Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management <p>Published by the Advanced College of Engineering and Management, Kalanki, Kathmandu, Nepal</p> Advanced College of Engineering and Management en-US Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2392-4853 <p>JACEM reserves the copyright for the published papers. Author will have right to use content of the published paper in part or in full for their own work.</p> Structural Engineering/Perspective Damage Pattern of Temples of Kathmandu Valley after Gorkha Earthquake 2015 <p>Nepal is well known for traditional temples. It is found that most of the temples were built in12th century to 17th Century. Most of the temples, built in 17th century, in Kathmandu valley were constructed in pagoda style. Timber along with bricks were used for construction and mud or surkhi mortar was used as a binding material. The Gorkha earthquake, 2015 caused minor to major damages to number of temples. Pictures highlighting damages in the temple were collected during damage reconnaissance and is used for studying its structural systems. Possible causes of damage pattern of temples are discussed and recommendations for future construction are given.</p> Rajan Suwal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 1 16 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47345 Torsional Improvements in a Multistoried Building with Plan Irregularities <p>Irregular buildings consist of large number of modern urban structures. Though some buildings look symmetrical in plan might have irregular distribution of mass, strength and stiffness along the plan and height of the buildings. In common sense, a building with a regular geometry is supposed to be regular building. While the building is designed to be used for different functions along the building area and along the building plan the presence of opening, staircase positioning and positioning of the shear/core wall for different purpose like lift and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) leads to the irregularity in the plan. Ultimately, torsion irregularity occurs, which if remains not taken care properly may create substantial damage of the building structures. The purpose of this study is to determine the conditions for excessive torsional irregularity and solve them with the proper positioning of the shear wall to counter the torsional behavior of the building. A linear response analysis was conducted and the studied structures were both six- storey buildings. First building has opening left for different purpose like lift and HVAC systems. While the second building has shear wall for lift at the edge of the building. Though both buildings seem fine with their geometrical orientation after the analysis torsional irregularity was <br />evident. The proper placement of the shear wall has been used to stiffen the building to counter for the torsional modal and make to regular in terms of the mass and stiffness distribution.</p> Ashish Dhakal Rajendra Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 17 27 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47317 Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar Incorporated With Graphene and C&D Waste <p class="CiteThisArticleText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 115%; margin: 0in .25in .0001pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 115%;">Concrete is one among the essential materials utilized in engineering works.The two main properties which attribute to the reliability of concrete as a universal choice are strength and durability. Despite its remarkable properties, it has few shortcomings, namely, low tensile strength, low ductility, and unavoidable cracks. All of these inadequacies are the result of the relatively porous microstructure of concrete. The use of nanomaterials is the most influential and powerful alternative to overcome these limitations. In this paper, a comparative study of the mechanical properties of normal strength mortar over the mortar reinforced with graphene has been presented. Making use of the construction demolition waste in different proportions, namely, 25% and 50% as the partial replacement for fine aggregate, graphene was incorporated in the cement mortar of 1:3 grade in the proportion of 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1% by weight of cement respectively. The proportion of construction demolition waste and graphene were consequently varied and the corresponding change in mechanical properties, namely, compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of cement mortar was observed on the 7th day, 14th day, 21st day, and 28th day respectively and the same was compared with the result of normal mortar. It was observed that these mechanical properties increased with an increase in the proportion of graphene up to a certain limit after which it decreased. However, the optimum percentage of graphene varied along with the variation in the percentage of C&amp;D waste. </span></p> Asmita Subedi Ankush Jha Pashupati Deo Aagya Dahal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 29 39 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47328 Solution of the Black-Scholes Equation by Finite Difference Schemes <p>Black-Scholes (BS) equation is a popular mathematical model for determining the value of option in financial derivatives. To predict the option value during the contract of the option is a big problem. Several studies have been shown that the option price value can be determined by applying different methods. In this paper, we have discussed three finite difference methods: Explicit, Implicit and Crank-Nicolson for solving Black-Scholes equation for European call option and compared the obtained results with the exact value. It is found that the Crank-Nicolson method is more accurate and cost effective in comparison with explicit and implicit methods.