Spatio-Temporal Variability of Rainfall Over Kathmandu Valley of Nepal
Keywords:Rainfall variability, Seasons, Trends, Kathmandu
The present study used and analyzed rainfall data from 18 meteorological stations from 1971 to 2013 to examine the spatial and temporal variability of seasonal and annual rainfall based on rain gauge measurements. The monthly to annual rainfall analysis was carried out for each site of Kathmandu Valley. Rainfall amounts in Kathmandu Valley vary considerably in space and time. The minimum mean monthly rainfall is observed in November which is 6.5 mm and maximums of 447.8 mm in July. Monsoon is the main contributor of the rainfall which is 80% followed by pre-monsoon with 13.6%, post-monsoon with 3.6% and winter with 2.8%. Spatial interpolation was used to explore spatial variability of seasonal and annual rainfall over Kathmandu Valley. There is large spatial variability of monsoon rainfall; generally, the upper parts of the Kathmandu Valley received the heavy monsoon rainfall than the lower parts of the Valley floor. The rainfall of Kathmandu has marked decreasing in recent a couple of decades. Annual rainfall has decreased by 0.96 mm/year observed in Kathmandu Valley.