Journal of Institute of Medicine Nepal <p>Official publication of the Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal. Full text articles available for current issue.</p> en-US (Prof. Yogendra P Singh) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 07 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Plasma Fibrinogen Level in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Its Correlation with GOLD Severity Staging <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has great implications on global health accounting for significant morbidity and mortality. It is a state of chronic inflammation of airways. The aim of this study was to measure the plasma fibrinogen level in patient with COPD and find the relationship between plasma fibrinogen levels and severity of airflow obstruction.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>This observational study was conducted from September 2017 to October 2018, where 80 eligible patients with the diagnosis of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) were included in the study and their plasma fibrinogen level was measured at the time of discharge. Clinical information was obtained and pulmonary function test (PFT) was done.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong><br>A total of 80 patients were enrolled. The mean age of the patient was 67.87±11.60 years. Plasma fibrinogen level was 159±12.72 mg/dl in mild COPD, 273.52±62.34 mg/dl in moderate COPD, 312.30±103.67 mg/dl in severe COPD, and 487±102.76 mg/dl in very severe COPD. The comparison between groups showed significant difference in plasma fibrinogen level (p&lt;0.001). There was significant negative correlation between plasma fibrinogen level and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) predicted (r=-0.71, p=0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>High plasma fibrinogen level on discharge was found in COPD patients with severe airflow obstruction, frequent exacerbations and severe level of dyspnoea during AECOPD. </p> Achyut Gyawali, Niraj Bam, Pankaj Pant, Santa K Das Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Nebulized Magnesium Sulphate Versus Saline as an Adjuvant in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Tertiary Centre of Nepal: A Randomized Control Study <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Magnesium has been shown to have bronchodilator properties in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therapeutic benefits of nebulized magnesium in asthma has been seen. The purpose of this study was to compare therapeutic benefits of nebulised magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant with normal saline in patients with COPD exacerbation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>It was a randomized single blind interventional study of 172 cases of acute exacerbation of COPD presenting (AECOPD) with a peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) &lt;300 L/min measured 20 min after initial management. Patients received 5 mg salbutamol mixed with 3 ml isotonic magnesium sulphate or 3 ml normal saline on three occasions at 30 min intervals via nebulizer. The primary outcome measured was PEFR at 90 min and hospital admission, noninvasive or invasive ventilation and mortality were taken as secondary outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>The mean PEFR were 86.3±11.9 l/min, 97.6±19.1 l/min and 99.6±15.2 l/min after nebulization with magnesium sulphate and 79.17±14.11 l/min, 90.17±18.27 l/min and 93.17±20.63 l/min at 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively in normal saline group which were statistically significant differences. Total 91.9% were admitted in ward and 8.1% got admitted in Medical and intermediate intensive care units from magnesium group and 81.7% were admitted in ward and 18.3% required ICU admissions in saline group. Differences in ventilation and mortality were insignificant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>Nebulized magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to salbutamol treatment in the setting of AECOPD has therapeutic benefit on PEFR but no effect in terms of hospital admission, requirement of invasive or non-invasive ventilation and mortality.</p> Manjita Bajracharya, Ramesh P Acharya, Ram P Neupane, Rekha Sthapit, Apurva R Tamrakar Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Score for Prediction of Severe Postoperative Complications After Pancreaticoduodenectomy <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) still remains high. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most common cause of increased morbidity after PD. Assessment of predictability of risk score for severe postoperative complications was the objective of this study.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>This was a retrospective observational study. Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH) between January 2017 to December 2017 were included in the study. Variables were recorded from case sheets of the patients. The “Risk Score” was calculated using the pancreatic duct diameter and body mass index (BMI). Association of risk score and severe postoperative complications were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>A total number of patients were 43, including 23 (53.5%) males and 20 (46.5%) females. The mean age was 57.09 ± 11.85 years ranges from 29 years to 76 years. The POPF and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was 23.3% (10/43); and post-pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhage (PPH) was 11.6% (5/43). Severe postoperative complications were present in 13.9% (6/43) patients. In univariate analysis, pancreatic duct diameter (p=0.045) and Risk Score (p=0.02) were significantly associated with severe postoperative complications after PD. However none of them were significant in multivariate analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>Risk score failed to predict severe postoperative complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy.</p> Surendra Shah, Ramesh S Bhandari, Pradeep Vaidya, Yogendra P Singh, Paleswan Joshi Lakhey Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Diurnal Variability of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Healthy Adult Employees of a Medical College of Kathmandu <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Peak expiratory flow measurement is a simple measure of respiratory capacity to diagnose airflow obstruction and monitor treatment response in patients with pulmonary diseases. But there is wide diurnal variability in its values. The objectives of this study was to determine the diurnal variability of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy adults.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>This cross-sectional study was done in employees of Kathmandu Medical College, Duwakot between March to August 2020. A total of 74 subjects of 30-45 years were included in the study. After adequate training, subjects were asked to record their own peak expiratory flow five times a day by Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Diurnal variability was expressed as amplitude percent mean and standard deviation percent mean. Data analysis was done by student’s unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>The mean peak expiratory flow rate (in L/min) were lowest in morning (male: 478.75±45.91; female: 362.86±20.51) followed by progressive rise throughout the day and highest at evening (male: 531.88 ±43.95; female: 415.71±20.97) with slight fall at bedtime (male: 486.88±46.38; female: 362.86±20.51). The difference in peak expiratory flow rate at different time periods was statistically significant in both males and females (p&lt;0.001). The diurnal variability as calculated by amplitude percent mean and standard deviation percent mean were found to be significantly higher in females (p=0.001 and 0.004 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>There is a variation of peak expiratory flow rate recorded during different time points of the day in healthy adults.</p> Gita Khakurel, Kalyan Gautam, Sanat Chalise Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Tale of β-Lactamases and Multidrug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Inpatients in a University Hospital <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>In this era of modern medicine, antimicrobial resistance can be regarded as a major health calamity. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains poses therapeutic challenges and lead to treatment failure in hospitalized patients. This study was conducted to determine various types of β-lactamases among MDR&nbsp;P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from hospitalized patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>This study was conducted at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj, Nepal. The clinical samples collected from inpatients were processed for detection of P. aeruginosa isolates and antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined. The MDR strains were identified and ceftazidime-resistant isolates were subjected for detection of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL), metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), and&nbsp;Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>A total of 161 P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered during the study period encompassing 73.3% (n=118) MDR isolates. The MDR isolates included 50.0% (n=59) from lower respiratory tract infections; and 39.8% (n=47) were from the intensive care unit patients. The MDR isolates showed a high resistance profile towards piperacillin, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones (&gt;85%). Resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides were up to 80% and 60% respectively. Extended spectrum-β-lactamase, MBL, and KPC mediated resistance were seen in 34.7%, 43.6%, and 14.4% MDR isolates, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>Multidrug resistance as well as resistance mediated by β-lactamases production were high among P. aeruginosa isolates.&nbsp; Therefore, early detection of antimicrobial resistance and rational use of antibiotics play a critical role to fight against this MDR pathogen.</p> Santosh K Yadav, Sangita Sharma, Shyam K Mishra, Jeevan B Sherchand Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Status of Mastoid with Outcomes of Myringoplasty with Cortical Mastoidectomy in Mucosal Otitis Media with High Risk Perforation <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Chronic mucosal otitis media is one of the common disease prevalent in our society. This study was done to correlate the status of mastoid with outcomes of myringoplasty with cortical mastoidectomy in mucosal otitis media with high risk perforation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>This prospective, observational study was done at Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Thirty-four patients of ag|e 15 and above with chronic mucosal otitis media having high-risk perforation undergoing cortical mastoidectomy with myringoplasty were included. The status of middle ear, aditus, and mastoid air cells were assessed. Post-operatively, patients were assessed for graft uptake and hearing after three months. The post-operative graft uptake and hearing results were correlated with the peroperative status. Four patients who had preoperative sensorineural hearing loss were studied in terms of graft uptake only.