</p> Ganga Ram D C Kedar Nath Uprety Harihar Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 41 48 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47330 Socio-Economic Analysis of Two Pot Raised Mud Improved Cookstove in the Context of Nepal <p>Cost Biomass cookstove is extensively used for cooking and space heating in the rural area of Nepal. Its thermal efficiency and emission performance keeps prominence economically, socially and environmentally. Chimney operated two pot raised mud Improved Cookstove (ICS) is one of the most promoted cookstoves in the context of Nepal. Benefit cost ratio has been found maximum for geometrically optimized best dimension cookstove and minimum for grate and insulation used cookstove in best dimension. Net benefit of cookstove has been increased with the grate and insulation. Marginal abatement cost of best dimension cookstove has been found minimum NPR. 445/tCO<sub>2</sub>eq and maximum for the cookstove with the use all the accessories NPR 600 tCO<sub>2</sub>eq. Best dimension cooostove has been found best rank from benefit cost ratio and abatement cost aspect. The goal of this study is to perform socio-economic and environmental analysis of the twopot raised mud ICS for three family members.</p> Hari Bahadur Darlami Bhakta Bahadur Ale Govind Raj Pokharel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 49 58 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47332 Human Development Index and Its Enhancement with Selection Procedure of Its Components <p>This paper aims to identify the rational components and statistical technique to measure of performance in key dimensions of human development. The study uses desk review particularly the literature that focused quantitative techniques and human development. Different ideas, models, concepts and knowledge of human development are drawn from various literature. Those models and concepts of human development are evolving over time and building on the strengths and weaknesses of the previous models and concepts. Many recent studies suggest that the Human Development Index (HDI) is incomplete and so there is an urgent need to modify and develop new measuring tool for human development. In connection with this issue the study focuses to identify and develop rational components and appropriate model that can overcome the deficiency of the existing models. The study recommends to use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA)which are found statistical techniques to develop the estimators for measuring the level of human development. The appropriate components and modified models are proposed on the basis of derived components with statistical techniques for measuring the level human development in rational manner.</p> Ishwari Prasad Banjade Shanta Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 59 65 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47333 Challenges and Opportunities of Arts-Based Science Learning Among Basic Level Students amid Covid 19 Pandemic <p>This paper provides an overview of the emergent practices of arts-based science teaching and learning in public schools in Nepal. It also shares why arts-based science learning has emerged as a shift in teaching and learning from a dogmatic approach to arts-based learning as well as the opportunities and challenges amid COVID 19 pandemic. QUAN qual research method → was applied in this research. The questionnaire survey was used to collect the quantitative data whereas an in-depth interview was taken to collect the qualitative information in this study. 300 students have been selected randomly out of 1300 study population by using the Raosoft sample size calculator with a 95% level of confidence and with a 5% margin error. It is found that the use of figures, posters, soil and sand art, songs and drama promote the understanding of students’ science learning and their achievement score. The findings from this study are expected to encourage the Nepal government, local governments, and public schools to bring local practices into central level policies to transform the dogmatic approach to arts-based teaching and learning.</p> Kamal Prasad Acharya Milan Acharya Sarswati Khatri Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 67 80 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47334 A Brief Review on Maximum Flows in Networks with Continuous-Time Settings <p>Discrete and continuous time dynamic flow problems have been studied for decades. The purpose of the network flow problem is to find the maximum flow that can be sent from the source node to the destination node. Our aim is to review the general class of continuous time dynamic flow problems. We discuss about static cut and generalized dynamic cut, the latter one used to prove the maximum flow minimum cut theorem in continuous case.</p> Madan Bahadur Chand Tanka Nath Dhamala Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 81 91 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47335 Transforming Spaces into Places: Placemaking of Tudikhel <p>In the process of planning and developing public spaces in cities, place-making is a people-centered approach. This approach considers the perspectives of the people who live in a given location in order to learn about their needs and goals for that location or particular space. In this research, both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to find out the perception of people towards Tudikhel. Data collected from questinnare survey of the people under various categories around Tudikhel involves qualitative aspects of the research. Under quantitative approach, the key variables of the study are correlated with each other to find the strength of relationship between the variables. Finally, suitable conclusions are reached regarding strategies including elements and activities of placemaking at Tudikhel. Hence this study emphasizes in restoring of Tudikhel back to ‘place’ in the contemporary urban context using the activities and elements of placemaking, to ensure the sustainability of Tudikhel as a national public space of Nepal.