Journal of Institute of Science and Technology <p><em>Journal of Institute of Science and Technology </em>(JIST) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary science journal published by the Institute of Science and Technology (IOST), Tribhuvan University (TU), Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University en-US Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 2467-9062 <p>The views and interpretations in this journal are those of the author(s). They are not attributable to the Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. and do not imply the expression of any opinion concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers of boundaries.</p> <p>The copyright of the articles is held by the Institute of Science and Technology, T.U.</p> Swimming Performance of Schizothorax sp. and Planning of Fish Passages in Nepal <p>Swimming performance of migrating fish is crucial for the planning and design of effective fish passages. Commonly the fish swimming speeds are classified into five categories: 1) Optimum Swimming Speed, 2) Maximum Sustained Swimming Speed, 3) Critical Swimming Speed, 4) Maximum Domed Swimming Speed, and 5) Burst Swimming Speed. Swimming characteristics are related to the different species' adaptions to the environmental conditions. A variety of different factors affect the swimming capacity of fish which is directly related to fish size and species-specific morphology. A crucial abiotic factor is water temperature, which affects the fish physiology and thereby the swimming speed of the fish. This means that the fish's swimming speed can increase with increased water temperature. The swimming speed also increases with fish size. Fish often use burst speeds when passing a step in a fish ladder or entering a culvert. Burst speed is the highest speed attainable for fish, and it is the maximum energy output to be gained by using the white muscle (red muscle in salmonids). The burst speed can only be maintained for short periods of time (seconds). In the Himalayas, the main objective of many fisheries development plans is to secure future habitats and ensure up- and downstream migration of fish. <em>Schizothorax richardsonii</em> is often a targeted species in the area due to its importance as a food resource. If a fish passage is prepared for the upstream migration of fish, it is also crucial for the fish population development to ensure a safe downstream passage. Data on swimming performance for many of the native fish species in Nepal are scarce which complicates the design of suitable ecologically adapted fishways. In general, nature-like fish passes allow most of the species to migrate, followed by vertical slot fishways, meander fishways, and thereafter fish ladders of the pool-and-weir type. The key factor is to construct fish-passes that under all naturally required environmental circumstances can allow appropriate passage conditions of the targeted fish species.</p> Halvard Kaasa Peter Rivinoja Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-13 2023-12-13 28 2 43 48 10.3126/jist.v28i2.52018 A Review on Burgers' Equations and It's Applications <p>This article presents a brief study on the review of the Burgers' equation. It also gives some concepts/ideas and techniques to solve Burgers' equation. Applying Burgers' equation to traffic flow requires concentrated effort for the solution. We develop our insights on how to obtain the Navier-Stokes equation through our inquiry into Burgers' equation. We also demonstrate how the Cole-Hopf transformation for the viscous Burgers' equation is derived. Finally, we use Burger's equation function as a model for the flow of traffic. Additionally, by employing the linear system method, we are able to obtain the answer to the one-way traffic flow problem. The Navier-Stokes equation has been derived to get in-viscid Burger's equation. The principle of Traffic flow and Navier-Stokes models have also been derived.</p> Nand Kishor Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 28 2 49 52 10.3126/jist.v28i2.61073 Discrepancies and Research Gaps on the Lithostratigraphy of the Jajarkot Thrust Sheet, Western Nepal Himalaya <p>The interaction between the Indian and Asian plates has led to the formation of imbricated thrust sheets in the Himalayas. This study focuses on a segment of the Jajarkot Thrust Sheet, characterized by metamorphic rocks, including garnet-biotite schist, biotite schist, quartzite interlayers, and marbles. The upper stratigraphic sequence of this thrust sheet contains fossiliferous rocks from the Paleozoic era. Prior classifications have identified three main units: Chaurjhari Formation, Thabang Formation, and Jaljala Formation. However, the Department of Mines and Geology recognizes two units: Siuri Formation and Surbang Formation. This discrepancy, along with inconsistent terminologies like "Jajarkot nappe" and "Jajarkot klippe", highlights the need for a unified stratigraphic framework. Such clarity is crucial for assessing mineralization potentials, particularly for iron and copper, in western Nepal and understanding the thrust sheet's tectonic history within the broader Himalayan context.