Journal of APF Command and Staff College <p>Official Journal of the APF Command and Staff College, Kathmandu, Nepal. Affiliated to Tribhuvan University, Nepal.</p> APF Command and Staff College en-US Journal of APF Command and Staff College 2616-0242 Ethics in Governance <p>The evolution of governance from ancient times to the present highlights the critical role of ethics in ensuring effective and fair administration. This study explores the necessity of ethical governance in Nepal, emphasizing the interplay between good governance and ethical leadership. The literature review traces the historical development of governance concepts, from the social contract theories of Hobbes and Rousseau to contemporary definitions that stress transparency, accountability, and participation. Ethical governance is identified as essential for addressing current shortcomings in Nepal's governance structures, despite existing legal frameworks. Ethical leadership, characterized by integrity, accountability, and fairness, is pivotal in fostering trust, transparency, and sustainable decision making. Based on the narrative review, this research underscores that while good governance focuses on systems and outcomes, ethical governance ensures these are achieved through morally sound principles. The study concludes that Nepal's path to sustainable development and genuine prosperity lies in embedding ethical governance deeply within its political and administrative frameworks, driven by committed ethical leadership.</p> Raju Aryal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 1 15 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.66982 Impacts of Climate Change on Farm Based Livelihood: A Study of Panchkhal <p>Agriculture serves as the mainstay of Nepal's economy, sustaining livelihoods for a significant portion of the population and contributing substantially to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This study conducted in Panchkhal Municipality of Kavrepalanchok district, employed a qualitative approach of research to explore lived experience of farmers regarding the impacts of climate change on their livelihoods. Through the use of both primary and secondary data, the research finds that climate change has caused a number of problems for the farmers in Panchkhal, such as reduced water availability due to drying up of small streams and disappearance of springs affecting the rain-fed farming. Additionally, farmers grapple with rising incidences of pests and diseases in crops, health problems associated with pesticide use, lower productivity, flooding, and a move away from farming. The two biggest effects that stood out among them were the scarcity of water and the increase in diseases and pests in crops. The study also underscores farmers' heightened awareness of climate change impacts and extreme weather events with a particular emphasis on the perceptible decrease in rainfall frequency and volume, along with delayed monsoon onset.</p> Ram Krishna Maharjan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 16 50 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.66996 Patterns of Electoral Violence and Security Concerns in Nepal <p>Electoral violence, as direct and indirect acts of violence intended to affect power structures and election outcomes, is a major threat to the integrity of the voting process. Nepal in the past few electoral exercise has been experiencing increasing number and forms of electoral violence that have known to derail democratic practice and disrupt the social cohesion. The study attempts to unravel these phenomena in Nepal through a qualitative research method employing focus group discussion, interviews, and an extensive review of secondary sources to show that conflicting political ideology, social and ethnic tensions, poverty, economic inequality, and convoluted frustration with socio-political structures are the leading causes of electoral violence. This paper argues that electoral violence undermines the participation of people in the electoral process, thus hindering the progress of democracy in Nepal. The state must ensure a comprehensive security mechanism throughout the electoral process that includes but is not limited to efficient use of technology, promotion of voter education, strengthening the impartiality of state agencies and law enforcement, and enacting legislation prohibiting political party manipulation to ensure free and fair elections.</p> Man Bahadur Shahi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 51 76 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.66997 Nepalese Borderland Community as State’s Partner in Border Protection <p>Nepal in the current domestic and foreign state of affairs, finds itself at a peculiar threshold concerning national security, particularly with the recent events surrounding border disputes with India. In this regard, the article based on qualitative approaches such as interviews, extensive literature review and the researcher’s long-standing experience as a security personnel highlights the strategic importance of the borderland population and argues that these communities are unique in their political position as citizens, particularly in relation to the state’s sovereignty. The article in doing so puts the spotlight on the borderland communities who are often overlooked in majority of the literature dealing with the Nepal- India border issues. As global and national experience indicate, the borderland community as allies of the state can be important partners in national security and border protection. Alternatively, the state’s dereliction of duty over these strategically important populations will prove detrimental to the state’s security, territorial integrity and sovereignty. The Nepalese state should, therefore, urgently focus on the borderland community through programs and policies that can help reduce their grievances and build trust with the state.