Journal of the Institute of Engineering <p>The official journal of the Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk Campus. Full-text articles available.</p> <p>Submission Portal: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association - Pulchowk Campus Unit, Institute of Engineering en-US Journal of the Institute of Engineering 1810-3383 <p>The Copyright is held by Journal of the Institute of Engineering, IOE, TU</p> Impact of Revised Code NBC105 on Assessment and Design of Low Rise Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Nepal <p>Gorkha Earthquake in 2015 has impacted considerably in the design and construction of buildings in Nepal. Strength and Safety of life and constructions have become the prime concerns of the government and the public. Regulation is required to achieve the strength and safety in the constructions. Hence, a need for revision of building codes has been felt and Nepal Building Code, NBC105 has been revised. This paper presents the impact of the revised code on seismic load estimation for low rise reinforced concrete buildings. For the assessment of the impact linear and non- linear static and linear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete residential buildings of two storey and four Storey has been taken subjected to Indian Standard Codes IS 1893: 2002, IS 1893:2016, Nepal Building Codes NBC 105: 1994 and NBC 105: 2020. The buildings were modeled and analyzed in SAP2000. The response of the buildings such as time period, base shear, drifts, and storey forces from the application of the four codes was compared. The comparison of the results shows that the structural response of the building under the revised NBC105:2020 is 60% to 65% higher compared to the previous code NBC105:1994.</p> Jagat K. Shrestha Nirajan Paudel Bishal Koirala Binod R. Giri Adarsha Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 1 5 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36527 An Alumni Portal and Tracking System <p>Alumni tracking is a difficult task for any institution that has been running for a long time. The Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering (DOECE), Pulchowk Campus, IOE, has been offering undergraduate programs since 1994 A.D. and masters programs since 2001 A.D. The existing information about the alumni of the department is unmanaged and out of date. This paper presents a web-based system to integrate data of alumni into a well-managed database, and to act as a portal where alumni can update their current status and view online alumni yearbooks. This work aims to make the task of alumni tracking easier and simpler for the department. The web-based portal has been accessed by many alumni of the department starting from the earliest batches to update their information and see the whereabouts of others. From the collected alumni responses, some preliminary insights observed were: (a) it was seen that alumni seem to be heterogeneous both in their job positions and employers, however, a large portion are employed in the software sector, (b) most alumni (60%) are currently residing in Nepal, and (c) for further education, the USA (39%) seems to be the favored choice, followed closely by Nepal (32.5%).</p> Baibhav Bista Aman Shakya Basanta Joshi Anusandhan Pokhrel Lumanti Dangol Mohit Kedia Daya Sagar Baral Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 7 14 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36529 Critical Review and Improvement of Bank Protection Methods in Nepalese Rivers <p>This paper reviews performance of bank protection works constructed over the last decades along the major rivers in Nepal. The study reveals main reasons of early spurs failure in five major rivers - Koshi, Narayani, West Rapti, Karnali and Mahakali. The overview finds design deficiency as the main reason of failure of bank protection works. The methodology incorporates a combination of field visits and a review of design reports, master plans. The study finds bank protection works along the major rivers in Nepal consist almost exclusively of spurs often combined with revetments in between, made of gabions filled with boulders. Also, the launching aprons are constructed of gabions. The lifetime of these bank protection works is less than 10 years and often much shorter. Designs are based on standard designs from Indian standards, developed for normal alluvial rivers. The study recommends initiating a bank protection pilot project to identify the cause of failure of the bank protection works and to test remedial measures for the sustainability enhancement of river protection works in future.</p> Mukesh Raj Kafle Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 15 25 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36530 High Temperature Superconductivity: A Prospective Remedy for Energy Crisis in Future <p>This paper summarizes the superconducting phenomenon followed by application of superconductivity devices on energy sector. High temperature superconductivity are very innovative, promising and eco-friendly alternative to mitigate the energy crisis by saving energy.