</p> Sunil Lamsal Ram Bahadur Shah Kabi Raj Paudyal Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-17 2023-12-17 28 2 53 62 10.3126/jist.v28i2.61172 Various Types of Lightning Observed in Mountainous Region Recorded from Kathmandu, Nepal <p>Vertical electric fields of lightning, generated by thunderstorms manifest on the rugged terrain in the mountainous vicinity of Kathmandu, Nepal. Diverse forms of lightning occurrences have been meticulously documented from a hill station in Kathmandu spanning a three-year interval, commencing from 2015 through 2017. Throughout this duration, cloud-to-cloud lightning discharges constituted 62.8% of the occurrences, while cloud-to-ground lightning discharges accounted for 20.4%. Additionally, 9.5% of the observed events were characterized as unusual lightning phenomena, and 2.9% were attributed to breakdown events. The elevated hills and tall structures inherent to the mountainous landscape significantly influence lightning activity, contributing to a heightened frequency of ground flashes in contrast to other areas.</p> Pitri Bhakta Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 28 2 1 8 10.3126/jist.v28i2.42205 Capsaicin Emulgel- Design, Optimization, and Formulation for Topical Delivery <p>Topical therapy with emulgel -type of products allows efficient delivery of bioactive compounds with additional benefits to patients. This research aimed to design, optimize, formulate, and evaluate in vitro parameters between gels loaded with a microemulsion of extracted capsaicin to their standard. A crude form of capsaicin was extracted from capsicum. Using Box Behnken design, 15 different microemulsions were made by ultrasonication and optimized by varying three independent variables (amount of olive oil, Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance value of surfactants, and amount of surfactants used) using Stagraphic Centurion software. Microemulsions were optimized based on their organoleptic characters; dilution test, centrifugation test and P<sup>H</sup>, and gelling agent Carbopol-940 was determined by its viscosity, spreadability, swelling index, consistency, and P<sup>H</sup>. Finally, a stable capsaicin emulgel (0.05% and 0.1%) was made by incorporating optimized microemulsion (F8) and optimized gelling agent, 0.6% Carbopol- 940. Those final capsaicin emulgels were tested for drug content percentage, which was within the standard range.</p> Ajaya Acharya Nab Raj Bhatta Manju Basnet Ram Sunil Pandey Nitesh Das Sujan Karki Rajan Shrestha Rajendra Gyawali Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 28 2 9 17 10.3126/jist.v28i2.60557 Cytogenetics and Development of Mutation Inducing Wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Disomic Addition Lines Possessing a Gametocidal Chromosome 2C <p>Development of wheat-alien addition lines including gametocidal (Gc) chromosome in monosomic condition (a line with 2n = 45 chromosomes) is an established tool to induce chromosomal aberration. Gc induced chromosomal aberrations of alien chromosomes maintained in different wheat lines are valuable materials to construct cytological maps. In this study, the development of hybrid wheat addition lines containing 45 chromosomes has been attempted by crossing seven different types of Wheat-<em>Thinopyrum elongatum</em>-2C double monosomic addition lines (DMALs) and seven types of Wheat-<em>Th. elongatum </em>disomic addition lines (DALs), each with 2n=44 chromosomes. The cytological screening of the progenies showed three different types of plants (i.e. with 43, 44, and 45 chromosomes) among the hybrid wheat addition lines. The progeny plants containing 43, 44, and 45 chromosomes were segregated in a ratio of 2:1:1, respectively. These different lines differed from one another in various morphological and agronomic traits. Altogether 12 progeny seeds with 45 chromosomes were obtained. After sowing only 5 plants survived and developed seeds. These lines can be used as potential mutation-inducing plants. </p> Raju Maharjan Sushma Devkota Deepak Raj Pant Giri Prasad Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-04 2023-12-04 28 2 19 26 10.3126/jist.v28i2.60663 Sub-Gaussian Type Estimates for Symmetric Random Variable <p>Sub-Gaussian type estimates are crucial when investigating the asymptotic behavior of symmetric independent random variables. This article aims to establish some sub-Gaussian type estimates for these variables, specifically for the summation of first number of variables and for the tail sums of those variables. We derive three such estimates.