Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS <p>Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (Jjis) is a multidisciplinary journal that covers a wide range of disciplines. It publishes original researh article, review article, general article and book review. It is published annually by Janapriya Research and Consultancy Center (JRCC), a research wing of Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara, Nepal. </p> Janapriya Research and Consultancy Centre en-US Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2362-1516 Determinants of Functional Difficulty among Women in Nepal: A Cross-sectional Study https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62206 <p>This study explores the situation of women with functional difficulties in Nepal and identifies key determinants contributing to their challenges. Utilizing data from the 2019 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, the research examines the association of various factors with functional difficulties among a sample of 13,255 married women aged 18 to 49. The results reveal significant associations between province, age, education, and media exposure with functional difficulties. Wealthier women and those with higher education exhibit lower odds of experiencing functional difficulties, while women aged 35 and above and those with medium or high media exposure demonstrate higher odds. The study highlights the limited access to healthcare and rehabilitation services, social stigma and discrimination, and high levels of poverty and unemployment faced by women with functional difficulties in Nepal. By shedding light on these issues, this research aims to provide valuable insights for policymakers, healthcare providers, and disability rights advocates, fostering improvements in the lives of women with functional difficulties in Nepal.</p> Anuska Adhikari Devraj Acharya Ramesh Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 7 20 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62206 Employees’ Intrinsic Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Pokhara Metropolitan City https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62213 <p>Intrinsic factors are core inspirable elements to personnel for work harder. While intrinsic factors exist in the workplace employees feel better job satisfaction and motivation. Therefore, the aims of this study are to observe the influence of JS on organizational commitment among commercial banking personnel in Pokhara. The respondents of the study were non-managerial commercial banking staff. Data were collected from 209 (102 males, and 107 females) sample respondents using convenience sampling through self-structured questionnaires. Intrinsic dimensions of JS were employed in this study. Likewise, affective, continuance, and normative commitment were implied dimensions of the study. Different statistical tools namely; average mean, SD, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA correlation, and multiple regression were employed. The study found responsibility, as denoted by the intrinsic dimension, was the most powerful predictor of JS and affective commitment was the major factor of OC. However, the result indicated that the normative commitment was least observed. The correlation between predictor variables dimensions of JS, and OC were found to be positive, and significant. The outcomes of the regression showed that the two factors explained. The findings indicated that intrinsic JS leads to the OC of non-managerial banking employees in Pokhara Metropolis.</p> Dhruba Kumar Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 21 35 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62213 Local Government’s Effort for the Conservation of Rara Lake, Karnali, Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62214 <p>Rara, the largest Lake in Nepal, has enormous potential for the total development of the region. It is located in the Mugu district of Karnali region at an elevation of 2990 m. However, the federal and provincial governments’ current plans and strategies are ineffective in protecting and promoting the Lake from both present and future viewpoints. Participation theory was the most commonly used idea in this study. In order to provide baseline data for the formulation of efficient strategies and policies for the sustainable development of the Lake and its environs, this study intends to investigate the role of Rara Lake in the socioeconomic development of the Province. The study uses a questionnaire survey with a variety of stakeholders, including local people, business owners, and members of local political parties. The outcome shows that, in the current situation, the Lake’s promotion and conservation are solely dependent upon national park policies, as neither the provincial nor municipal governments have taken any direct action to further these goals. The results show that for the long-term conservation and promotion of the Lake, local inhabitants, and local government must adopt an integrated approach. The Lake would have a significant impact on the Province’s and the nation’s overall development if this strategy had been successfully applied.</p> Girdhari Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 36 48 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62214 Quality Education for Sustainable Development: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Schools of Pokhara https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62241 <p>This paper aims to explore the performance of two distinctly established education institutions, private and public schools and compare the quality of educational services provided by them in the perception of parents. The study has been carried out using the qualitative research design. With the use of relevant secondary data sourced from relevant literature reviews and official reports, the informants like parents, teachers and school administrators from the purposively sampled schools of Pokhara Metropolitan City Ward no. 13 were taken as the sources of primary data. The analysis of the data followed a dual approach. Initially, responses from the participants were systematically organized and quantitatively summarized. Subsequently, thematic analysis was employed to identify recurring themes and patterns within the qualitative data. This comprehensive analysis aimed to derive meaningful insights and an understanding of the research questions. The study has tried to investigate the reasons behind school’s selection by the parents and to assess whether the deviation in enrollment in private and public schools is due to differences in quality between them. Although, Nepal is among the leading countries in South Asia in term of accessibility to education, there are numerous challenges when it comes to quality. It concludes that private and public schools should not be seen as competitors of each other, rather they should be regarded as the supplements as both of provide equal contribution in education sector of the country.