</p> Chhabi L. Gnawali Binod Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 27 32 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36532 Signature Verification using Convolutional Neural Network and Autoencoder <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">Signature has been one of the widely used verification biometrics out there. Handwritten signatures are used in cheques, forms, letters, applications, minutes, etc. The Signature of every individual is unique in nature, that is why it is essential that a person’s handwritten signature be uniquely identified. Signature Verification is a widely used method for authenticating any individual during absence. Human verification is prone to inaccuracy and sometimes indecisiveness. This paper presents an investigation of using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Writer-Dependent models in signature verification. Random distortions were generated in genuine images using an autoencoder to get forged signatures, which were passed to the classifier during training. The paper details all the pre-processing steps carried out on the image and shows various test results for changing the number of training sets of images. The average test accuracy for Persian dataset is 83% when the system was trained with 22 genuine images. There was a decrease of 9.4% in accuracy when the model was trained with 9 genuine images.</p> Prakash Ratna Prajapati Samiksha Poudel Madan Baduwal Subritt Burlakoti Sanjeeb Prasad Panday Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 33 40 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36533 Design of Pelton Turbine and Bucket Surface using Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline and its Analysis with Computational Fluid Dynamics <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">Hydraulic turbines are used to convert the energy in flowing water to rotational mechanical energy. The design of high head Pelton turbine is difficult due to complex flow pattern on different parts. The basic dimensions can be obtained from interpolation techniques and design trends but the main challenge is to model the hydrodynamic surface. The surface must be designed such that it would harvest energy in an efficient manner and the manufacturing of the surface is also economic and simple. For the design of Pelton turbine, the data from Kulekhani-I hydropower is taken. Pelton turbine is designed for the given head (550 m), flow rate (6.05 m3/sec) and speed (600 rpm). For basic dimensions, interpolation techniques and design trends are used. Number of buckets is calculated for maximum efficiency condition and found to be twenty. Nozzle and spear are selected based on hydraulic efficiency. Spear angle and nozzle angle of 70° and 100° respectively are selected. The bucket surface is designed with the help of second order B-Spline. Circular and Second order B-spline surfaces with different depths are analyzed using commercial CFD code. The second order B-Spline with depth 186.22 mm is found to be more effective in terms of force exerted by the jet among the given surfaces. Finally, Bucket surface is generated using non-uniform rational B‑spline (NURBS) modeling after all the basic dimensions are determined. For verification, the design is compared with the design of commercial design software and the turbine in Kulekhani-I hydropower plant.</p> Neeraj Adhikari Anup Pandey Anushka Subedi Nitesh Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 41 50 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36534 Seismic Performance of Elevated Reinforced Concrete Water Tanks <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">Most of the codal provisions used worldwide for the design of elevated water tanks incorporates the nonlinear response through reduction factor that considers overstrength, ductility and redundancy. The majority of these codes provide a value which incorporates the demand of their geological condition and construction industry. In Nepal, there is lack of own guidelines and codes for the seismic design of elevated water tanks. In the present work, seismic performance of elevated reinforced concrete (RC) Intze type water tank is evaluated and value of the response reduction factor (R) for the design of such tank is determined. In this research work 34 models of elevated reinforced water tank were analyzed using SAP 2000 to evaluate the seismic performance with varying tank filling condition and staging height for 450 cumec and 225 cumec capacity. Based on the results, it is concluded that single value of response reduction factor cannot be justified for all heights and capacity of elevated RC water tank. So, for economical design purpose, estimation of response reduction factor with exact analysis is preferred.</p> Sandesh Sagar Tripathi Kamal Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 51 60 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36535 An Enhanced Low Voltage Ride-Through Control Scheme of a DIFG based WTG Using Crowbar and Braking Chopper <p style="text-align: justify;">The grid codes define low voltage ride-through (LVRT) as capability of wind turbine generator (WTG) to support the grid voltage by injecting reactive power and suppress the rise of DC-link voltage and inrush rotor current in the rotor side converter (RSC) of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) during a fault. Moreover, the rotor current increases significantly during severe disturbances if any protection schemes are not employed. Therefore, the protection schemes must be used to avoid the damage to the converter during a fault. This paper proposes an enhanced LVRT control scheme of a DFIG employing a crowbar in the RSC side and braking chopper across the DC-link capacitor. The DFIG is highly delicate to grid voltage fluctuation during a fault because the DFIG is directly linked to the grid via stator. During severe fault the crowbar regulates the rotor current within an acceptable range and the braking chopper discharges the DC-link capacitor via resistor within a safe limit. The proposed LVRT control scheme is performed for a 2.4-MW DFIG using a MATLAB/SIMULINK simulator. The results delineate that the proposed control scheme is able to rapidly decrease the rotor current and repress the escalation in DC-link voltage during a grid fault.