</p> Santosh Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 28 2 27 33 10.3126/jist.v28i2.61034 Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Biofilm Producing Staphylococci Isolated from Different Clinical Samples <p>Biofilm mediated infections by Staphylococci have a significant negative impact on patient health and necessitate reliable method for detecting biofilm producers. The ability of isolates to produce biofilm makes them resistant to host immune response as well as available antibiotics. This study aims to detect biofilm producing ability among clinical staphylococci by phenotypic methods and presence of <em>icaAD</em> genes and determine their antibiotic profile. A total of 350 different clinical specimens received in the KIST Medical hospital, Gwarko, Nepal was examined from July 2018 to January 2019 and Staphylococci were identified following standard microbiological procedure. The antibiotic resistivity pattern was detected by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method whereas biofilm formation was detected by three phenotypic methods viz. congo red agar (CRA), tube method (TM) and tissue culture plate (TCP) method. Furthermore, <em>icaAD</em> genes were detected by PCR method. Chi-square test and independent sample t-test were employed to calculate the significance. A total of 161 Staphylococci were isolated comprising <em>S. aureus </em>(63, 39.1%) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (98, 60.9%). Most isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin and erythromycin. Strong biofilm formation was detected among 6 (3.7%), 22 (13.7%) and 35 (21.7%) by CRA, TM and TCP method respectively. Similarly, <em>icaAD</em> genes were detected among 24 (14.9%) isolates. Staphylococci isolated from clinical sample showed biofilm forming ability by both phenotypic and genotypic method. The biofilm producing isolates were found to be more resistant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts with 56 (89%) and 65 (66%) <em>S. aureus</em> and CNS observed as methicillin resistant respectively. Regular surveillance of biofilm formation by Staphylococci and their antimicrobial resistance profile may lead to early treatment of Staphylococcal infection.</p> Ratna Shova Tuladhar Raju Shrestha Sunil Lekhak Mahesh Chaudhary Sarita Manandhar Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 28 2 35 42 10.3126/jist.v28i2.52739 Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lilium nepalense D. Don <p><em>Lilium nepalense,</em> a temperate medicinal plant, is used as a diuretic, antipyretic, tonic, flavoring agent, and heart pain treatment. This research aimed to evaluate the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the methanol, dichloromethane (DCM), and hexane fractions, and <em>in vivo</em> cytotoxic activities of the crude extracts of the bulb. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, antidiabetic activity by α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, and cytotoxic activity in terms of LC<sub>50</sub> (median lethality concentration) by Brine shrimp assay. The DCM fraction showed the strongest antioxidant activity (IC<sub>50</sub>=134.99±9.75 µg/mL) and highest antidiabetic activity (IC<sub>50</sub>=182.01±20.50 µg/mL) than other fractions. Similarly, the DCM fraction had the highest total phenolic contents (243.97±33.78 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight) and highest flavonoid contents (7.68±0.85 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram dry weight) than other fractions. Moreover, the crude extract of the bulb was not found to be cytotoxic to the Brine shrimp nauplii (LC<sub>50</sub>=3.83 mg/mL). It is the first report to date describing the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and cytotoxic properties of <em>L. nepalense</em>. This study concludes that the DCM fraction of the bulb could be used as an antioxidant and antidiabetic agent for therapeutic purposes; however, further identification and characterization of bioactive compounds responsible for the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and cytotoxicity is required for further validation.