Giri Prasad Joshi <p>Novel genetic variation can be induced by introgression of alien chromosomes in wheat for which wheat-alien addition lines carrying 45 chromosomes are instrumental. In the course of developing wheat addition lines with 45 chromosomes, two different parental lines Wheat-<em>Thinopyrum elongatum</em> disomic addition lines (Wheat-<em>Th</em>. DALs; 2n=44)) and Wheat-<em>Th</em>. <em>elongatum</em>- <em>Aegilops triuncialis</em> 3C<sup>SAT</sup> double monosomic addition lines (Wheat-<em>Th</em>. DMALs; 2n=44) need to cross. The present study mainly focuses on the effects of chromosomal additions in wheat background by comparing the morphological and agronomic traits of the parental lines. Both the parental lines were reconfirmed 2n=44 cytologically by using squash technique. Pollen fertility was highest (75%) in Wheat-3C<sup>SAT</sup>-6E DMAL and lowest (44.73%) in Wheat-5E DAL, whereas, spike length was longest (8.71 cm) in Wheat-3C<sup>SAT</sup>-3E DMAL and shortest (5.92 cm) in Wheat-1E DAL. Plant height was highest (97.6 cm) in Wheat-3C<sup>SAT</sup>-5E DMAL and lowest (55.33 cm) in Wheat-7E DAL. The plant height of DMALs always exceeded that of DALs. Furthermore, seed set was highest (31 seeds per spike) in Wheat-7E DALs and lowest (13 seeds per spike) in addition lines disomic for 4E chromosomes. The effect of different alien chromosomes in wheat is discussed in this paper.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Analysis of technical efficiency and yield gap of potato farmers in Nepal 2024-01-07T05:08:49+00:00 Surya Prasad Adhikari Krishna Prasad Timsina Yuga Nath Ghimire Samaya Gairhe Peter R. Brown Renato Villano <p>The productivity of potato production in Nepal is low compared to neighbouring countries because of a range of production constraints. Potatoes are an important staple crop and commodity for many communities throughout Nepal, thus imperative to improve their performance for the benefit of smallholder producers and consumers. This study aims to identify the technical efficiency and yield gap of potato farmers. Farm-level data from 300 potato farmers randomly selected from three districts of Nepal is used to estimate a stochastic frontier model. The model allows us to estimate the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, determinants of efficiency and technical efficiency of potato farmers. Results showed that among the production variables, seed rate and labour used were positive towards potato production, whereas seed source, extension contact, variety type, and irrigation used were negatively significant factors that influences the technical inefficiency. The mean technical efficiency value of potato farmers was 68%, and there was clear scope to increase potato production by 32% with the better use of available resources. The potential yield gap can be reduced if the adoption of proper agricultural practices such as the use of improved potato varieties with formal seed sources with recommended seed rates along with irrigation application. Such efforts from policymakers and other concerned stakeholders would help improve domestic production and reduce the dependency on potato imports.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Molecular Marker Assisted Screening of soyabean germplasm for quality characteristics 2024-01-07T05:22:07+00:00 Shreejan Pokharel Namita Bhattarai Ramesh Acharya Bingya Chandra Khanal <p>Soybean (<em>Glycine max</em>) is a one of the most valued crop in the world and an emerging crop in Nepal, with increasing cultivation in recent years in Nepal. The crop has gained popularity due to its high protein content and potential as a substitute for traditional protein sources, such as meat and dairy. Soybean is an important source of protein and oil and is widely cultivated for both food and industrial purposes. Marker-assisted screening (MAS) utilizing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been used to pinpoint the genes that regulate the protein and oil content in soybeans. In this work, soybean germplasm were screened for the presence of particular markers associated with the genes regulating protein and oil using Five SSR markers (Satt556, Satt006, Satt212, Satt144 and Satt449) across eighty eight genotypes found in Nepal. The outcomes of this study showed promising results with presence of protein and oil genes on Nepalese genotypes indicating that SSR markers may be successfully utilized to pinpoint soybean genotypes with enhanced protein and oil content having potential increasing the quality and nutrition value.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Growth and Yield Traits of Potato Genotypes Grown under Different Cultivation Practices in Dailekh, Nepal 2024-01-07T05:39:05+00:00 Binod Prasad Luitel Bishnu Bahadur Bhandari <p>Variable rainfall and recurrent drought in spring season limit the potato production at Dailekh. To address this problem, a two-year (2019-2020) field experiment was conducted at HRS, Dailekh to investigate 12 potato genotypes (T-304347.6, T-393371.58, T-304350.1, T-304351.109, T-302498.7, T-304405.47, T-303381.3, T-396311.1, T-397029.1, T-304368.46, Desiree and Cardinal) along with different growing practices (Partial Irrigation (PI), rain-fed and straw mulch) for their growth, and yield traits. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design, where three different growing practices were allotted as main plot and 12 potato genotypes were placed as sub-plot treatment, and it was replicated three times. The combined analysis revealed that growing practices significantly affected the ground cover, plant height, stem number, marketable tuber number and weight, and yield. Potato genotypes showed the significant effect on all the plant and yield traits. Straw mulch produced 28.7% and 21.6% higher marketable tuber yield than PI and rain-fed potato, respectively. Genotypes T-304351.109 and T-397029.1 imparted 22.9% and 17.4% higher marketable tuber yield than Desiree, check variety, respectively. Therefore, growing of high yielding genotypes T-304351.109 and T-397029.1 along with straw mulch can be the best option to increase the potato productivity at rain-fed condition of Dailekh.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Evaluation of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Genotypes for Yield and Quality in Mid-hills of Bagmati Province, Nepal 2024-01-07T05:46:12+00:00 Surendra Lal Shrestha <p>The study was carried out to evaluate and select high yielding, insect pest and disease resistant hot pepper genotypes with preferred characters at open field conditions for central mid-hills of Nepal in 2018 and 2019. Seedlings of six hot pepper genotypes AVPP9905, AVPP9813, AVPP0506, Suryamukhi, Pusa Jwala and Kantipure were transplanted on April first week at Khumaltar, Lalitpur. Crop geometry was maintained with the 60 x 60 cm in randomized complete block design with three replications and fertilized with 150:120:100 NPK kg + 20 ton FYM per hectare. Observations were recorded on vegetative growth, insect pest and disease, yield attributing parameter and response of consumers and farmers. Among the tested genotypes, AVPP9905 showed superior performance that was vigoros, earliest days to flowering (41) and fruit set (47 days), least insect damage (2.0), least disease; alternaria leaf spot (1.8 ), higher number of fruits per node (1.25), superior yield (26.19 t/ha) and 960 g per plant. Consumers and farmers preference were 4.4 and 4.5.and the maximum fruit size was 18.7 g. The second superior cultivar was AVPP0506 which showed vigor (4.0), medium days to flowering (44.3) and fruit set (49 days), less insect damage (2.2), less disease; alternaria leaf spot (2.1), higher number of fruits per node (1.3), superior yield (14.28 t/ha) and 548 g per plant, consumers (3.8) and farmers preferred (4.8). Hence it could be generalized that introduced genotypes from the world Vegetable Centre, Taiwan were more promising than local check cultivars (Pusa Jwala and Kantipure) in terms of growth, fruit yield and insect pest and disease resistance, and farmers and consumers preference. These two genotypes are recommended for cultivation in central mid-hills of Bagmati Province in open field conditions.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Economics of production of Sunkagati-1 variety of acid lime in Nepal 2024-01-07T06:11:02+00:00 Sanjiv Subedi Krishna Prasad Timsina <p>There is a huge opportunity for acid lime farming in Nepal. The demand is much higher than domestic production resulting voluminous import from abroad. This research aimed to assess the economics of production of Sunkagati-1 variety of acid lime in Nepal. Morang, Sunsari, Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts were selected for this study after consultation with the concerned agricultural experts and nursery entrepreneurs producing Sunkagati-1 saplings. The primary information was collected through the field survey whereas secondary information was obtained reviewing the relevant literatures. All total 70 farmers were selected as the samples through simple random sampling for the field survey. Financial analysis of farms with plant age between 3 to 7 years, was carried out which estimated the NPV (12% discount rate) NRs.4,48,672/ha, BCR 1.09, IRR 19% and the Pay-back period of 5 years, 5 months and 26 days. The value of BCR being greater than one, IRR higher than discount rate, positive NPV and short payback period indicated that commercial acid lime farming cultivating Sunkagati-1 variety is a profitable enterprise in Nepal. The unpaired t-test showed that there is no significant difference in productivity of Sunkagati-1 across eastern (Sunsari and Morang) and central (Chitwan and Nawalpur) regions; however, the price of acid lime in central region (NRs.102/kg) was significantly higher (1 % level of significance) than that of in eastern (NRs.93.8/kg). Moreover, this study revealed that porous border and unorganized market (I= 0.81) was the most severe problem followed by infestation of disease and insect pests (I= 0.76), inadequate quality seedlings (I= 0.68), inadequate technical knowledge and trainings (I=0.41) and inadequate storage and processing facilities (0.34). There is need of government intervention which would assure access to quality inputs &amp; technology, marketing &amp; value chain development and appropriate plant protection measures for the promotion of commercial acid lime farming in Nepal.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Influence of Incubation Condition on the Antibiotic Susceptibility of Salmonella 2024-01-07T06:35:41+00:00 Narayan Paudyal Yumi Shakya Reshmi Munankarmi Raman Ghimire Doj Raj Khanal <p>Bacteria experience changes in physiology and growth patterns in aerobic laboratory culture and the anaerobic gastrointestinal tract of the host. Our study hypothesizes that this physiological difference influences the antibiotic susceptibility/resistance pattern of <em>Salmonella</em> in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The susceptibility and resistance percentage was determined using the diameter of the zone of inhibition for ten major classes of antibiotic drugs with a total of sixteen molecules. Data were analyzed in GraphPad Prism vs 8 using a two-way ANOVA analysis for the six antibiotics selected based on the greatest differences in the zone of inhibition. The