Journal of Biomedical Sciences <p>Official journal of the Nepal Health Research Society.</p> <p>JBS is currently accepting submissions by Email – <a href=""></a></p> en-US (Dr. Bedanta Roy) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 02 Jan 2024 13:05:36 +0000 OJS 60 Unravelling VEXAS syndrome: An overview of the enigmatic autoimmune condition <p>No abstract available.</p> Bedanta Roy, Yang Yun Yi Copyright (c) 2023 Bedanta Roy, Yang Yun Yi Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 VEXAS syndrome: A review on clinical manifestations <p><strong>Background: </strong>VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic) syndrome is a recently identified progressive, adult-onset, inflammatory disorder. Somatic mutations in the Ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 (UBA1) gene at methionine-41 (p. Met41) were found in the patients. Clinical presentations are not limited to hematological and immunological systems; all organ systems are affected by VEXAS syndrome. The aim of this review is to summarise the scientific evidence accrued from the research studies on VEXAS syndrome, highlighting the clinical features and involvements of different organ systems.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although the primary manifestations affect the immunological and haematological systems, they gradually affect different other organ systems. Distinct clinical features necessitate ruling out the other possibilities that will be helpful for early diagnosis. More research should be carried out by the global research community in a collaborative manner for a better understanding and early diagnosis of the syndrome.</p> Bedanta Roy, Juliet Othieno, Nabeeha Fauzee Copyright (c) 2023 Bedanta Roy, Juliet Othieno, Nabeeha Fauzee Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of gender and quality of sleep in cognitive impairment: A cross-sectional pilot study from Kerala, India <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cognitive decline, a natural aging process, can lead to geriatric neurodegenerative diseases like dementia, which progresses rapidly, with memory complaints and deficits being particularly risky. Sleep is crucial for psychological functions and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between the sleep quality and cognitive function like working memory, reaction time (simple and choice reaction time), and attention (sustained/vigilant attention and divided attention) in the south Indian youth population.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>A cross-sectional pilot study was carried out on the 30 participants. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the sleep quality, NIMHANS Neuropsychological Battery for adults was used to assess different neuro-cognitive domains and Computerized test of reaction time to assess the simple reaction time and choice reaction time.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Participants with poor sleep quality showed impaired performance in the tests of attention (Sustained attention and Divided attention). No significant differences were observed between participants of good sleep quality and poor sleep quality in the test of working memory, N Back 1 test (t=0.539, p&gt;0.05) and N Back 2 test of working memory (t=0.306, p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>ConclusionL </strong>Participants with poor sleep quality significantly differed from those with good sleep quality and committed more mistakes in the triad test of divided attention, spend longer time, and committed errors in the completion of the digit vigilance test of sustained attention. Sleep patterns are associated with cognitive test performance, and optimising sleep duration and quality should be an important consideration for cognitive functions.</p> Akhil Rajeev, Bindu P. Nair Copyright (c) 2023 Akhil Rajeev, Bindu P. Nair Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Variation in the shape of the knee meniscus and incidence of the discoid shape in Myanmar's adult population: A cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background: </strong>A meniscal injury is one of the most common sports-related problems and the most frequent injury to the knee joint. The method for determining meniscus shape is used in designing therapies for treating various joint diseases.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>Anatomy dissection was performed, and the shapes of knee menisci were studied in 160 menisci from 40 autopsy bodies (20 males and 20 females) from Medical Universities in Myanmar. The bodies were embalmed with 4% formaldehyde and then preserved in a weak formalin solution.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The number of crescentic-shaped medial menisci was 5 (6.25%), horseshoe-shaped menisci were 6 (7.5%), sickle shapes were 48 (60%), U shapes were 8 (10%), V shapes were 12 (15%), and complete discoid shapes were only 1 in number (1.25%). There was no incomplete discoid, circular, or C shape at all. The commonest shape of the medial meniscus was a sickle. The number of C-shaped lateral menisci was 6 (7.5%), the complete discoid shape was 1 (1.25%), the incomplete discoid shapes were 13 (16.25%), and the circular shapes were 60 (75%). Crescentic, horseshoe, sickle, U, and V-shaped lateral menisci were absent.&nbsp; Circular was the commonest of all. Among 160 menisci, an incomplete discoid shape was found in 13 menisci, and a complete discoid shape was found in two: one meniscus as a primitive disc and a very rare infantile shape in another. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our findings will help morphologists and orthopaedic surgeons with surgical procedures and knee joint arthroscopy. It will also help patients with effective rehabilitation after meniscal injuries and surgery.</p> Thida Than, Labang Hkawn, Anjuna Radhakrishnan, Yupa Min, Hlaing Thaw Dar, Nurul Hazliana Harun Copyright (c) 2023 Thida Than, Labang Hkawn, Anjuna Radhakrishnan, Yupa Min, Hlaing Thaw Dar, Nurul Hazliana Harun Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000