</p> Chandra Bahadur Thapa Anjana Bhattarai Krishna Kumar Pant Hari Datta Bhattarai Bijaya Pant Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 28 2 63 70 10.3126/jist.v28i2.61174 Radiation Shielding Features of Glass Fiber Reinforced Cast Polyamide Using Phy-X/PSD and SRIM Software <p>The utilization of various materials for their nuclear radiation shielding properties has been the subject of a growing number of research and development projects. In this study, the radiation shielding characteristics of E-glass fiber reinforced cast polyamide were evaluated. E-glass is a form of glass fiber frequently utilized as a reinforcement in various composite materials to provide more durability, stiffness, and strength. Samples S1-S7 were defined according to various compositions of E-glass fiber contents (SiO<sub>2</sub>, Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, MgO, CaO, Na<sub>2</sub>O and K<sub>2</sub>O) and cast polyamide (C<sub>12</sub>H<sub>22</sub>N<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). Within the energy range 0.015-15 MeV, the shielding parameters: Linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), mass attenuation coefficient (MAC), half and tenth value layers (HVL, TVL), mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number (Z<sub>eff</sub>), atomic and electronic cross sections (ACS, ECS), fast neutron removal cross-section (FNRCS) and exposure buildup factor (EBF) were analyzed. E-glass fiber reinforced cast polyamide S7 (70% glass fiber content) exhibited higher values of LAC, MAC and Z<sub>eff</sub> and lower values of HVL, TVL, and mfp proving it to be a better radiation shielding material among the samples. An abrupt reduction in values of Z<sub>eff</sub> was discerned within the photoelectric absorption-dominant region, contrasted with a stable trend within the Compton scattering-dominant region, and a marginal elevation was noted in the pair production region. The maximum and minimum values of FNRCS were observed for samples S1 (10% glass fiber content) and S5 (50% glass fiber content) respectively. Hence, S1 would be the most effective material in fast neutron shielding. At 35 mfp penetration depth, the minimum EBF values belonged to S7 in lower and intermediate regions (0.015-3 MeV) whereas S1 showed the minimum values at higher energy regions (4-15 MeV). Furthermore, the mass stopping power (MSP) and projected range (PR) of the samples for alpha and proton particles were determined using SRIM-2008 codes. S7 exhibited better shielding features for alpha and proton particles with lower values of mass stopping power and projected range. The reinforcement of glass fiber in the cast polyamide has been noticed to have a significant impact on the shielding performance of polymer composites.</p> Jeevan Poudel Basanta Subedi Tika Ram Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-23 2023-12-23 28 2 71 80 10.3126/jist.v28i2.55428 Characterization of Plasma Activated Water Generated from Gliding Arc Discharge and Its Application on Enhancement of Seed Germination of Radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus) <p>In recent decades, generation of plasma activated water (PAW) from non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma sources has received enormous attention due to their diverse applications. The research described in this paper is mainly focused on the preparation and characterisations of PAW produced from gliding arc discharge (GAD) operated with high voltages (9.7 kV, 50 Hz) power supply system and its use in the enhancement of seed germination of radish. The physical and chemical parameters of the PAW are investigated using a multi-parameter probe and UV-visible spectrometer. There are significant differences in physical parameters like pH and conductivity, and chemical parameters like concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonia in untreated and PAW. But no significant differences in temperature and total dissolved oxygen (TDO) are found. In order to determine the effects of PAW on seed germination, different germination parameters are calculated on radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em>) which indicates that PAW can enhance the seed germination of radish.</p> Santosh Dhungana Rajesh Prakash Guragain Deepak Prasad Subedi Hom Bahadur Baniya Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-23 2023-12-23 28 2 81 89 10.3126/jist.v28i2.55306 Generalized KdV and Burger Equations and Various Vanishing Limits <p>In this analytical and numerical study, we look at the generalized KdV equation by letting different coefficients go to zero. Numerical study is carried out by the pseudospectral method. Our study shows that there is no difference between the behavior of the solutions in the limiting case and the solutions in the case when the corresponding coefficients are exactly zero.