</p> Puran Chandra Bhatta Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 77 104 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.66998 Enhancing Institutional Meals in Armed Police Force, Nepal <p>This study explores the historical evolution and contemporary implementation of institutional meals within the Armed Police Force (APF), Nepal, tracing back to the early 1900s, when British mess provided food for soldiers and civil servants. It investigates the linkages between the Armed Police Force, Nepal, and nutrition, emphasizing the importance of providing officers with adequate sustenance for their well-being and operational efficiency. Through the introduction of a cash ration allowance system, the APF aims to empower its personnel to procure ration items in accordance with established guidelines. This qualitative inquiry conducted as part of Master’s Thesis in 2023, engages various APF personnel and stakeholders to examine the feasibility and challenges associated with institutional meal implementation. Employing both primary and secondary data collection methods, including semi-structured face-to-face interviews, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions, the study identifies key challenges and proposes strategies to address them. Notably, it suggests diversifying ration items based on factors such as altitude, training needs, and dietary preferences.</p> Sachin Karmacharya Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 105 130 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.66999 Small Arms Influx and its Implication in Kathmandu <p>This paper examines the status of proliferation of small arms in Nepal and its influx in Kathmandu before insurgency, during insurgency and post-conflict scenario. Exploring the existing law on small arms proliferation and how is it coping with this matter? This study discusses the major crimes that occurred by using small arms in Kathmandu. Methodologically, secondary source of data is used from previous relevant research studies on small arms and light weapons in Nepal during insurgency and post-conflict period. Kathmandu valley and taken as the focus of study because of two reasons: firstly, to map the numerous urban security threats that occurred in Kathmandu emanating from the influx of small arms and secondly, because of the availability of data. Numerous reports published on small arms proliferation, news reports, media analysis, books and articles have been reviewed and examined to underline how the use of small arms was massive used during the time in insurgency and even in the transitional period. This paper contends that despite the end of the transitional period and the promulgation of the new constitution, instances of crimes attributable to small arms proliferation have not decreased. It underscores the inadequacy of the existing legislation regarding small arms in addressing contemporary challenges, emphasizing the imperative need for the enactment of comprehensive laws and the implementation of robust measures concerning small arms.</p> Manoj Thapa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 131 154 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.67001 Safeguarding Nepal: National Security Landscape & Challenges <p>This article explores the complex notion of security in Nepal, covering its history, current challenges, and future prospects. It compares the traditional view of national security focused on protecting borders with newer threats that include social, economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. Political instability, bureaucratic politics, economic crises, ethnic and religious tensions, occasional acts of violence, refugee problems and ecological destruction are ongoing challenges to the Nepal’s internal security. The state also has external issues such as its geographic position as well as socio-cultural pressure, which are immense and aggravated by the geopolitical complexities that stem from being landlocked and surrounded by powerful neighbors, India and China. The researchers used qualitative and analytical methods that involved collecting secondary data from various sources like books, journals, websites, dissertations, and reports, as well as the researcher’s academic and professional proficiency. The comprehensive national security policy and strategy is essential to bolster defensive capabilities contribute to resilience building and socio-economic growth. The government required adopting adept statecraft to maintain the equilibrium between national interests and threats; domestic and international. Further, preserving Nepal’s sovereignty and ensuring the welfare of her people necessitate joint efforts and unity among all stakeholders along with a deep comprehension of evolving security dynamics.</p> Nawaraj Bikram Kunwar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 155 177 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.67002 Cross Border Illegal Migration and Security Challenges in Nepal <p>This article is about the cross-border illegal migration in Nepal-India border and aim to show the vulnerabilities of the porous borderlands, cases of Rohingya refugee are chosen for the study. Nepal and India are practicing the open-border system. The open border provides opportunities for illegal migrants to enter and exit easily which become the security concern in country. The free flow of migrated people from India and the third countries through the Southern border of Nepal creates different security challenges. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trend of illegal migration into Nepal from the Southern border. It accounts that the open border system and its characteristics which enhance the possibilities of infiltration of criminals and terrorist groups into Nepal. The illegal flow of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar as well as several foreigners through the Southern border of Nepal shows the changing scenario of the security-related challenges. On the other hand, this issue has become an issue of the international concerned as well as the serious problem that Nepal has been faced to find out solution. The study is exploratory and descriptive in nature, and it is carried out on both primary and secondary sources. Furthermore, it has utilized governmental and non-governmental reports besides journalistic reports related to the intention of illegal migration of Rohingyas to analyze the ground reality of such activities. The researcher discovers that the open border system between Nepal and India continuously increases the security threat to both countries.