</p> Govinda Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 49 61 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62241 Unveiling the Dynamics of Service Quality and Member Loyalty: A Comparative Analysis of Different Savings and Credit Cooperatives in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62242 <p>This study explores the level of service quality and member satisfaction within the context of Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS) in Nepal. By using data from a survey of 1209 randomly selected SACCOS members, the study dealt with the demographic composition, service quality perceptions, and member satisfaction levels across three distinct SACCOS: Bindabasini-Kavrepalanchock, Mahila Milan-Makawanpur, and Siddhartha-Kapilbastu. The analysis uncovers intriguing patterns in demographic characteristics and establishes a positive correlation between service quality dimensions and both member loyalty and positive words of mouth. The findings highlight the crucial role of tailored service quality dimensions in fostering member loyalty, positive advocacy, and overall cooperative success. Findings of this study not only contributes to the understanding of cooperative management strategies but also provides insights for the enhancement of member experiences, leading to sustained growth and impact. Thus, the findings of this study have important implications for cooperatives, researchers, policy makers, cooperative movement, government for devising appropriate intervention to enhance members’ satisfaction levels.</p> Keshab Prasad Sapkota Bimala Poudel Rai Prakash C. Bhattarai Durga Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 62 79 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62242 Mid-Day Meals Programs in the School of Pokhara through Child Friendly School Manual https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62243 <p>This study, titled “Assessing School Mid-Day Meals Programs in the Schools of Pokhara through Child-Friendly School Manual,” aimed to identify modalities and assess school facilities related to mid-day meals in both institutional and public schools. The research design employed was explanatory sequential. The population comprised schools, headmasters, and class five students, and a multistage sampling technique was utilized. Five diverse schools each from institutional (preprimary, primary, upper primary, secondary, and higher secondary) and public schools were randomly selected for comparison. During data collection, students were assured that their responses would be confidential, and teachers were not present in the classrooms to encourage free expression of opinions. The findings revealed that more than half of the students in institutional schools carried homemade lunches, while public schools provided meals in canteens. Observations indicated that insufficient seating in canteens resulted in students having to eat meals on the ground or in classrooms. Moreover, many schools lacked soap in wash bins, potentially impacting students’ hygiene, and health. It is recommended to improve school facilities related to mid-day meals in accordance with child-friendly school guidelines.</p> Krishna Prasad Tripathi Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 80 94 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62243 Ins and Outs of Plagiarism in Academia: Reconnoitring Concepts, Causes, and Consequences https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62244 <p>For developing fair intellectual practices, one requires paving the path of academic integrity. However, authors have been violating those norms knowingly or unknowingly. They are doing so for some reasons such as academic promotion, public fame, and dignity without hard work, to mention a few. Therefore, plagiarism is rocking the academia and it is high time to prevent it. The first step to prevent this immoral practice is to make the writers aware of its notions, causes, consequences, and ways to avoid it. These are the main aims of this article. Further, this article aims to highlight state-of-the-art and desiderata of the plagiarists’ practices, whose penalties are unavoidable. Employing a review and analysis of a few cases of history, this article draws an inference that writers should follow ethical/legal practices to let intellectual integrity and fairness prosper in the field of academia.</p> Nabaraj Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 95 105 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62244 Impact of Bank-specific and Macroeconomic Factors on Non-Performing Loans in the Banking Sector of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62245 <p>Non-performing loans (NPLs) in the banking sector serve as a crucial indicator for assessing the performance of banks, as the effective management of credit risk stands as a pivotal challenge for lending institutions. The study aimed to determine the significant determinants of bank-specific factors including bank types and macroeconomic factors that determine the magnitude of NPLs in the context of Nepal. The study has included 11 years of strongly balanced panel data of 16 commercial banks consisting of seven domestic private banks, six joint venture banks, and three government-owned banks and macroeconomic data for the period of 2011/12 to 2021/22. The study applied the Pool OLS regression model including bank-dummy variables to assess the impact of the bank-specific factors and macroeconomic factors. The results revealed that the non-performing loan is higher in government-owned banks with a high level of variability compared to domestic private banks and joint venture banks. The study concluded that capital adequacy (CAR), operating efficiency (OCR) and remittance (Remit) have a significant negative impact on NPLs whereas, credit mobilization (CDR) has a significant positive impact on NPLs. It also revealed that the presence of joint venture and domestic private sector banks significantly decreased the size of non-performing loans compared to the presence of government-owned banks in the banking industry. Moreover, ROA, the rate of inflation, and lending interest rates have a positive but insignificant effect on NPLs. Similarly, the GDP growth rate has a negative but insignificant effect on NPLs.