</p> Kishan Jayasawal Khagendra Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 61 67 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36537 A Report on GIS Based Analysis of Landslides in Myagdi District <p style="text-align: justify;">Lanslide have become a routine event during monsoon in Nepal which accompanies a huge social, physical and economical loss. As the number of landslide event is in increasing order each year but their proper study is still limited, this assessment is an example of simple step in landslide study. Also, the developmental activities disturb the topology and hence increase or bring new form of landslide in the region. This report is mainly a preliminary study of existing landslide in Myagdi district which is generally carried out using QGIS software and remote sensing data available from and recent Google satellite image. From the analysis carried out by using the inbuilt features in QGIS, relationship between various terrain, hydrological and anthropogenic parameters with landslide was driven. Based on this approach a simple precautionary measures in development activities, disaster preparedness and mitigation activities can be carried out.</p> Sumit Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 69 76 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36539 Design, Fabrication, and Performance Analysis of an Automatic Horizontal Egg Incubator <p style="text-align: justify;">This research paper presents the design, construction, and performance testing of an automatic electrically powered egg incubator utilizing the horizontal placement of eggs. This experimental research was driven by the specific design and construction of a well-insulated rectangular egg-incubating box of dimension 400 mm × 600 mm × 500 mm and thickness 30 mm, where sample eggs were kept for experimental test analysis under the favorable temperature and humidity inside the box, which was automatically controlled. The device was made to operate under the temperature range of 37°C – 38°C, which was found to be adequate for developing embryos and also maintaining relative humidity at the range of 45–60% for the first 18 days and 60–90% for the last three days. Finally, in this machine, the egg tray was adjusted horizontally, and a motor clamped mechanism was used 5 times a day which was controlled automatically by a micro-controller for the motion of eggs up to 18 days of incubation. In conclusion, this egg-incubating machine has an efficiency and hatchability of 72.22%.</p> Bharosh Kumar Yadav Nischal Pokhrel Dinesh Khatiwada Madan Khanal Triratna Bajracharya Rabin Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 77 85 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36557 Risk Rating for Risk-Based Maintenance: A Case Study of Small Hydropower Plant in Nepal <div style="text-align: justify;">Fourth generation maintenance philosophy and Quality management system 9001:2015, emphasis on the concept of risk based thinking. And it is one of the challenging part of maintenance department to adopt these philosophy by quantifying all the activities of the department. Risk rating based on reliability is one of the techniques to quantify the maintenance activities for those organizations, whose reliability of goods and services matter in the market. Hydropower sector is also among them whose reliability matters highly in consumer life standard. So this paper approaches to rate the risk of hydropower based on the reliability of components for the implementation of Risk-based maintenance. From the study of data recorded in log book of a small hydropower plant located in western part of Nepal, it was found that the overall reliability score of the plant was 0.9819, which was low as compared to other hydropower of Nepal, where turbine section of both the units of the plant found a higher risk score than other systems. Study adopted two tools i.e. Analytical Hierarchical based Fault Tree Analysis and Critical Analysis Technique to find the critical assets and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for the rest of all to quantifying the risk in component level. The analysis shows that the cooling system as the critical asset for both the units and it contributes 72% and 64% in the reliability of the turbine section. The critical assets thus obtained was validated through the critical analysis technique. From which the risk score of cooling system found 90% in both the units. To analyze the risk in component level, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of different sub component of critical assets was done. Among the sub-components of the cooling system, radial tube filter gets the highest risk score. Its components; cartridge, tube, and joints have the risk score of 450, 192, and 96 respectively. And from the critical analysis of the rest of the subsystems of uint-I and unit-II, components such as bearings, breaker of the transmission system, transmission equipment, excitation system and transformer of unit-I and breaker of the transmission system, transmission equipment and excitation system of unit-II are found to have higher critical score, hence, it is recommended to apply preventive activities on these components as per the manufacturer to reduce the risk that could be caused by their failure.