</p> Rajendra Khadka Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 178 198 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.67003 Forms of Modernization and its Impact on Economy <p>This article is concentrated on the study of modernization, its forms and positive and negative impact over the economy of the country. Modernization is the process of societal development from a traditional to a modern society. It symbolizes a process of economical and cultural change of the nation. In modernization society tries to innovate and utilize its present and old knowledge, patterns, techniques and resources. Modernization has positive as well as negative effect on cultural, political and economic life of the people. Based on descriptive and analytical method, this study explores the concept and practice of modernization on a global scale. It delves into the various forms modernization and further analyzes the impact of modernization on both social structures and economic systems. Finally, the article also looks at the challenges that come with modernization. Modernization theory divides the whole global into two parts: north and south. The rich western countries known as North and poor countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America are known as South. The modernization theory explains the development and change in the south countries are influenced by the patterns of development of North. The country economy and culture are always dynamic. It is influenced by external development trends such change is directed by the development of physical infrastructure, information technology, education, ideology of northern countries. Therefore the country’s economy and culture are gradually influenced by the developed nation and move from traditional to modern.</p> Janardan Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 199 218 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.67004 Twigging the US-China Competition from the Lens of Offensive Realism: Implications for Nepal <p>What are the implications of ongoing US-China competition on the entire global system and particularly to strategically-placed countries like Nepal? The United States has been voicing its growing displeasure against China’s rise. The United States regards China's military modernization and economic growth as evidence that it will not be a status quo power. In this scenario, there is a widespread belief that great power is inherently offensive, that the quest for power never ends, and that China will maintain the status quo posture until it achieves power parity with the United States. As a result, the United States has shifted its policy toward the Asia-Pacific region and is forming strategic alliances to counterbalance China. It is argued that if there were no legacies of friendship and ideological proximity, a great power fall or power transition from a dominant nation to a challenger almost always results in a cold war or major war. The U.S. and China have cultural and ideological differences; however, China has integrated many aspects of the existing international order and its global norms. In this background, this article examines fundamental assumptions of offensive realism and the nature of the U.S.-China rivalry, as well as the meaning of China’s rise and the U.S.-China greater power competition for Nepal. This phenomenon will be tested through offensive realism and how it amounts to great power behavior.</p> Gaurav Bhattarai Dron Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 219 240 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.67005 Extension of the Triple Helix to Quadruple to Quintuple Helix Model <p>This study explores the multiple helices extended from the Triple Helix (TH) Model of innovation. Describing what Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix Model as well as and Mode3 is the primary motive of this paper. This study is solely based on secondary sources and the research is exploratory as well as descriptive in its nature. Originally proposed by Henry Etzkowitz and Loet Leydesdorff (1995), the TH Model elucidated innovation dynamics stemming from interactions among academia, industry, and government. Building upon this foundation, the Quadruple Helix Model was introduced as the fourth helix, emphasizing basically on the role of civil society in innovation processes, thus highlighting aspects of social inclusion, public engagement, and ethical considerations. Likewise, the Quintuple Helix Model incorporates socio-ecological interactions, emphasizing the generation and dissemination of knowledge impacting the natural environment. This framework basically depicts opportunities for addressing new challenges such as climate change through innovation for sustainable development within the knowledge society and economy. Similarly, exploring the implications of Mode 1, Mode 2, and Mode 3 knowledge on economy, society and democracy, this study also attempts to investigate the evolution of innovation helix models and their impact on fostering inclusive, collaborative, and sustainable innovation ecosystems. In course of studying the model of innovation system, there come simple question about how the Triple Helix Model of innovation has been extended up to Quintuple Helix via Quadruple Helix Model of innovation. This is a policy-based research which will help to the stakeholders like academics, planners, researchers, industry leaders, entrepreneurs, and governing bodies for understanding Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix model in better way.</p> Ramesh Raj Kunwar Nimesh Ulak Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 7 1 241 280 10.3126/japfcsc.v7i1.67006