</p> Netra Prasad Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 106 127 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62245 Student Teachers’ Practices: A Case of English Language Teaching Classrooms https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62249 <p>The primary purpose of carrying out the study was to explore English language teaching (ELT) practices adopted by the student teachers (STs) in their classrooms and to examine the effectiveness of teaching practice (TP) of Janapriya Multiple Campus (JMC), Pokhara Nepal. The information was collected through unstructured tools such as observation, questionnaire, and focused group discussion (FGD). The collected information was analyzed through qualitative methods. The STs were found punctual, dedicated, and responsible in their TP. They were found practicing various classroom activities such as language games, role plays, discussions, group works, pair works, translations, question and answer, and drillings during their TP. In addition, they also were found conducting various activities in the classrooms such as debates, storytelling, essay writing, quiz contests, and eloquence. Moreover, they also carried out a case study and wrote a report, prepared a Secondary Education Examination (SEE) model question, constructed various types of questions, observed three peers’ classes, and kept a record of their classroom activities and teaching materials. Completing all the required activities, the STs performed effectively during their TP. The findings of the study can be useful to make the TP more effective.</p> Pitri Raj Banstola Steve Corrie Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 128 144 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62249 Knowledge on Autism Spectrum Disorder in School Teachers at Government School of Pokhara https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62250 <p>This research is entitled “Knowledge on Autism Spectrum Disorders in School Teacher at Government School of Pokhara”. The aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) among school teachers of selected government schools and find out the association between selected demographic variables and level of knowledge on ASD. A descriptive cross sectional research design was used in eight government schools in Pokhara. A sample size of 114 was selected by complete enumeration sampling technique and data was collected through self -administrated structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Chi square test was used to find out association between selected background variables and level of knowledge. The study revealed that 46.5 percent had medium level of knowledge, 43.9 percent had low level of knowledge and only few 9.6 percent had high level of knowledge. The mean score of teacher’s knowledge on ASD was 19.8772±5.0188 and range was 12-34. There was no statistically significant association between selected background variables and level of knowledge on ASD (P &gt;0.05). The finding of the study concluded that less than ten percent of the respondent had high level of knowledge on ASD which means lack of knowledge on ASD among school teachers. Only one teacher had training on ASD. So, there is a need of formal training and awareness program on ASD to teachers for early identification of autistic problems and to enhance the children’s condition. This will help teachers to disseminate knowledge on ASD in communities as they are ‘broadcasting agents’ of social changes and development.</p> Pooja Acharya Prawesh Baral Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 145 160 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62250 Lahure Culture and Educational Achievement in the Gorkha Communities in Pokhara Metropolitan City, Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62251 <p>Nepalese societies have a long history of Gurkha Army culture for centuries. There is no question about the role of this culture in enhancing the socioeconomic status of these communities from the past. However, along with its positive aspects, this trend has brought some possible adverse effects on those communities who are directly or indirectly associated with the Gurkha Army recruitment process. This study has aimed to explain the possible impact on education attainment of youth from these communities due to participation in the Army preparation and selection process. For the study explanatory research methods were used, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data for insightful investigation of the phenomenon, where 184 aspiring youths from different army training centers operated in Pokhara Metropolitan City, Kaski were selected to gather quantitative insights from young individuals from the Gurkha community actively engaged in Army preparation training. Furthermore, qualitative data was collected through Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) conducted with esteemed principals and administrative figures from educational institutions offering class 11 and 12 courses in Pokhara, Kaski. The recruitment process for the Army, particularly among youths from the Gurkha communities, presents a significant challenge to educational pursuits, resulting in a diversion of focus away from academic endeavors. This trend has led to a substantial number of individuals prioritizing military training over education. Consequently, this phenomenon has adversely affected educational attainment, limiting future opportunities for these communities. Additionally, the Gurkha community’s historical involvement primarily in Gurkha recruitment has perpetuated their societal exclusion and marginalization. While self-realization within the Gurkha community is crucial, effective governmental policies promoting inclusive education and opportunities are equally imperative. Collaborative efforts between communities and policymakers are necessary to bridge these disparities, fostering an equitable