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>The graft success rate in patients with normal mastoid air cells was 90% whereas in diseased cases was 71.4% which was statistically not significant with p value 0.20. The success rate in terms of hearing was 68.8% in normal mastoid whereas it was 64.3% in diseased mastoid which was statistically not significant with p-value of 1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>In correlation with the status of mastoid air cells with graft uptake and hearing result, the observed differences were not statistically significant. However, averages of post-operative air conduction threshold and air-bone gap of all cases were better as compared to preoperative levels.</p> Asmita Shrestha, Hari Bhattarai, Pabina Rayamajhi, Rabindra B Pradhananga Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Outcome of Carotid Endarterectomy in a Tertiary Center of Nepal: A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery disease is one of the surgeries performed by vascular surgeons for carotid artery disease. The objective of this study is to describe the early and late outcome of the patient undergoing carotid endarterectomy and the association between the complication and comorbidities present previously in the patient.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>All patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at Manmohan Cardiothoracic Vascular and Transplant Centre between April 2010 to April 2020 were included. The follow-up data for upto a year from medical and clinical records, telephone interview regarding the immediate and late postoperative complications in patients with and without comorbidities were investigated and compared.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>The total study population was 42 patients. Two patients (4.7%) developed stroke, one immediately in postoperative period and the other during follow up. There were two deaths (4.7%) postoperatively due to cardiac events and three (7.14%) recurrences of carotid stenosis among whom one (2.5%) developed late stroke. Twenty six patients (61.90%) were symptomatic prior to the procedure of which 20 patients (47.61%) had brain infarct. Overall one year survival was 95.2% post procedure and overall complication rate was 7.14%. The consequence in the form of death and stroke occurred more in the patients with comorbidities (3vs1) p=0.42.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>The immediate and late postoperative complications following carotid endarterectomy were death (4.7%), stroke (4.7%), cranial nerve injury (9.5%). The most frequent cause of death was postoperative cardiac event. Though major complications occurred more frequently in patients having comorbidities, it was statistically insignificant.</p> Prashiddha B Kadel, Uttam K Shrestha, Kajan R Shrestha, Dinesh Gurung Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of Nurses Working in Critical Care Areas Regarding Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Prevention Bundles in a Tertiary Level Cardiac Centre <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is influenced by the knowledge and practices of nurses. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of nurses working in critical care areas of a tertiary level cardiac centre regarding VAP prevention bundles.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>In this descriptive study, 57 nurses working in critical care areas were included, they completed a self-administered questionaire containing demographic information followed by 18 multiple response questions. With the respondents choosing one or more correct answers, the percentage of correct answer for each options was obtained. For each questions, the correct percentage for all the options were averaged and expressed as average knowledge percent. The significance of association was tested using chi-square and Fisher exact test, with level of significance established at 95%. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>With a mean age of 26.8 years, the majority of the nurses had completed Bachelor’s degree (75.4%). Though 91.3% nurses had experience of more than a year in critical care, 87.7% of them had not obtained VAP or infection control training. The mean knowledge score of VAP was 70±7.5%, and 97.4% had satisfactory knowledge. There was no association between knowledge scores on prevention of VAP and educational qualification (p=0.26) and years of experience in intensive care unit (p=0.41).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>Almost all of the nurses working in critical care areas had satisfactory knowledge regarding VAP bundle, however, they had lower knowledge on the definition and approach to prevent VAP. This study recommends to incorporate more nurses in training related to infection and VAP prevention.