</p> Pawan Shrestha Durga Jang KC Ramjee Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 28 2 91 99 10.3126/jist.v28i2.54429 Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Ficus racemosa Linn., Myrica esculenta Buch-Ham. Ex D. Don and Urtica dioica Linn. <p>Medicinal plants like <em>Ficus racemosa, Myrica esculenta</em>, and <em>Urtica dioica </em>were traditionally used to treat diabetes, cough, fever etc. These plants were collected from Kathmandu and Gorkha district of Nepal and subjected to various biological activities. Methanol extract of all three selected plants when subjected to phytochemical analysis showed the presence of various chemical constituents such polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and glycosides. The methanol extract of <em>F. racemosa</em> bark was found with strongest DPPH radical neutralization activity having IC<sub>50</sub> value of 41.48 µg/mL, which was comparable with standard ascorbic acid (31.07 µg/mL). The bark of <em>F. racemosa</em> contained the highest level of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents with the values of 168.89 ± 1.08 mg GAE/g and 41.56 ± 1.83 mg QE/g respectively. The methanol extract of bark of <em>F. racemosa</em> showed high <em>α</em>-amylase inhibitory activity with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 164.99 μg/mL. Brine shrimp bioassay showed that the methanol extracts of bark of <em>F. racemosa</em>, bark of <em>M. esculenta, </em>leaves of <em>M. esculenta</em> and <em>U. dioica</em> were lethal to brine shrimp nauplii with LC<sub>50</sub> values of 70.79, 177.83, 190.54 and 269.15 µg/mL respectively. Methanol extract of leaves of <em>U. dioica </em>was least active in these biological activities<em>.</em></p> Sagina Maharjan Bimala Subba Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 28 2 101 106 10.3126/jist.v28i2.56366 Fish Diversity of Ghodaghodi Lake Area: An Important Ramsar Wetland Site, Kailali, Far-Western, Nepal <p>Fish diversity of Ghodaghodi Lake Area (Ghodaghodi and Nakhrod Lake) from April 2019 to August 2021, covering three seasons; Pre-monsoon (April 2019), Post-monsoon (February 2020), and Monsoon (July 2021) by using conventional and locally accessible fishing gears such as gill nets, cast nets and hook lines in 17 sampling points. A total of 2810 individuals with 39 species, 27 genera, 19 families, and 8 orders were documented. The most common fish species were <em>Pethia ticto, Xenentodon cancila, Notopterus notopterus, Nandus nandus, </em>and<em> Pethia conchonius</em>. The order Cypriniformes accounts for the majority of both Ghodaghodi (42%) and Nakhrod Lake (33%) respectively. The diversity indices were found to be higher in the pre-monsoon season in both Ghodaghodi Lake (2.58) and Nakhrod Lake (1.85), whereas lower in post-monsoon (2.36) in Ghodaghodi Lake and monsoon (1.35) in Nakhrod Lake. Similarly, species richness was highest in the monsoon season (9.33) in Ghodaghodi Lake and pre-monsoon season (3.29) in Nakhrod Lake while it was lowest in the post-monsoon season (4.19), (2.25) in Ghodaghodi and Nakhrod Lake respectively. Likewise, the evenness value for Ghodaghodi and Nakhrod Lake was found to be higher in the pre-monsoon season (0.95), (0.92) and lower in the monsoon season (0.79), (0.68) in Ghodaghodi and Nakhrod Lake, respectively.</p> Laba K.C. Santoshi Shrestha Prakash Sigdel Dayaram Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 28 2 107 116 10.3126/jist.v28i2.61235 Kumaraswamy Uniform Distribution: Model, Properties, and Applications <p>Three parameters Kumaraswamy Uniform distribution has been derived from the Kumaraswamy family of distribution with uniform distribution, whereis scale parameter, andare the shape parameters. The proposed model is unimodal and negatively skewed, whereas the hazard rate function is bathtub and inverted bathtub shaped. The statistical properties like as, the reliability/survival function, the hazard rate function, the quantile function, the median, and the mode have been derived from the proposed model. The parameters are obtained from the maximum loglikelihood function which is equivalent to the maximum likelihood function. Using real-data analysis, the proposed model is unimodal, and the negatively skewed distribution is well-fitted distribution observed by the P-P plot, estimated CDF with empirical distribution, and KS test value. Finally, the proposed model is compared to various competitive models available in the literature, and the results revealed that the proposed model performs better than other models in terms of finding the least value of AIC, BIC, CIAC, and HQIC. Hence, the proposed model is an alternative model of lifetime data.</p> Ramesh Prasad Tharu Govinda Prasad Dhungana Ramesh Kumar Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 28 2 117 124 10.3126/jist.v28i2.51611