</div> Rajan Sharma Nawraj Bhattarai Sanjaya Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 87 94 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36560 Analysis of Micro Facial Expression by Machine and Deep Learning Methods: Haar, CNN, and RNN <p>Facial expressions are due to the actions of the facial muscles located at different facial regions. These expressions are two types: Macro and Micro expressions. The second one is more important in computer vision. Analysis of micro expressions categorized by disgust, happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, contempt, and fear are challenging because of very fast and subtle facial movements. This article presents one machine learning method: Haar and two deep learning methods: Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to perform recognition of micro-facial expression analysis. First, Haar Cascade Classifier is used to detect the face as a pre-image-processing step. Secondly, those detected faces are passed through series of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) layers for the features extraction. Thirdly, the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) classifies micro facial expressions. Two types of data sets are used for training and testing of the proposed method: Chinese Academy of Sciences Micro-Expression II (CSAME II) and Spontaneous Actions and Micro-Movements (SAMM) database. The test accuracy of SAMM and CASME II are obtained as 84.76%, and 87% respectively. In addition, the distinction between micro facial expressions and non- micro facial expressions are analyzed by the ROC curve.</p> Dibakar Raj Pant Rolisha Sthapit Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 95 101 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36562 Devnagari Handwritten Characters Image Super-Resolution based on Enhanced SRGAN <p>The difficulty in machine learning-based image super-resolution is to generate high-frequency component in an image without introducing any artifacts. In this paper, Devnagari handwritten characters image using a generative adversarial network with a classifier is generated in high-resolution which is also classifiable. The generator architecture is modified by removing all batch normalization layers in generator architecture with a residual in residual dense block. Batch normalization is removed because it produces unwanted artifacts in the generated images. A Devnagari handwritten characters classifier is built using CNN. The classifier is used in the network to calculate the content loss. The adversarial loss is obtained from the GAN architecture and both of the losses are added to obtain total loss. Generated HR images is validated using six different evaluation metrics among which MSE, PSNR determines pixel-wise difference and SSIM compares images perceptually. Similarly, FID is used to measure the statistical similarity between the batch of generated images and its original batch. Finally, the Gradient similarity is used to assess the quality of the generated image. From the experimental results, we obtain MSE, PSNR and SSIM as 0.0507, 12.95(dB) and 0.8172 respectively. Similarly, the FID value obtained was 27.5 with the classification accuracy of image data of 98%. The gradient similarity between the generated image and the ground truth obtained was 0.9124.</p> Prasiddha Siwakoti Sharad Kumar Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 103 109 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36565 VAR Compensation on Load Side using Thyristor Switched Capacitor and Thyristor Controlled Reactor <p>Generally, AC loads are the inductive loads which are reactive in nature. These loads, thus, demand and draw reactive power from the supply source. If these loads draw large lagging current from the source, this will cause excessive voltage drop in the line, which can even cause the voltage collapsing in the line itself if the drop in the line is excessively high. VAR compensation means efficient management of reactive power locally to improve the performance of AC power systems. In this paper, Static VAR Compensator, using TSC (Thyristor Switched Capacitor) and TCR (Thyristor Controlled Reactor), is designed and simulated in MATLAB to maintain the power factor of power system nearly to unity at all times. TSC and TCR are basically shunt connected capacitors and inductor respectively whose switching (of capacitors) and firing angle control (of inductor) operations are carried out using thyristors. The purpose of capacitors is to supply lagging VAR as per the demand by the connected loads and the overcompensation due to excess VAR generated by the discrete set of turned on capacitors are absorbed by the adjustable inductive reactance of the inductor in TCR branch through firing angle control mechanism.