</p> Navin Parajuli Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 93 106 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47336 Effect of Declustering Algorithm in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Kathmandu Valley <p>An earthquake is a random event with uncertainty on time of occurrence, size of events, and location of rupture. So earthquake phenomenon is a model based on Poisson’s distribution. Thus, all the dependent event like foreshock and aftershock has to be removed before performing any Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). Among the number of methodologies proposed for declustering methods, the process proposed by Gardener and Knopoff (1974) and Reasenberg (1985) was mostly used due to the availability of source code and reliability of declustering work. In this study, an attempt has been made to compare the effect of the declustering process at hazard level for the scenario of Kathmandu Valley. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Kathmandu valley is performed using RCRISIS software with different seismicity parameters calculated for without declustering, declustering using Gardener and Knopoff (1974), and declustering using Reasenberg (1985). Calculated PGA value at bedrock level for 760 years return period for three declustering models compared with the measured square root of the sum of square (SRSS) PGA by 2015 Gorkha earthquake at Kathmandu valley at KTP station. Obtained results highlighted the suitability of the Gardener and Knopoff source code for the study area.</p> Pawan Chhetri Deepak Chamlagain Ram Chandra Tiwari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 107 119 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47337 Overview of River Hydrological Issues in Kakarbhitta-Pathlaiya Road Segment of East-West Highway of Nepal <p>The East-West Highway of Nepal is the main trade and physical mobility corridor and of a two-lane bituminous road. Therefore, the Government of Nepal (GoN) is planning to improve it to a standard four-lane highway. In the first phase, the Government of Nepal is planning to upgrade the Kakarbhitta-Pathlaiya road which is the segment of the East-West Highway. It is vital to examine the river hydrology accurately for the appropriate location and design of the structures associated with it. This study aims to work out the features of flood and sediment of the major rivers intersecting the Kakarbhitta-Pathlaiya road. A review of the previous studies and field observation via a walk-through survey was conducted to assess the hydrological issues. The road segment passes through the Terai. The study revealed that the issues of flooding and inundation within the Terai are more critical, and the rivers crossing the road segment transport significant amounts of sediment as well. In the stages of planning and design of the road segment, the capacity of the rivers must be enhanced for transporting water and sediment in the places of bridges. Besides, watershed management techniques and integrated water resources management approaches should be intervened.</p> Ram Krishna Regmi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 121 132 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47338 Contributions of Guthi System for the Protection of Heritage <p>The main objective of this article is to illustrate the roles of the Guthi system in Nepalese society. The paper discusses the contribution of Guthi system for the protection of heritage in the Kathmandu Valley. Effects of technological advancement on the ability of the Guthi system to preserve and maintain tangible and intangible cultural heritages of Nepal are yet inalienable aspects of the research. The Guthi system seems to have been focusing on the preservation of the religious, cultural, and social services along with organizing and performing rituals, Jatra, festival, chariot, worshiping deities, promotion, and protection of temples and monasteries. The establishment of the Guthi system was based on the social and cooperative promotion of such cultural and religious aspects. This system has endured a number of centuries the backbone of Nepalese culture and community. Guthi endowments were/are given to religious and charitable institutions. Lands are granted in order to maintain temples, hold religious ceremonies, support the population, and so on.</p> Salik Ram Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 133 145 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47771 Experimental Analysis on Properties of M15 and M20 Concrete Brick Sample with Partial Replacement of Sand by Crumb Rubber and Coarse Aggregate by Expanded Polystyrene <p>The suitability of crumb rubber and EPS (expanded polystyrene) as an alternative to sand and coarse aggregate in concrete production was researched here. Sand and coarse aggregate were partially replaced by crumb rubber and EPS in different percentages like 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% for Grade M20 and M15 concrete samples. The sample of size (240 × 115× 57) mm for M15 and M20 grade of concrete were prepared for the test. Various properties like Compressive strength, Bulk density and water absorption of the concrete brick prepared were determined. The normal consistency, initial and final setting time and compressive strength of cement used for the experiment were determined as 27%, 120 minutes, 290 minutes and 40.34 N/mm2 respectively before carrying out the experiment. The nominal maximum size of sand, coarse aggregate, crumb rubber and EPS used for the preparation of concrete brick sample were found as 2.36 mm, 12.5mm, 2.36 mm and 4.75 mm respectively from the sieve analysis. Impact value of coarse aggregate obtained was 17.06 %.