highest observed resistance levels were against nalidixic acid (63.8%/48.6%) and tetracycline (65.2%/58.6%), followed by trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole (52.2%/50%), cephalexin (50.7%/52.9%), ciprofloxacin (45.7%/45.7%), amoxicillin (43.5%/47.1%), ampicillin (37.7%/45.7%) and chloramphenicol (36.2%/37.1%) in aerobic/anaerobic condition. The variation contributed by the type of antibiotic on the degree of resistance was 72.73% (P=0.0303) and the variation contributed by the incubation condition was 16.09% (P=0.0437), both of which are statistically significant. The findings of our study demonstrate that the susceptibility/resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella varies in aerobic and anaerobic incubation. Hence, pharmacodynamics models aiming to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial use in enteric bacteria such as <em>Salmonella</em> of the treated host should utilize measurements of bacterial susceptibility that are obtained anaerobically (as well as aerobically) to achieve effective antimicrobial treatment and control non-typhoidal salmonella infections.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Qualitative characteristics of cashmere fiber of Chyangra goat of Nepal 2024-01-07T06:43:26+00:00 Neena Amatya Gorkhali Bikash Paudel Keshav Basnet Shishir Bhandari Bhoj Raj Pokhrel Surya Bhatta Sharma Saroj Sapkota <p>This study assesses the different physical characteristics of cashmere fiber quality in Chyangra goats as wax percentage, length of pashmina fiber, fineness (diameter) of fiber obtained from different body parts (neck, belly, and back) in different locations of Mustang district of Nepal. In mid-March to mid-April 2022, cashmere samples were collected from thirty-four unrelated animals. Twenty-two animals were sampled from Upper Mustang and twelve were sampled from Lower Mustang; of which, 22 were male and 12 were female of 1, 2, 3, 4, and greater than 4 years of age. Cashmere fiber length was measured using measuring pad and ruler and fiber diameter was analyzed using the optical projection microscope method. The fixed effect model was used to analyze the least square mean for fiber length, diameter and wax percentage of Chyangra cashmere fiber considering various factors such as location, sex and age. The overall least square mean and standard error for fiber quality parameters namely wax percentage, fiber length and fiber diameter were 9.49±2.2%, 45.97±0.14 mm and 15.36±0.19 µm respectively. Even though there is a significant difference in the considered parameters by location, the fineness and length of the fiber of both locations was within the finest fiber ranging from 13-16 µm diameter and more than 40 mm length. The present study has evidenced that Chyangra goat of Nepal can be characterized as one of the finest Cashmere goats however some management steps must be taken to improve the quality (cleanliness) of fiber and the volume of fiber production. Significant differences were found in location, sex, and trend of difference in age of the animals indicating the potential to improve cashmere quality by adopting proper management and selection methods through selection of goats with larger body size and confirmation to obtain more quantity of fiber per animal.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council Performance Evaluation of Khari and Boer Crossbred Goats in Mid Hills Under Optimum Management Regime. 2024-01-07T06:50:49+00:00 Raju Kadel Mohan Prasad Sharma Nirajan Bhattarai Nar Kaji Gurung Naba Raj Devkota <p>Goats are recognized as a vital and versatile livestock commodity with significant importance in rural farmers’ communities of developing countries, including Nepal. Growth, reproductive and litter performances are considered as the major economic traits of goats. This study was designed to compare the growth, reproduction and litter traits of goat kids and does at mid hill region for different non-genetic factors such as genetic groups (Khari, Boer 75% and 50%), parity (early, mid and late), season of conception and kidding (summer, autumn, winter, spring), sex (male and female) and type of birth (single, twins and triplet) under optimum management regime. Data for the four-year study period (2017 to 2021) on production performance were entered into MS-Excel sheet from the data record book of the National Goat Research Program, Bandipur and analyzed by using Mixed Model Least-square and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program PC-2 statistical package. The means were compared using Duncans' Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results revealed that the effect of genetic group, parity, type of birth and sex were significant (p&lt;0.05) with respect to growth at different stages along with genetic group and parity that were significant with major non-genetic factors affecting reproduction and litter traits. Better reproduction parameters were recorded for the Khari goat breed than Boer crossbred.&nbsp; Similarly, litter traits at both birth and weaning were found better in later parities with better performance in Khari. Males were born heavier and consistent throughout the study period up to eighteen months. Hence, based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that Khari goat breed has high potential for its reproduction and litter traits with a massive scope of improvement through selection within the population. Likewise, it is also important to consider the growth of inferior Khari goats can also be genetically improved through upgrading up to 75% blood level using an appropriate breed, such as Boer.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Agricultural Research Council