environment and integration beyond traditional roles. </p> Prabin Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 161 173 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62251 Attitudes Towards Bachelor of Mountain Tourism Management (BMTM) Program Among the Students of Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62252 <p>Attitude is the personal perception, beliefs and behaviour towards a particular object, person, thing or event. In psychology, an attitude refers to a set of emotion, belief, and behaviour toward a particular object, person, thing or event. The four years BMTM program is an autonomous program of JMC which is developed to serve the needs of the bright young students who have completed +2 level of education and are looking for a career education in entrepreneurship. The main objective of the study was to compare the attitude of girl and boys students toward the BMTM program of Janapriya Multiple Campus. Necessary data were collected through Likert scale questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, chi-square test through SPSS-20. The collected data related to students’ attitudes towards BMTM program of JMC revealed that most of the students have positive attitude towards the program. There is no difference between male and female students towards the BMTM program. Majority of students had no proper knowledge about the program. Campus administration and policy makers should concentrate on the publicity of the importance of the program for its sustainability.</p> Rishi Ram Dhakal Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 174 183 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62252 Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in Understanding Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62256 <p>Suicidal behavior, a global public health issue, is one of the prevalent problems among adolescents in Nepal with highest rate of suicidal ideation and higher rates of suicidal attempt among the countries of South East Asia Region (SEAR). The Interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) is a widely used and well-known theory that provides an interpersonal psychological framework which can contribute in understanding suicidal behavior. Although its application is found in international level, the lack of knowledge remains among Nepalese adolescents. Hence, this review is aimed to assess the applicability of IPTS in understanding suicidal behavior of adolescents in Nepal. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Hinari, Nepjol, Research gate, and Google scholar). A scoping review of the articles published in peer-reviewed journals and grey literatures was done. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) in reporting the review and six-step process recommended by Arksey and O’Malley (2005) was adopted. Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) were used in search strategy which helped in combining key terms. The studies which assessed the relation between the constructs of IPTS i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness and suicidal behavior among adolescents in Nepal were included, i.e., 14 studies which met the inclusion criteria.The findings revealed various risk factors which support the use of IPTS as those relate with the constructs of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness to explain suicidal behaviors among adolescents. Therefore, the findings indicated the use of the framework provided by IPTS in understanding suicidal behavior among Nepalese adolescents as well as highlighted the importance of interpersonal risk factors to prevent suicidal behavior.</p> Indira Banstola Ratna Shila Banstola Kalpana Paudel Sworup Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 188 197 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62256 Uses of Medicinal Plants Against Common Skin Problems in the Pokhara Valley https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62259 <p>The present paper explores the different applications of medicinal plants to cure different skin diseases like boils, cuts, dandruff, eczema, herpes, inflammation, itching, leprosy, pimples, scabies, sores, syphilis, and wounds in rural wards in Pokhara Valley. Based on scientific studies and traditional knowledge, the present work identifies several potential medicinal plants, such as Achyranthus aspera, Ageratum conyzoides, Aloe vera, Amaranthus spinosus, Artemisia indica, Berberis aristate, Calotropis gigantea, Cassia tora, Curcuma longa, Oxalis corniculate, etc. The result of this execution is based on the user’s experience when they are suffering from such skin problems and the use of medicinal plants against those problems. The paper also discusses the advantages of utilizing medicinal plants with their minimum side effects, cost-effectiveness, and sustainable use.</p> Om Prasad Dwa Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 198 210 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62259 Book Review of Das Kapital https://nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/62253 <p>By the definition, socialism means that the production belongs to all segments of society without discrimination and are controlled by the state. In capitalism, in contrast to socialism, the means of production belong to individuals, not society, and it advocates competition. Communism, another concept, constitutes the beginning of socialism according to Marxist-Leninist society. In other words, production belongs entirely to the state, and the principle of equality is observed for everyone without distinction. One of the most important works of the German sociologist Karl Marx, the founder of Marxism, is his book “Das Kapital,” The main reason that led Karl Marx to write this work was the failure of the Industrial Revolution that took place in 1849. In this work, Marx criticized the capitalist mode of production and the competition brought about by capitalism and defended the rights of oppressed workers working for labor capital for unpaid or low wages. At the same time, he talks about social classes and defines the class struggle of women, men, and the bourgeoisie. The aim of this study is to refer to the first volume of Marx’s book “Capital,” to emphasize its importance in the context of socialism, capitalism, and communism.</p> Selin Çınar Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 1 184 187 10.3126/jjis.v12i1.62253