</p> Sandip Bhandari, Medha Sharma, Gentle S Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Subjects attending General Health Checkup of a Tertiary Center of Kathmandu, Nepal <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>Metabolic syndrome is one of the major concerns of modern health causing morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome is the constellation of metabolic disorders - insulin resistance; obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that are interrelated which lead to higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, atherosclerosis and serious health condition. The study focused on the prevalence of all the metabolic syndrome cases that came to general health checkup (GHC) of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><br>The study was a cross-sectional retrospective study of all cases that came to GHC from July 2019 to October 2019. GHC records files of all patients that came for their general health check-up were used to obtain data that included demographic details and the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference, weight, height and blood investigations were sent as a routine examination of the general health checkup. Data analysis was done in Microsoft Excel 2019 and SPSS 20.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br>Among 311 cases enrolled in our study, 99 (31.8%) met the revised National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria for metabolic syndrome. Among those with metabolic syndrome, males were 52 (52.53%) and females were 47 (47.47%). Also, 81 (81.81%) out of 99 cases had decreased HDL (&lt;1.03&nbsp;mmol/L for males and &lt;1.30&nbsp;mmol/L for females), which was the most common component of metabolic syndrome in the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>Metabolic syndrome is present in almost one third of the studied apparently healthy patients coming for general health checkup and it emphasizes on awareness regarding screening for metabolic syndrome.</p> Yagya L Shakya, Shankar Raut, Tirtha M Shrestha, Ram P Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Right Sided Aortic Arch with Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery from Kommerell’s Diverticulum, a Cause of Persistent Dysphagia in an Adult: A Case Report <p>Congenital variations and anomalies of the aortic arch are important entity in vascular imaging. Most of them are asymptomatic. About 30-40% presents with tracheo-oesophageal symptoms like dyspnea and dysphagia. A 27 year-old female presented with persistent dysphagia for 6 months duration and cause of persistent dysphagia was the right sided aortic arch with aberrant left subcalvian artery from Kommerell’s diverticulum. The diagnosis was made through combination of chest X-Ray, echocardiography, non-ionic contrast swallow and Computed Tomography angiography. Non-invasive modalities (CT and MR Angiography) play an important role in diagnosis and pre-operative surgical planning providing relationship with the surrounding structures especially trachea and esophagus.</p> Pradeep R Regmi, Isha Amatya, Bipula Kafle, Prakash Kayastha, Sharma Paudel Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Anesthetic Management of Apert Syndrome: A Case Report <p>Apert syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with abnormalities of skull, face and limbs. These patients present for different types of surgeries. To the anesthesiologists,they pose special challenge during airway management, manifesting as difficulty in bag-mask ventilation and increased incidence of airway obstruction. Here, we report a case of a child with Apert syndrome undergoing syndactyly release under general anesthesia, in whom severe bronchospasm and a failed bag-mask ventilation occurred during the emergence of anesthesia requiring re-insertion of laryngeal mask airway.</p> Megha Koirala, Gentle S Shrestha, Pankaj Joshi, Bashu D Parajuli Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Single Stage Surgery for Open Lisfranc Injury: A Case Report <p>Management of open Lisfranc injuries is challenging. The improper management of the injuries might lead to bad results like skin necrosis and arthritis of Lisfranc’s joints. A case of Myerson type A Gustilo Grade IIIB open Lisfranc injury was managed with single stage debridement and internal fixation. At three years follow-up, the result was excellent with American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) midfoot score of 100 and the patient had rejoined his previous occupation requiring prolonged walking.</p> Rajesh B Lakhey, Prawesh S Bhandari, Govinda KC Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Case Report of Fetal Macrosomia with Birth Weight 6.25 kg: A Rare Encounter <p>Newborn weight exceeding 4000 g or 4500 g is considered as macrosomia, incidence of which varies from 6 to 10% of all deliveries. Maternal diabetes, obesity, age &gt;35 years, male baby, history of previous macrosomia, multiparity are few risk factors. It is associated with several maternal and neonatal complications and presents an obstetric challenge as there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate route of delivery for macrosomic baby. We report a rare case of fetal macrosomia with birth weight of 6.25 kg delivered by cesarean section to 39 years old woman at 38 weeks 6 days period of gestation.</p> Suvana Maskey, Geeta Gurung Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Case Report on Deliberate Self-poisoning with Imidacloprid in a Young Female - Overview of a Newer Insecticide Poisoning <p>Imidacloprid is a newer insecticide of the group Neonicotinoids. It is safer to humans and hence considered a better alternative to organophosphorus compounds, especially in areas like Nepal with higher incidence of deliberate self-poisoning. There has been an increase in the number of reported cases of imidacloprid poisoning from South-East Asian countries, but none from Nepal. We report a case admitted in Intensive Care Unit with neurological manifestations, respiratory failure and development of Acute Kidney Injury following acute imidacloprid poisoning.</p> Sabin Thapaliya, Bhupendra K Basnet, Santa K Das, Rakshya Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 JIOM Nepal Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000