</p> Bibek Bimali Sushil Uprety Ram Prasad Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 111 119 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36568 Voltage Control and Braking System of a DFIG during a Fault <p>This paper describes a voltage control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine that can inject more reactive power to the grid during a fault so as to support the grid voltage. To achieve this, the coordinated control scheme using both rotor side converter (RSC) and grid side converters (GSC) controllers of the DFIG are employed simultaneously. The RSC and GSC controllers employ PI controller to operate smoothly. In the voltage control mode, the RSC and GSC are operated. During a fault, both RSC and GSC are used simultaneously to supply the reactive power into the grid (main line) depending on voltage dip condition to support the grid voltage. The proposed system is implemented for single DFIG wind turbine using MATLAB simulation software. The results illustrate that the control strategy injects the reactive power to support the voltage stability during a fault rapidly. Also, the braking system is designed to protect the wind turbine system from over speed. For this purpose, the braking resistors are being used.</p> Rabin Mahat Khagendra B. Thapa Sudip Lamichhane Sudip Thapaliya Sagar Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 121 131 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36569 Mechanical and Thermal Characterisation of Millscale Modified Al-Cu Alloy for Artificial Intelligence Systems <p>Continuous research into critical functional property enhancement of materials employed in artificial intelligence systems is imperative to overcome performance limitations. This study investigated the thermal and mechanical properties of stir-cast fabricated Al-Cu alloy modified with addition of iron-millscale (IMS) particles varied from 2-6 wt.%. The alloys microstructure was analysed using both optical and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). PerkinElmer Thermogravimetry/Derivative thermal analyser was used to assess the alloys thermal characteristics while the mechanical properties were evaluated using relevant state of the art equipment. Results show that the best thermal and mechanical properties comparable to established standards were achieved at 6 wt.% IMS particle addition. Contributions to the alloy enhanced performances stemmed from the structure refining propensity of IMS particles. Based on the thermal and mechanical properties demonstrated, the alloy is recommended for application in pneumatic offshore valve actuator used in oil and gas flow process lines.</p> Olatunde Israel Sekunowo Catherine U. Kuforiji Emmanuel Oluwaseun Ajibodu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 133 140 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36651 A Mathematical Study of Effect of Humidity on Human Skin Temperature at Warm Environment <p>The ability of the human body to regulate its heat exchange depends on various environmental factors together with its ability to exchange heat in in-vivo tissue. The environmental factor humidity plays a crucial role in heat regulation within the human body. The heat regulation within in-vivo tissue constitutes temperature regulation in the layers of the dermal part to maintain body core temperature constant. The purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model to study the effect of humidity on temperature regulation within the human body. The model has been developed for one dimensional steady state flow of heat in human dermal parts with appropriate boundary conditions containing the factors of effect of humidity. Matlab program has been used to simulate the model and obtain numerical results with graphs.</p> Shiva Hari Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 141 150 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36652 Development of Polynomial Mode Shape Functions for Continuous Shafts with Different End Conditions <p>Common methods used to determine the solutions for vibration response of continuous systems are assumed mode method, Rayleigh-Ritz method, Galerkin Method, finite element method, etc. Each of these methods requires the shape functions which satisfy the boundary conditions. Shape functions derived in most of the classical textbooks are simple trigonometric functions for some end conditions but are very complex transcendental functions for many end conditions. It is very difficult to determine the vibration response of a continuous system analytically by using such transcendental shape functions. Hence this paper presents a method to develop polynomial shape functions required to solve the vibration of continuous shafts with different end conditions. The natural frequencies obtained from the developed polynomial shape functions are compared to those obtained from the classical transcendental shape functions and found very close for the first three modes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahesh Chandra Luintel Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 151 161 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36653 On the Space of Bounded Mean Oscillations <p>The space of bounded mean oscillations, abbreviated BMO, was first introduced by F. John and L. Nirenberg in 1961 in the context of partial differential equations. Later, C. Fefferman proved that the BMO is the dual space of well-known Hardy space, popularly known as <em>H<sup>1</sup></em> space and became the center of attraction for mathematicians. With the help of BMO space, many mathematical phenomenon can be characterized clearly. In this article, we discuss the connections of function of bounded mean oscillations with weight functions, sharp maximal functions and Carleson measure.</p> Santosh Ghimire Aarjan Kumar Sunar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 16 1 163 167 10.3126/jie.v16i1.36656