</p> <p>The experimental results showed that water absorption of prepared M15 and M20 concrete brick samples increased whereas compressive strength and bulk density decreased with increase in percentage replacement of sand by crumb rubber and coarse aggregate by EPS. The results obtained from the experiment showed that concrete brick made with partial replacement of sand and coarse aggregate y crumb rubber and EPS respectively had sufficient compressive strength compared to common brick.</p> Samiksha Dhakal Rajendra Shrestha Sachin Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 147 156 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47340 A Survey on Gruss-Type Inequalities by Means of Different Generalized Fractional Integrals <p>In this survey paper, we review a generalization of Gruss - type inequality by means of two different operators, one through K - fractional integral and other through Katugampola fractional integral. We state some related theorems, corollaries and their proofs. We study how results are interrelated?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shamvu Jha Chet Raj Bhatta Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 157 163 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47341 Out-Performing Bias-Corrected GCM Models and CMIP6-Based Precipitation and Temperature Projections for the Bagmati Irrigation Area <p>The selection of General circulation models (GCMs) and suitable bias correction methods for any particular study area in very crucial for the projection of precipitation and temperature using climate models which can be used for estimating the future crop water requirement. The results of a General Circulation Model (GCM) are being downscaled and compared to a baseline climatology for two IPCC scenarios (ssp245 and ssp585) based on Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) climate model. We choose four GCMs models out of ten by evaluating their performance to observe historical data. Performance indicators (NSE, PBAIS, and RSR) are computed by comparing bias-corrected historical data with observed historical data. We found that GCM models EC-Earth3, NorESM2-MM, GDFL-ESM4, and IPSL-CM6A-LR showed a higher rating for maximum and minimum temperature, and GCM models EC-Earth3, NorESM2-MM, GDFLESM4, and MPI-ESM2-MM showed a higher rating for precipitation. Among the different bias correction functions power Xo transformation and Power transformed functions, Bernoulli’s Weibull showed the best performance for minimum temperature), maximum temperature, and precipitation, respectively. These models and bias correction could be used to project the climate variables of the surrounding basins.</p> Shiva Nath Raila Raju Acharya Sudan Ghimire Subash Adhikari Saroj Khanal Yogendra Mishra Manoj Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 165 172 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47342 Experimental Evaluation of Wöhler Curve for Mild Steel Plates Manufactured In Nepal <p>This research work was carried out to explore the fatigue behavior of Mild Steel Plates manufactured in Nepal and determine the Wöhler Curve of the plates by preparing test specimens and conducting fatigue experiment of the specimens in the rotating cantilever bending fatigue test machine. The laboratory data thus obtained were plotted to generate the Wöhler Curve of the material. Along with the curve the Basquin’s Coefficients and Endurance limitup to 10<sup>6</sup> cycles were determined. Specimen was designed in accordance to ASME E 466-15 and the machining was done in accordance to IS 1075-1985 and then was subjected to various different loads. Exploratory tensile test of the material was also done in order to find out the proportion of the applied load with respect to the ultimate strength of the material. Surface crack was also inspected.Micro void coalescence and Micro cleavage formations were noticed in the fractured section.</p> Subrat Mani Dixit Hari Bahadur Dura Hemanta Dulal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 173 182 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47343 Development of a Model Updating Technique Using Soft Computing <p class="Normal2"><span style="color: windowtext;">The structural models, do not necessarily predict the measured data sufficiently accurately. Because of this, there is a need for these models to be updated to better reflect the measured data. This paper introduces computational intelligence techniques to update finite element models. The model updating is formulated as a constrained optimization problem and solved using a recently developed meta-heuristic algorithm called Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. A MATLAB code is developed using the model-updating formulations presented in this paper. Numerical simulation studies are carried out by solving for the proposed model updating technique by using pseudo-experimental data of an 8storey framed structure and also the experimental data of ASCE three storey benchmark structure. Studies presented in this paper clearly indicate the effectiveness of the proposed computational intelligence-based model updating technique.</span></p> Yogesh Yadav Ishwor Singh Saud Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 7 01 183 190 10.3126/jacem.v7i01.47344